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政府研发补贴对中国产业结构转型升级的影响:推手还是拖累

袁航1 朱承亮2,3

(1.首都经济贸易大学经济学院, 北京 100070)
(2.中国社会科学院数量经济与技术经济研究所, 北京 100732)
(3.中国社会科学院项目评估与战略规划研究咨询中心, 北京 100732)

【摘要】全面实施创新驱动发展战略,以创新促进产业结构转型升级是推动中国经济高质量发展的重要抓手。然而,创新因其所固有的正外部性、不确定性等特征往往存在市场失灵和投资不足等问题。作为激励创新的一种普遍政策,政府研发补贴是否能在真正意义上助力企业创新,进而带动中国产业结构转型升级,是政府和学界共同关注的焦点问题。本文利用2005-2015年省际面板数据分析了政府研发补贴对产业结构转型升级的影响,并基于区域差异、企业规模以及企业性质进行了异质性检验。研究发现:(1)政府研发补贴对中国产业结构高度化与合理化均具有明显促进作用,能显著推动中国产业结构转型升级;(2)政府研发补贴对产业结构转型升级的影响存在明显区域差异,能显著促进东部地区产业结构合理化与中西部地区产业结构高度化;(3)大型企业获得的研发补贴具有明显的产业结构高度化效应,而中型企业获得的政府研发补贴具有产业结构合理化效应;(4)内资企业获得的政府研发补贴能显著促进产业结构转型升级,而港澳台商投资企业和外商投资企业均不显著;(5)作用机制显示政府研发补贴通过显著增强企业创新研发能力有效带动了中国产业结构转型升级。本文的研究结果表明,今后在增加政府研发补贴的同时,应更多地考虑结构问题,更多地向中西部地区的中小型内资企业倾斜。

【关键词】 政府研发补贴;产业结构;高度化;合理化;异质性;

【DOI】

The influence of government R&D subsidies on China’s industrial structural transformation and upgrading: boost or drag?

YUAN Hang1 ZHU Chengliang2,3

(1.College of Business Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing, China 100070)
(2.Institute of Quantitative & Technological Economics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China 100732)
(3.Project Evaluation and Strategic Planning Research and Consulting Center, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, China 100732)

【Abstract】Implementing an innovation-driven development strategy in an all-round way and promoting industrial structural transformation and upgrading through innovation is the key to promoting the high-quality development of China’s economy. However, innovation often has problems such as market failure and insufficient investment due to its inherent positive externalities and uncertainties. As a general policy for stimulating innovation,whether government R&D subsidies can really help enterprise innovation, and then drive China’s industrial structural transformation and upgrading is the focus of the common concern of the government and academia. Based on the panel data of 31 provincial-level regions in China from 2005 to 2015, we studied the influence of government R&D subsidies on industrial structural transformation and upgrading, and then conducted the heterogeneity tests based on regional differences, firm size, and the nature of enterprises. The results are as follows. (1) Government R&D subsidies have a significant effect on promoting China’s industrial structural advancement and rationalization, which can significantly promote China’s industrial structural transformation and upgrading. (2) The impact of government R&D subsidies on industrial structural transformation and upgrading has obvious regional differences, which can significantly promote industrial structural rationalization in the eastern region and industrial structural advancement in the central and western regions. (3) The government R&D subsidies obtained by large enterprises have a significant effect on industrial structural advancement, while the government R&D subsidies obtained by medium-sized enterprises have the effect of industrial structural rationalization. (4) The government R&D subsidies obtained by domestic-funded enterprises can significantly promote industrial structural transformation and upgrading, while the government R&D subsidies obtained by Hong Kong, Macao or Taiwan invested companies and foreign-invested companies are not significant. (5) The mechanism of action shows that government R&D subsidies have effectively promoted China’s industrial structural transformation and upgrading by significantly enhancing the ability of enterprise innovation. The results of this study show that in the future, more attention should be given to the structural problem of government R&D subsidies while increasing the amount, especially to the small and medium-sized domestic-funded enterprises in the central and western regions.

【Keywords】 government R&D subsidies; industrial structure; advancement; rationalization; heterogeneity;

【DOI】

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ISSN:1001-9952

CN: 31-1012/F

Vol 46, No. 09, Pages 63-77

September 2020

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