Cognition and guidance of advanced training concept and optimal strategy for preparation for and participation in Tokyo Olympic Games
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2019,Vol 43,No. 02
【Abstract】 Scientific cognition and successful training practice are the necessary conditions towards producing advanced training concepts. This study holds that the theoretical confidence should be closely adhered to in China in terms of the achievements in competitive sports and established theoretical results in the past 40 years since the reform and opening-up. While introducing and absorbing the good training thoughts abroad, we should develop and promote our local advanced training concepts. The study suggests that the advantage-oriented strategy should be taken as the first choice in the preparation of Tokyo Olympic Games in 2020, that is, the benefits of sports with advantages and advantage ability should be brought into full play. And those traditional sports events with advantages should be given priority in the scientific overall planning. At the time of improving specific sport performance, the strength of an athlete should be also taken into consideration.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2019,Vol 42,No. 03
【Abstract】 Abstract: this paper analyzed the competition characteristics of world elite female 500m speed skaters in the Olympic cycle by the methods of literature review and expert interview. The results include: the annual number of entries in the four-year Olympic cycle varies in an inverted U-shape with individual and regional differences in the number of entries each year; the annual interval of the four-year competition is consistent with the schedule of the International Skating Union competition, increasing year by year; the four-year competition performance shows the characteristics of single-cycle straight-line rise or double-cycle wave-like rise, and the competition results each year show the characteristics of double-peak or triple-peak wave-like rise; participating in four international competitions three months before the Winter Olympic Games and a pre-Olympic test one week before the start of the Games is the best pre-Olympic mode. It is suggested that the coaches scientifically arrange the annual competition plan of the Olympic cycle according to the objectives and characteristics of the athletes, so as to provide scientific and technological support for the historic breakthrough of the Chinese Olympic players in the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games.
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2019,Vol 43,No. 01
【Abstract】 During the Winter Olympic Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) issued the “Olympic Agenda 2020 Olympic Games: the New Norm” for sustainable development. The “New Norm” focuses on the Olympic bid, the Olympic heritage and the preparation to delivery, which has an important impact on the preparation of the Olympic Winter Games Beijing. The reform characteristics of the New Norm are mainly reflected in the following aspects: reducing costs in all aspects; simplifying the complexity of the games; increasing the interaction between organizations; and introducing professional third party organizations. The strategy of preparation for the Olympic Winter Games Beijing are suggested as follows: to clarify the responsibilities of stakeholders and strengthen collaborative governance; to continue to push forward cost control and reduce Olympic expenses; to continue to implement the legacy plan of the Olympic Winter Games and raise awareness of winter sports; and to promote the green development of the Olympic Winter Games by reducing haze, protecting mountains, controlling water and saving energy.
A new discussion on the interactions between the Olympic Games and urban development under the theory of mature city: taking the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games as an example
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2019,Vol 42,No. 08
【Abstract】 The interactions between the Olympic Games and urban development are an important issue concerning the sustainable development of the Olympic Movement. In recent years, with the reform of the International Olympic Committee and the rapid development of modern cities, the relationship between the Olympic Games and urban development has reached a new historical juncture. This paper uses the methods of literature review and historical analysis to explore the interactive relationship between the Olympic Games and urban development with the mature city theory as the starting point. Results show that the traditional interactive model of the Olympic Games and urban development is based on the rising demand interactive model. This is an interactive model in which the city combines the development of its own hardware facilities with the hosting of the Olympic Games. However, this model is affected by the changes in the social environment, and it cannot meet the requirements of modern cities to build a mature city, nor meet the requirements of the sustainable development of the Olympic Games. Thus, it is gradually eliminated. Therefore, a city should take the opportunity of creating a mature city and seize the new opportunities of the transformation and development of large-scale cities and the reform of the Olympic Games, and establish a new interactive model of the Olympic Games and urban development. From the perspective of the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo, this paper starts from the four realization paths of the mature city, namely, the natural environment, residents’ development, interpersonal communication, and scientific and technological support. It explores the new interactive model of the Olympic Games and urban development by case analysis. At the same time, both as large cities, Tokyo and Beijing share high similarities in terms of urban layout and population mobility. This paper takes the Tokyo Olympics as a case study and hopes that it can provide theoretical support for the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics.
One cannot participate in the Olympic Games even on the expiry of suspension for doping? A review of reintroducing the Osaka Rule by IOC
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2018,Vol 42,No. 02
【Abstract】 The Osaka Rule, constituting a double sanction against the doping athletes, violates the principle of ne bis in idem, the principle of proportionality, and the compulsory clause in the World Anti-Doping Code prohibiting substantive changes to the sanction measures stipulated in the Code. It ignores the fundamental human rights of athletes, and unilaterally and severely suppresses doping offenses, which violates the purpose of the Code. The Osaka Rule shall not be reintroduced. Some regulations formulated by the General Administration of Sport of China are similar to the Osaka Rules. In conflict with not only the general principles of the Code, but the promise of the Chinese government in joining the International Convention against Doping in Sports, they should be amended.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 05
【Abstract】 The Winter Olympic events have a specific development rule, which is the result of many factors such as geographical conditions, social environment, and scientific and technological strength. This study analyzed the setting of Winter Olympic events, seeked breakthrough in the established project framework, and grasped the way to win the Winter Olympic events in the changing project setting. The methods of literature review and expert interview were used in this study. Conclusions: (1) The selection of Winter Olympic Games in China should take the emerging skills and grading projects as the main development projects. Among them, freestyle skiing, snowboard and snowmobile should be the key projects, and women’s single events should be the main gold medals. We also should promote the development of the project with regional advantages, select the resource oriented area with the feature of the project, realize the linkage of the Northeast, Northwest and North China, and serve the training characteristics of different projects. (2) The reserve talents of Winter Olympic events in China are scarce, we should select excellent summer events talents and even non-Olympic events playes to the winter project team based on event characteristics. Because of the similarity between the free skiing and the single board skiing in the U type project, the outstanding players of the existing projects can be trained across the project, and the land skateboard U site skill project talents are transformed into the snow project; skeleton chooses the athletes with good explosive force, speed, endurance and other physiological indexes as the priority, and we can excavate the summer sprint, hurdles and other athletes to expand to the winter project team.
National image constructed by Olympians from the perspective of cross-cultural communication: a case study of the national image created by Chinese athletes in 2016 Rio Olympics
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 02
【Abstract】 Based on the theory of cross-cultural communication, this paper analyzes the characteristics of cross-cultural communication in the Olympic Games by using literature review, and demonstrates the possibility of athletes creating their national images. At the same time, it analyzes the national image of Chinese athletes in 2016 Rio Olympics, and puts forward strategies of them creating the national image in cross-culture communication. The result shows that the Olympic Games have a core discourse system to provide participants and audience with the communication space of multiple cultural identities, as well as a complete symbol of construction and recognition. In the cultural field of Olympic Games, athletes are a concrete group that displays national images. Their media images are important carriers of their national images and they have a multi-dimensional approach to create national images. Athletes from different cultural backgrounds have the possibility to build their national images through intercultural communication activities within and outside the field. In the 2016 Rio Olympics, the image build by Chinese athletes became gradually vivid: the national image was presented as the supporter of Olympic competition rules, the cultural envoy of the communication platform, and the active media built on personal charm and frankness. In the context of multiple transmission channels, athletes can improve the old image and build a new image by creating a link point of sub consciousness, stimulating emotional identification and improving their media images.
Practical experience and sport selection of overseas pre-competition training camp of China Olympic team
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 12
【Abstract】 With the main research methods of documentation and expert interview, this paper focuses on the overseas pre-competition training camp of the Olympic team, summarizes the experience of China’s, and puts forward the layout and preparation target of the overseas training camp of China Olympic team preparing for Tokyo Olympic Games. This paper wants to provide reference for China Olympic team and obtains main conclusions as follows. (1) Overseas pre-competition training camp is a common practice of international sports powers, including natural environment adaptation, humanistic environment adaptation, competition atmosphere adaptation, sports state adjustment and other types. (2) Since the London Olympic Games, China has set up overseas pre-competition training camps, which provides a solid guarantee for the Chinese team to win gold medals. They play the most significant role in ball games, track and field, shooting, and also serve as a window for historical and cultural exhibition and exchange; but it has limited influence on some sports, and the management of training camps is very difficult. (3) Drawing lessons from international practices and our previous experience, the overseas training camps of China’s team preparing for Tokyo Olympic Games mainly focus on collective ball games, outfield competitions, bilateral advantage sports and long-term events.
Grade evaluation of the offensive and defensive ability of high level women’s volleyball match in Olympic Games
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 01
【Abstract】 This study evaluated and analyzed the grade of offensive and defensive ability of 12 women’s volleyball teams in Rio Olympic Games by the methods of literature review, expert interview and stroke analysis. Results: On the offensive side, teams of Serbia, the US, the Netherlands, Brazil and China had the most outstanding offensive capability, and their WRSR was high and they were at Grade B. On the defensive side, team of the U.S. had the best defense, and teams of Serbia, the Netherlands, China and the U.S. were at Grade B. Team of Brazil was less defensive than other teams, and was at Grade C; the WRSR of Serbia was the highest one. The offensive WRSR value, defensive WRSR value, and offensive and defensive WRSR value were significantly corelated to the final ranking. The women’s volleyball team was divided into 5 levels, and teams of China, Serbia, the Netherlands and the U.S. were at the first level, representing the highest level in the world. The common features of offensive and defensive tactics of high level women’s volleyball teams in the Rio Olympic Games were as follows. The attacking point of the smash was changeable and the route was diversified; the service was very aggressive; block awareness was high and location was accurate; toss was high successful rate and the pass form was flexible; strong team was good at offence and defense, and focused on collaborative combat.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 12
【Abstract】 The purpose of this study was to provide some ideas for Chinese enterprises committed to becoming top sponsors of the future Olympic Games. This study analyzed the problems existing in the development of the Olympic Partner Programme by the methods of literature review and expert interview and the authors’ work experience, and deeply analyzed the Olympic economy based on the theories of economics, marketing and financial management to enrich and supplement domestic research on the Olympic economic field. The study showed that there are four problems in Olympic Partner Programme. The ROI on sponsorship is directly related to the Olympic Partner Programme. The high amount of sponsorship fees and the uncertainty of long-term investment income affect the investment intentions of sponsors. The decline in TV ratings will inevitably affect corporate exposure in the media, but the widespread acceptance of social media by the public also provides more marketing platform for sponsors. The rules and terms of IOC restrict the maximization of the business interests of some top sponsors.
Analysis of competition pattern of men’s gymnastics at the Rio Olympic Games: and discussion of the development direction of China’s men’s gymnastics in Tokyo Olympiad
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 05
【Abstract】 By using the methods of literature review, video observation and statistical analysis, and taking top eight teams at the Rio Olympics as well as the 44th to the 46th World Championships as research objects, this study analyzed the competition pattern of men’s gymnastics at Rio, and the development direction of Chinese men’s gymnastics. Conclusions: (1) From the group point of view, China and Japan are still playing the leading roles in the world men’s gymnastics, and European countries are relatively weaker; (2) from a single point of view, there are many competitive athletes all over the world, which forms a competition group of many countries in men’s gymnastics; (3) the main reasons for the loss of the Chinese gymnastic team in the Rio Olympic Games are: the unbalanced development of the movement difficulty and the completion quality, the passive situation brought by the weakening of advantage events and the increase of weakness events, and the difficulty in completing the set arrangement. Suggestion: In Tokyo Olympics Olympiad, Chinese men’s gymnastics team should take the “embroidery” effort, namely, paying attention to the overall composition and layout and emphasizing the precise and meticulous stitches to grasp the rules, understand the competition system, improve the weakness and scientific training, and strive to resplendence in the Tokyo Olympic Games.
Policies of preparing for the Olympic Games in the world competitive sports powers and their implications for China’s preparation for the Tokyo Olympic Games
China Sport Science,2018,Vol 38,No. 10
【Abstract】 The United States, Russia, the UK, Germany, Japan and other world competitive sports powers have a systematic policy system for the preparation for the Olympic Games. Its characteristics are mainly reflected in the following areas: the state and the multi-subjects of society participate together, covering comprehensive indicators and clear objectives of Olympics preparation; the selection, training and guarantee of coaches and high-performance athletes are emphasized; key sports are promoted and weak sports are supported to highlight the socialization and diversification of financing structure in Olympics preparation; they pay attention to the construction of a compound team of science and technology, medicine, management and guarantee, and pursue the overall benefits of science and technology to facilitate the Olympic Games. While drawing lessons from the world competitive sports powers in preparing for the Olympic Games, and combining China’s national conditions, this paper put forward the “five-in-one” policy system consisting of policy objectives, policy subjects, policy content, policy tools and policy process in preparation for Tokyo Olympic Games.
Systematic characteristics of the rejuvenation of British athletic sports and its implications for China’s Olympics strategy
China Sport Science,2017,Vol 37,No. 05
【Abstract】 Since its record-low performance at the Atlanta 1996 Olympics, British athletic sports has eventually succeeded in its rejuvenation after 20-year endeavors, resulting in the outstanding performance of ranking the second in the gold medal tally at the Rio 2016 Olympics. The rejuvenation of British athletic sports is attributed to its in-depth analysis of the status quo of the athletic sports in the country and its top-level design of the athletic sports system, which includes the establishment of UK Sport responsible for athletic sports, the provision of subsidy for athletic sports funded by the National Lottery, the formulation of the World Class Programme and the Elite Coaches’ Programme, the strengthening of the horizontal functions of individual event sports associations, the launching of the EIS to provide high-level scientific services, the choosing of the scientific selection model of athletes and the fast cultivation of elite athletes, as well as the integration of various organizational and insititutional sources to provide all-round support for athletes. The rejuvenation of British athletic sports has provided multiple implications to China, for instance, to strengthen organizational management system and construct top-level development plan; to reinforce scientific research and support the training of athletic sports; to pay attention to the cultivation of backup talents and improve the scientific nature of the selection of athletes; and to construct the cultivation system of coaches and extend the source channels.
Youth sports in Olympic sports powers and China’s development strategies—a comparison of the top six countries on the gold medal tally of the 31st Rio Olympic Games
China Sport Science,2017,Vol 37,No. 08
【Abstract】 Taking the top six countries in the gold medal tally of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games (i.e., China, the US, the UK, Russia, Germany and Japan) as the subjects, the paper studied youth sport development strategies, sports fields and facilities, physical activities of youth in the Olympic powers except China, analyzed the characteristics of youth sport development in China and put forward the following ideas and strategies for youth sports development in China. (1) Attach importance to and firmly promote the youth sports work from the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation; (2) Strictly implement the Course Standard of Physical Education and Health and give full play to the key role of school in promoting the development of youth sports. (3) Prevent the PE senior-high-school entrance examination from becoming a new form of examination-oriented education and let sports nature return to youth. (4) Highlight the characteristics of youth sports fields and open more school sports fields. (5) Strengthen the construction of sports clubs to attract more young people to participate in physical activities.
Comparative study of interactions between Youth Olympic Games and Olympic Games and science and technology
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 05
【Abstract】 Science and technology are the source of human progress, and they are driving forces for the development of the Olympic Movement. Youth Olympic Games is in the early stage of growth, so studying its characteristics will contribute to its better future development. Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games are similar. This study compares the similarities and differences between the two from the perspective of the science and technology by the method of literature review. With scientific and technological achievements, the Olympic Movement no only gains great progress, but also faces some negative effects that hinder the realization of the humanistic value o the Olympic Games. Olympic Movement also affects the development of science and technology, and it provides new opportunities and challenges. Youth Olympic Games interacts with science and technology and has excellent results according to its own characteristics, which is different from Olympic Games. Youth Olympic Games provides a display platform for science and technology that cannot be displayed in Olympics Games, and science and technology make the Youth Olympic Games more innovative and spirit of the times. This study analyzes the interaction between Youth Olympic Games and Olympic Games and science and technology for finding a better way to achieve a win-win mode.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 06
【Abstract】 In order to analyze the effect of competitive sports on mass participation, this paper tested the effect of the Rio Olympic Games based on Baidu index by the methods of literature review and empirical research. Results: The mass preference sports gained high social concern; the Baidu index of Olympic events that gained medals increased significantly; mass preference and Olympic medals were important factors to influence social concern and participation of sports events. Thus, the development of mass sports should not only take full account of the preferences of the masses, but also cannot be separated from competitive sports events and competitive sports medal incentives. Exploring the effect of competitive sports on social concern and participation of sports, and testing the guiding function of competitive sports on mass sports by using internet big data, can help clarify the relationship between competitive sports and mass sports.
China Sport Science,2017,Vol 37,No. 12
【Abstract】 Through using the methods of literature review, video observation and mathematical statistics, this paper made research on the major problems of Chinese women’s gymnastics team in the Rio Olympic cycle, and discussed its development path in the Tokyo Olympic cycle. The result shows that there is a decline in the performance of Chinese women’s gymnastics team at Rio Olympic Games compared to that in Beijing and London Olympic Games, mainly due to deficiencies in execution quality, rule understanding, weakness improvement and injury and illness prevention. To prepare the Tokyo Olympic Games, Chinese women’s gymnastics team should consciously learn experience and lessons, grasp the essence of the rule correctly and adhere to coordination between difficulty development and execution quality; design reasonably the qualification acquisition plan by making good use of characteristics of competition system; improve the weakness vigorously so as to reverse the passive situation of fighting for team champion as soon as possible; carry out the concept of open development and improve the training efficiency with the help of talents of other countries; and deepen Recreational Gymnastics plan, and consolidate the reserve team of women’s gymnastics. In all these ways, Chinese women’s gymnastics team would make improvement in key areas and weak links, and strive to achieve a new leap forward in the Tokyo Olympic cycle.
Formation and characteristics of sports training theory and method in early modern Summer Olympic Games
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 10
【Abstract】 To explore the evolution of modern sports training theory and method in the West, this paper mainly uses methods of literature review and historical research to discuss the characteristics of the evolution of sports training theory and method at the beginning of modern Summer Olympic Games (1896–1940). Results are as follows. The sports training paradigm based on “the four humors” theory was replaced by mechanistic paradigm dominated by the modern mechanism that promoted energy conservation and transformation. Sports physiology and psychology were included too, which ultimately caused the real qualitative reform of sports training theory and method. Conclusions are as follows. The sports training theory system based on physiology transforming to the application of training method is the main characteristic of this period, and defines the paradigm of Western modern sports training theory and methods.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 12
【Abstract】 The purpose of this study is to explore the advantageous factors of winning again of Chinese Olympic diving champions. Firstly, we surveyed Olympic champion of Chinese National Diving Team more than one year by participatory observation; secondly, seven Olympic diving champions, one Olympic runner-up, and three Olympic diving champion partners of synchronized events were selected and interviewed face to face ( each interviewee was interviewed once alone, about 2 hours per interview); finally, we verified interview results with other important individuals timely to comprehensively and profoundly explore advantageous factors and their sequence which can promote Chinese Olympic diving champions to win again from multiple perspectives. The six inherent strength elements for Chinese Olympic diving champions to win again are sense of superiority, talent for diving, technical advantage, training accumulation, experience of competitions and psychological advantage of competitions, while the two external ones are referee impression and whole national system. Its sequence from large to small according to their promoting effects show individual differences. Tacit understanding and teamwork are typical advantages of promoting Chinese Olympic diving champions to create brilliancy together with their partners in synchronized events. Major advantages for Chinese Olympic diving champions to win again are mainly inherent ones, which highlights the main subject effect. The rankings of these factors show individual differences, which highlight the uniqueness of Olympic champions and their uncopyable paths to success. Advantageous factors of winning again of Chinese synchronized Olympic diving champions positively impact their partners on creating brilliancy together.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 12
【Abstract】 Based on the analysis on the bid document, candidature files and final reports for Olympic Games (including Winter Olympic Games and Summer Olympic Games) of host and candidate cities between 1956 and 2016, we analyzed the use of the word legacy and reached the following conclusions. 1) The concept and connotation of the Olympic legacy are constantly changing. One of the most important turning points is from the Olympic building, Olympic collection and other tangible heritages to the mental and cultural categories which can affect the human being and the sustainable development of the society. 2) The Olympic legacy not only has positive effects but also has negative effects, such as, the difficulties in guaranteeing the necessary financial resources for construction and protection can even lead to the host country’s fiscal deficit; stadium construction face the impact on the surrounding environment and the pressure brought by the illegal use of land; and heritage resources cannot be reused or recycled to increase its economic value and social function after the Olympic Games. 3) The continuous and effective management is an important approach to play the positive effect of Olympic heritage and curb its negative effects. By tracing the history of Olympic legacy development, we analyzed its changes with the time and its development trend to provide content for reference for the management of Olympic legacy of Beijing Winter Olympics.
Historical changes, mechanisms and implications of the opening ceremony performance of modern Olympic Games
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2015,Vol 38,No. 03
【Abstract】 This paper analyzes historical changes of opening ceremony performances of the modern Olympic Games by methods of expert interview, literature review, video analysis and history analysis. The purpose of this study is to explore mechanism, law and trend of the development of Olympic Games’ opening ceremony performances, and provide new perspectives for Olympic Games studies. The study results show that, based on the time differences, modern Olympic Games’ opening ceremony performances can be divided into five phases, namely, budding phase, early phase, mature phase, change phase and diversification phase. The influential mechanism of the historical changes of opening ceremony performances is mainly reflected by four aspects, namely, the value orientation of the Olympic Games, the containment of social, politic and economic factors, the infiltration of cultural and artistic trends and the introduction of technologies. The corresponding historical implications include preserving Olympic spirits and core values, evading politicization and commercialization and developing toward the harmony and diversification direction against the current background.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2015,Vol 38,No. 05
【Abstract】 Female participation in the Olympic Games, reflected by the changes of female events, was deeply influenced by the three waves of feminism in the 20th century and evolution of the values the Olympic Games. From the two dimensions of the self-development of the Olympics and the three waves of feminism, this paper analyzed evolution of Olympic female events by the method of literature review. The conclusion is as follows: women events added in the Olympic Games were pushed by the three waves of feminism; gender justice is the logical foundation of equality between men and women in Olympic Games, which should not be determined by the increase in female events; the exploration of gender equality in the Olympic Games will be struggling under the influence of the third-wave feminism and utilitarianism.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2015,Vol 38,No. 05
【Abstract】 This paper analyzed profits and risk of Winter Olympics broadcast right, which acquired by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Organizing Committee For The Olympic Games (OCOGs), and broadcasters by the methods of literature review, comparison and induction, then put forward some concrete measures for risk management. The general return includes two aspects: namely, further promoting Olympic Games around the world, allocating economic income to all participators and ensuring the financial independence and stability of Olympic Games. The risks are: huge cost of purchasing TV broadcast right, time difference, benefits of US TV broadcaster, and enlarged scale of Winter Olympics. The concrete measures of risk management include: thoroughly conducting the spirits of the Olympic Chapter; conforming the Host City Contract for the Olympic Winter Games and Guidelines of Media; the mutual consultation of the parties concerned; selling TV broadcast rights with internet and mobile phone broadcast right; and increasing other income of OCOGs. This research provided references for related theoretical study and practice of Olympic TV broadcast right.