The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road
Northeast Asia Forum,2015,Vol 24,No. 02
【Abstract】 The Silk Road Economic Belt and the Chinese Dream are not isolated, but highly correlated. The essence of establishing the Silk Road Economic Belt is to balance the development both in the East and the West, in the North and the South, and in the sea and on land, and also to achieve connectivity between home and abroad. It is an innovation in China’s neighborhood diplomacy and also a diplomatic priority of China. Besides, it will be the strategic support and guarantee of the achievement of the Chinese Dream. Building this Silk Road Economic Belt requires us to utilize historical connections to serve for the present, win political support with economic development, use land transportation as an alternative to shipping, and balance the disadvantage in sea power with advantage in land power. The Silk Road Economic Belt is not a simple replicate of the ancient Silk Road, but it is extended and enriched into the national grand strategy towards future and thoughtful tactic of China.
Trade potential of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road and its determinants: an empirical research based on stochastic frontier gravity model
Journal of International Trade,2015,No. 02
【Abstract】 To jointly establish the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road is the important strategy to promote a new round of China's opening up and realize joint development of countries along the Road, and international trade is the foundation and link of this strategy. This paper estimates trade potential of major countries along the Maritime Silk Road with the stochastic frontier gravity model, and analyzes the determinants based on one-step estimation. The results indicate that, trade efficiency of the Maritime Silk Road appears on an increasing trend, and China still has great potential in terms of export to countries along the Road. In order to further improve the trade efficiency, China should accelerate the negotiation of free trade area, reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers, improve the level of trade facilitation, increase maritime connectivity, promote transport infrastructure, and strengthen cooperation on preventing financial risks.
Northeast Asia Forum,2014,Vol 23,No. 01
【Abstract】 Southeast Asia is located in the “rimland,” and South Asia is located on the boarder of “heartland” and rimland. Since China is a geo-economic and geo-political power across and connecting the heartland and the rimland, it has maintained a mutual reliance relationship with Southeast Asia and South Asia both geo-economically and geo-politically. Southeast Asia and South Asia are of great value for China both in resources and in geopolitics. At the same time, they can gain unique geo-economic and geopolitical profits by taking China’s development potential and its geo-advantage of lying in the heartland. Economic integration, which is based on geopolitical relations, has been promoting China’s economic cooperation with Southeast Asia and South Asia, and expanding Chinese economic development. Construction of Southern Silk Road economic belt, which aims at opening up Southwest channels and gaining direct land access to both Pacific and Indian Oceans, has become a major strategic decision for opening up in southwestern China.
Northeast Asia Forum,2014,Vol 23,No. 01
【Abstract】  Wang, X. The strategy of Opening up to the west and establishment of China and Central Asia Free Trade Zone. Seek Truth From Facts (2) (2012)
South Asian Studies,2015,No. 03
【Abstract】 Project Mausam represents India’s effort to revitalize the ancient Indian Ocean Maritime Spice Route, using this as a key slogan to advance its plans to restore, protect and develop historical and cultural heritages found across states along the Indian Ocean. Through this plan, India aims to bring these states together under the common historical cultural and religious identity. In this way, India can realize its Indian Ocean strategy of strengthening its relations with Indian Ocean states and demonstrate its soft power influence in the region. While Project Mausam may have an impact on China’s 21st-century Maritime Silk Road, given the needs of the two states vis-à-vis their national development strategies, it is not inconceivable that cooperation might emerge between Project Mausam and the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road. Only by recognizing one another’s plans, or even cooperating, can the two sides create potential for the smooth implementation of their respective strategies.
Contemporary Korea,2015,No. 02
【Abstract】 The East Maritime Silk Road has existed since ancient times, and has a long history. The ancient East Maritime Silk Road was with the new vigor again in 2013. Along this East Maritime Silk Road, China and the Republic of Korea (ROK) cooperate beneficially, generate countless rich fruits, and sign the free trade agreement in 2015. On the beneficial basis, China and the ROK ought to continue to join hands, strive to work together, link China’s One Belt and One Road initiative and the ROK’s Eurasia Initiative effectively and sufficiently, and let this East Maritime Silk Road become the strip of friendship and win-win between China and the ROK.
Southeast Asian Studies,2016,No. 04
【Abstract】 This paper intends to use the trade intensity index, intra-industry trade (IIT) index, export similarity index (ESI) and revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index to study the trade structure, the trade relation closeness, IIT evolution and trade competition among China and the countries along the 21st Maritime Silk Road. The study found that the export structure has been upgraded, the level of trade intensity has changed, and IIT increased initially then decreased between 1992 and 2014. Since 2013 trade competitions have been enhanced and were found in 7 industries out of 66.
Sino-Cambodia relations under the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiative: risk analysis of foreign aid relations
Southeast Asian Affairs,2016,No. 04
【Abstract】 Since the turn of the 21st century, Sino-Cambodian relations have become increasingly close thanks to frequent state visits and comprehensive economic and trade cooperation. The bilateral relationship has been upgraded to a new level since the proposal of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiative in 2013. In order to further understand the shift of Chinese aid to Cambodia before and after the proposal of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiative, this article applies a theoretical framework based on the analysis of three types of data (investment, trade, and aid). Regarding the transition of the format of Chinese aid to Cambodia, the author further analyzes the moralistic and investment risks China encounters under the Belt and Road (B&R) initiative. The author argues that only by making neighboring countries such as Cambodia develop socially and economically can China fulfil its responsibility as a regional power. In this way, Sino-Cambodian relations can advance from a patron-client relationship towards a community of shared destiny featured by common development and prosperity.
Northeast Asia Forum,2015,Vol 24,No. 03
【Abstract】 Focusing on building a new platform for the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of cooperation, President Xi Jinping has proposed twice to Russia to participate in the construction of Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road in 2015 and has received a positive response from President Putin. Therefore, the cooperation on developing the 21st Century northeast Maritime Silk Road should be put on the agenda. To achieve this, it is necessary to consider the background of Sino-Russian cooperation in developing the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, analyze the reality of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and come up with the targeted strategies to promote cooperation between China and Russia on the 21st Century northeast Maritime Silk Road. These strategies include: focusing on the overall strengthening of cooperation in the maritime sector and enriching the connotation of bilateral strategic partnership of cooperation; relying on two countries’ associated coastal areas to co-develop the 21st Century northeast Maritime Silk Road; focusing on economic globalization and freedom of navigation and actively cooperating to improve the infrastructure; solving financial difficulties and jointly exploring the development bank for the 21st Century northeast Maritime Silk Road; strengthening cooperation in scientific research and laying the foundation for the 21st Century northeast Maritime Silk Road; building strategic cooperation platform for the Maritime Silk Road and taking the lead in creating the World Ocean Cities Headquarters. Only if these efforts continue, can we gradually open up the cooperation of the 21st Century northeast Maritime Silk Road and make historic contributions to the economic prosperity of the Asia and Europe regions.
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,2017,No. 02
【Abstract】 Maritime affairs refer to the behavior of human beings and vessels in their maritime activities at sea. As a response to the threats and security challenges faced by humanity in the course of its utilization of and passage across the ocean, the international community has enhanced maritime safeguards, and instituted a framework for international maritime cooperation to ensure security and environmental protection at sea. As the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road has been advanced, all stakeholders will inevitably face a range of security risks. As such, China and other relevant states will be faced with practical demands to provide stronger maritime safeguards and enhance international maritime cooperation. With respect to China’s role in maritime affairs, in the course of the development of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, it can play a role in three areas: coordinating of great powers and institutions strengthening; norms reconstructing and standards revising; and international exchanges and community building. In this way, China can seek to establish a network for international maritime cooperation which incorporates key ports, pivotal states and targeted corridors. These would benefit the construction of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, as well as enhance China’s diplomacy with respect to its periphery, while contributing to efforts between great powers in order to build practical security cooperation.
Reshaping China-Sri Lanka economic relations under the framework of the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road
South Asian Studies,2017,No. 02
【Abstract】 As the implementation of the 21st-century Maritime Silk Road continues to progress, Sri Lanka has continued to grow in importance with respect to China’s foreign development strategy. Against the background of this new developmental context, exploring the reshaping and deepening of China-Sri Lanka economic relations is beneficial for strengthening the effectiveness of bilateral cooperation and promoting the development strategies of the two states, respectively. Based on the existing literature and data, this paper provides an overview of the phases of the development and characteristics of China-Sri Lanka economic relations, assessing the performance of and the issues associated with bilateral economic cooperation. It argues that as the development strategies of the two states have shifted, and along with the changes in the neighboring geopolitical environment, since 2013 the economic cooperation between China and Sri Lanka has entered a new phase. As a means of deepening this bilateral economic cooperation, we need to identify the sectors of shared interests in the development strategies of the two states, and selectively work to assist Sri Lanka in recovering its national competitiveness. This will broaden the space for China-Sri Lanka economic cooperation at a high level, and provide a model that can be referenced in advancing the cooperation between China and other key small states.
The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road: current situation, opportunities, challenges and countermeasures
International Economic Review,2017,No. 05
【Abstract】 The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road is an important part of China’s “Belt and Road” Initiative to build a new pattern of all-round opening-up; it caters to the common appeals of China and countries in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Africa. This paper analyzes the economic status quo of countries involved in the maritime initiative, opportunities for cooperation among China and those countries, and challenges that could affect their cooperation. It finds that China and those countries can carry out deeper-level cooperation in five areas: industrial investment, infrastructure investment, resource development and cooperation, overseas economic and trade parks, and ocean economy. But it also finds that such cooperation faces some major challenges, such as the lack of coordination, inadequate financial support, and the lack of high-caliber personnel. It puts forward some suggestions for better implementing the initiative.
A leap forward development: the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road and expanding boundaries of Asian production networks
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,2017,No. 01
【Abstract】 The “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” requires the development of a revolutionary and innovative framework that can accommodation all participating states. Historically, the Maritime Silk Road transcended cultural boundaries, enabling Asian production networks to extend beyond national borders, and providing the wider market and development opportunities needed for greater economic growth. Contemporary East Asian countries rely on Asian production networks to revitalize their economies, yet at present, many countries along the Maritime Silk Road remain at the periphery of the global economy. These countries are still struggling to integrate into global value chains, and find a unique identity within the global economic system. At the same time, Asian production networks find themselves constrained by new boundaries that have been created by their very development. Opportunities and incentives must be created to overcome these barriers. The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road provides incentives in this regard, and in turn, as the boundaries of Asian production networks are expanded, this also provide space and leverage for the further development of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. This will create an opportunity for a transboundary development, and this is how the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road can provide common interests for, and accept commitments and promises from participating countries.
On the Maritime Silk Road in Tang, Song and Yuan Dynasties and the social economy in Lingnan and Jiangnan Areas
Researches in Chinese Economic History,2017,No. 02
【Abstract】 In the Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties, Guangzhou had already demonstrated characteristics of export-oriented port. The import and export of goods accelerated the extension of industry chain and development of the social economy in Lingnan and Jiangnan areas (the south regions of the Five Ridges and the Yangzi River). Guangzhou was also the residence of Shi’a Moslems, where the earliest Lingnan and Jiangnan areas saw an increase in the number of the ports in the Song and Yuan Dynasties, which launched various industry chain in the supply and demand system. Some sections in the export-oriented economy had a strong performance in Lingnan, Jiangnan and the Southwest areas of China.
Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 11
【Abstract】 The construction of the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road initiated by China has brought new opportunities for the development of regional ports. According to the analysis of the spatial pattern of the Maritime Silk Road through the complicated network theory, it was found that the current port network structure is regional and fragile. In this context, this paper, based on the principle of minimizing the cost of transportation and taking into account the inter country trade links, the structure of goods, regional business contacts and safe geographical environment and other factors, used O’Kelly’s hub location optimization method to optimize the hub ports along the Maritime Silk Road. The ports are Guangzhou and Shenzhen of China, Singapore of Southeast Asia, Colombo and Gwadar of South Asia, Jeddah of West Asia and North Africa, Port Said of Mediterranean coastal area. All of these composed the “skeleton” of joint development for ports along the Maritime Silk Road. This paper proposed the optimization of the route network, clear positioning of ports function, integration of port resources, acceleration of overseas port investment and other measures to promote the balanced and sustainable development of shipping networks, smooth trade channels along the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road.
Economic Geography,2018,Vol 38,No. 12
【Abstract】 Marine carbon sequestration is the process and mechanism by which marine activities and marine organisms absorb and fix carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Because of its ability to complete 93% of the global carbon cycle, it has become the focus of global attention. At present, the Chinese government is focusing on blue carbon cooperation, leading the countries along the Marine Silk Road to jointly respond to climate change and to jointly manage the international environment. It has launched the initiative of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Blue Carbon Program, which has received positive responses from the countries along the Silk Road. The blue carbon cooperation mechanism of the countries along the maritime Silk Road includes three aspects. The dynamic mechanism is mainly based on the common desire of governments to coordinate the governance of global climate and environment. The realization mechanism mainly includes cooperative protection of marine biodiversity, cooperative protection of marine environment, cooperative monitoring of blue carbon ecosystem and cooperative management of marine pollution. The safeguard mechanism mainly includes blue carbon research cooperation, high-level dialogue of oceans, cooperative financing of blue carbon, construction of blue carbon market, financial support of blue carbon and support of blue carbon industry.
Northeast Asia Forum,2015,Vol 24,No. 01
【Abstract】 China, the U.S. and India have developed different plans in constructing the new Silk Road. The U.S. mainly aims to protect its achievements in the Afghanistan war and to serve its strategy in Central Asia and South Asia so as to maintain its world hegemony; and China and India take the new Silk Road as a way for trade expansion, energy supply and cultural communication. Among the three countries’ plans of new Silk Road, the Indian one is more similar to that of the U.S. and their directions are also more consistent; and the Chinese one is more inclusive and sustainable. If the three countries can cooperate well with each other in the new Silk Road construction, Asian integration will be motivated. On the contrary, vicious competition will cause geopolitical turbulence in Asia. China should try to avoid geopolitical risks and give priority to the cross-border transportation construction with neighboring countries that have established good political relations with China, constantly promoting the building of the new Silk Road.