Chinese Rural Economy,2019,No. 01
【Abstract】 As a great revolution in the history of China’s transportation, the high-speed rail does exert an important impact on labor mobility. Based on the panel data from China’s 287 cities during 2008 and 2016, this paper used the method of DID and PSM-DID to evaluate the impact of high-speed rail on the rural-urban income disparity from the perspective of heterogeneous labor mobility. The findings are as follows. In general, the rural-urban income disparity has been effectively reduced by the operation of high-speed rail, but the impact of high-speed rail on rural-urban income disparity is heterogeneous in different regions. High-speed rail reduces rural-urban income disparity by affecting heterogeneous labor mobility. The impact of high-speed rail on rural-urban income disparity has a lagging effect. With an increase in high-speed rail accessibility, its effect on reducing rural-urban income disparity would be gradually enhanced.
Tariff transmission, domestic transport costs and retail prices: theoretical and empirical studies based on high-speed rail construction
Economic Research Journal,2019,Vol 54,No. 03
【Abstract】 China has reduced its tariff and non-tariff barriers since the 1990s as the main components of its trade liberalization policy. This has led to a large number of imported foreign goods, resulting in more diversity in product selection and lower prices because of an unprecedented competitive influence on the corresponding domestic commodities. Tariff transmission, reflected by the extent of tariff reductions’ impact on the domestic retail market, can differ significantly across regions because of geographical characteristics and economic development. It is necessary and vital to analyze tariff transmission and its various effects on retail markets because the prices of consumer goods are closely related to residents’ lives. In addition, there are controversies over the economic performance of high-speed rail (HSR) construction in China. HSR diverts passengers from regular trains, releasing transportation resources for freight and improving the efficiency of traditional railway transportation. Reduced costs and time from ports resulting from HSR may increase the consumer market competition caused by trade liberalization. In this paper, we explored the diverse influences of import tariff declines on retail markets from the perspective of high-speed rail construction. Studies often concentrated on enterprise performance from the production perspective and intermediate market by trade liberalization, such as trading behavior (Antoniades, 2016). However, the immediate impact of tariff reductions on China’s domestic retail markets is still unknown due to a lack of data. Some studies focusing on tariff transmission mechanism both ignored regional domestic differences and relied on resident survey data to calculate commodity prices without theoretical support (Nicita, 2009; Marchand, 2012; Han et al., 2016). We accurately uncovered the tariff mechanism by matching the retail prices of commodities in different cities monitored by the China Price Information Center with import tariffs. Furthermore, we analyzed the tariff transmission mechanism for different areas and products by combining HSR data with information on cities. This enriches our understanding of tariff transmission with urban heterogeneity in one economy. By directly considering the impact of HSR on consumer goods prices from a micro perspective, we measured residents’ welfare due to HSR’s contribution to rail resources, in addition to research on high-speed rail construction. To analyze the positive effect of HSR on trade liberalization in China, we first built a theoretical model indicating how tariff reductions influence domestic retail prices that allows for different effects for different cities and goods. Then, we used the difference-in-differences approach to analyze the relationship between tariff reductions, HSR and retail prices to understand how HSR contributes to tariff transmission and how this effect varies for different commodities and different locations. The empirical analysis confirms the existence of the transmission mechanism; import tariff reductions are beneficial for lowering local retail prices via increased competition. We also show that HSR has a positive influence on tariff transmission, with the effect varying for different goods in different locations. The positive effect is more significant for non-perishable goods and coastal cities than for perishable goods and inland cities. This paper has important policy implications. Our results indicate that high-speed rail construction promotes the function of trade liberalization, with tariff reductions leading to lower prices of consumer goods in domestic markets because of competition. The government should pay more attention to the construction of infrastructure and should alleviate pressure on the railway passenger transport to release capacity for freight so that trade liberalization can have a more effective impact on domestic consumer prices and improve the welfare of residents by providing a wider range of commodities at lower prices.
High-speed railway network and tourism development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: spatial interaction and restructuring
Tourism Tribune,2019,Vol 34,No. 03
【Abstract】 There are limited research results of the influence of high-speed railway network on the tourism development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Using indexes of tourism spatial effect, transportation marginal utility, tourism mean center, tourism standard distance, and historical data from 2002 to 2017, this paper analyzed the spatio-temporal evolutionary characteristics of the spatial effect and spatial structure of intercity tourism in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region under the influence of high-speed railway. The research results showed that the high-speed railway had an increasingly significant influence on the tourism spatial effect in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The historical evolution of the spatial structure of domestic and inbound tourism demonstrated that the opening of the high-speed railway brought the focus shift and diffusion effect of regional tourism. The tourism mean center of domestic tourism moved from the southeast to the southwest, and the tourism mean center of inbound tourism moved from the southwest to the southeast. The operation of the high-speed railway amplified the diffusion effect of the spatial structure of domestic and inbound tourism, and this amplification worked great in domestic tourism.
Contemporary Economy of Japan,2019,Vol 38,No. 01
【Abstract】 China has made remarkable progress in exporting high-speed rails (HSR) to Southeast Asia, but it still faces a series of challenges. One of such challenges is the direct competition from Japan, which also pursues a policy of promoting high-speed rail export. The two countries compete at the political level as well as the technological and economic levels. In order to compete with Japan effectively, China must figure out Japan’s political and economic motives and on that basis take appropriate countermeasures.
Economic Research Journal,2019,Vol 54,No. 07
【Abstract】 “To get rich, first build a road.” Transportation infrastructure can decrease trade costs and play an important role in economic and social development. Although many studies have shown that transportation infrastructure increases exports by reducing the variable trade costs, less attention has been paid to the impact of fixed trade costs, such as the fast movement of people. With the development of trade liberalization and the internet, the roles of tariff barriers and basic communication costs are weakening, whereas acquiring complex information such as better market knowledge, establishing supplier networks between firms, and achieving efficient communications for customs clearance play increasingly important roles. As the high-speed railway (HSR) only affects the service for passengers rather than freight, it allows us to evaluate the importance of the cost of movement of people on trade. The rapid development of China’s HSR has greatly improved the domestic transportation network and promoted economic development. On August 1, 2008, the first HSR line, the Beijing-Tianjin intercity railway, began operation with a speed of 350 km/h. Since then, China’s HSR has experienced rapid development. At the end of 2016, China’s HSR network reached 23,000 kilometers, covering 53% of cities in China and accounting for over 60% people. Thus, in this study we consider China’s HSR network as a large-scale quasi-natural experiment to estimate the effect of the HSR on firm exports from the perspective of changes in trade costs. First, we match the HSR data, Chinese Customs Data, Industrial Enterprise Database, and city-level data for China over the period 2000–2011 to search for the impact of HSR on firm exports and its mechanisms. Second, we apply the PPML method, Truncreg model, placebo test, subgroup analysis, and independent validations to test the robustness of the results, and construct the least-cost path-spanning tree network to solve the endogeneity problem. Third, by analyzing the passenger and freight conditions of various modes of transportation, we assess the impact of the HSR on the variable trade costs. To explore the impact of the HSR on the fixed trade costs, we introduce the “market access” index proposed by Donaldson & Hornbeck (2016) and Lin (2017). Finally, we perform a series of heterogeneous analyses to verify the mechanism behind the HSR’s export effect. We find that China’s HSR significantly promotes firm exports, while the marginal effect is about 12.7%. Using various robustness tests and constructing the least-cost path-spanning tree network by Faber (2014) as HSR’s instrumental variable to tackle endogeneity, the results remain robust. Analysis of the mechanism shows that China’s HSR has no significant impact on freight volume, but significantly increases market access, indicating that the HSR increases firm exports by reducing the fixed trade costs. A heterogeneity analysis shows that the HSR mainly promotes the extensive margin of exports, and the export of capital-and technology-intensive goods and time-sensitive products. Cities located in the eastern regions with direct connections to harbor cities have a magnified effect after the connection of the HSR. The effective range of the HSR’s export effect is within 30 kilometers of the HSR station and the city center. The results of this paper expand research on the effects of transportation infrastructure on trade through trade cost channels and provide important insights for optimizing HSR construction. They also have policy implications for firm export strategies, national planning, and regional economic development in China. Our study contributes to the literature in the following respects. (1) It is among the first in China to pay attention to the impact of China’s HSR on firm exports. (2) It constructs a least-cost path-spanning tree network as an instrumental variable to solve the endogeneity problem.(3) A “market access” indicator is calculated as a proxy variable for the fixed trade costs, providing new evidence for the mechanism by which the opening of the HSR affects firm exports. (4) It provides an explanation of why the HSR increases firm exports through a heterogeneity analysis, which reflects the reality of the structural transformation on exports and its role in upgrading manufacturing in China.
An analysis of the heterogeneous impact of opening the high-speed rail on the growth rate of total factor productivity
Journal of Finance and Economics,2019,Vol 45,No. 05
【Abstract】 The rapid development of high-speed rails in China has greatly promoted exchanges and cooperation between the regions, and improved the level of collaborative innovation and economic efficiency between the regions. Based on the panel data of municipalities and prefecture-level cities in 2004–2014, this paper empirically analyzes the heterogeneity impact of opening high-speed rail on the growth rate of TFP and further tests the robustness of the empirical results. The results show that, on the whole, the opening of high-speed rail promotes the growth rate of TFP in the opening regions, but there are differences in different levels of cities: the opening of high-speed rail improves the TFP growth rate in regional central cities and non-central cities, but inhibits the growth rate of TFP in the central cities of the whole country. From a regional perspective, the opening high-speed rail has different TFP growth rates for different opening regions: the opening of high-speed rail has promoted the growth rate of TFP in the eastern region, but the impact on the growth rate of TFP in the central and western regions is not significant. In addition, the high-speed rail has a heterogeneous impact on the dynamic effect and the hysteresis effect of the TFP growth rate in the opening area. At the same time, the opening of high-speed rail has a heterogeneous impact on the improvement of technical efficiency, the rate of technical progress and the change of scale efficiency in different levels of cities and regions, and has the largest impact on the change of scale efficiency.
Impact of high-speed rail network construction on the spatial pattern of accessibility in Shaanxi Province
Economic Geography,2019,Vol 39,No. 02
【Abstract】 This paper studied the high-speed railway (HSR) in Shaanxi Province on the basis of existing research, proposed a network analysis method of the node cost that was used to calculate the minimum space-time distance, weighted average travel time (WATT), daily accessibility (DA) and potential accessibility (PA) and evaluate and simulate the spatial pattern of accessibility of Shaanxi Province in the past, current and future. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the expansion of the high-speed rail network on the spatial pattern of accessibility in different periods of Shaanxi Province. The results were as the following. (1) The calculation results by the use of the node cost network analysis method could accurately reflect the spatial pattern of regional accessibility. (2) The high-speed rail network in Shaanxi Province had reduced the minimum time accessibility and the time convergence effect has changed significantly. However, the minimum space accessibility had no obvious change and the spatial convergence effect was not obvious. (3) When the hub-and-spoke type HSR network of Shaanxi Province was completed, the traffic position of Xi’an City would be further strengthened and the number of serviceable population would increase to 17.5161 million people in one-hour traffic circle, which would increased by 66.17%. And the serviceable population would reach 28.908 million in a two-hour traffic circle, up by 44.93%. (4) With the expansion of high-speed railway, the accessibility spatial pattern of Shaanxi Province presented the development trend that was from core-edge to corridor and core-corridor, which improved the accessibility of the province and narrowed the gap in accessibility.
China Industrial Economics,2019,No. 10
【Abstract】 The opening of high-speed rail (HSR) promotes the cross-regional flow of production factors as well as market integration, thereby reducing the enterprises’ information search costs, logistics costs and transaction costs, and leading them to search more and find better suppliers. In this paper, we investigated the effect of access to HSR on supplier distribution and used the opening of China’s HSR network as a quasi-natural experiment. In the difference in differences analysis, we documented that the geographical distance between an enterprise and its principal suppliers increases significantly after the opening of HSR in the city where the enterprise’s office is located. To further address endogeneity problems, we constructed an instrumental variable based on the geographical gradient and found consistent results. Further heterogeneity test results show that in the subsamples with a high degree of industry competition and moderately low supplier concentration of private enterprises, manufacturing enterprises and suppliers, the impact of HSR on supplier distribution is more obvious. In view of its specific mechanism, this paper found that the impact of the opening of HSR is mainly seen in the areas with airports, high Internet penetration rates and increased railway freight volume, indicating that the opening of HSR strengthens the impact of the information environment on the distribution of suppliers. In terms of economic consequences, this paper found that there is a significant increase in business performance after the opening of HSR. This paper further provides research evidence on the micro-mechanism of transport infrastructure promoting economic growth.
Does the opening of high-speed railways accelerate spillovers of technological innovation? Evidence from 230 prefecture-level cities in China
Journal of Finance and Economics,2019,Vol 45,No. 11
【Abstract】 The appearance of high-speed rail has compressed the “space-time” distance between regions and promoted people’s life and economic activities, which is known as one of the “four new great inventions” of China. Since the opening of the first “Beijing-Tianjin” high-speed railway in 2008, China has entered the era of building “high-speed rail networks.” At present, most literature has studied it from the aspects of comprehensive regional economic growth, regional economic integration, industrial structure adjustment, regional income differences and residents’ travel mode. However, there is a lack of relevant research on the effect of high-speed rail on spillovers of regional technological innovation in the literature. China’s regional development is extremely unbalanced. The economic foundation and infrastructure construction of the backward inland areas lag far behind those of the eastern coastal areas. Innovation spillovers can make backward areas and low-income people catch up through “free rides” and improve the pace of catching up with the developed areas. Therefore, innovation spillovers play a vital role in China’s economic growth. Based on the panel data of 230 prefecture-level cities from 2008 to 2013, this paper analyzes the effect of high-speed rail on spillovers of regional technological innovation through DID and PSM-DID methods. The study finds that, first of all, the opening of high-speed railways raises the patent citation rate and accelerates the depreciation rate of patents. High-speed rail enhances the spillover effect of technological innovation by promoting agglomeration economies, face-to-face exchanges, flows of talents and capital, and regional cooperation and trade. The time lag of the effect of high-speed rail on technological innovation spillovers is within 2–3 years. Secondly, the effect of high-speed rail on technological innovation spillovers presents certain regional heterogeneity. Due to the high level of economic development in the eastern region, coupled with the brain drain from high-speed rail networks, the effect of the opening of high-speed railways on technological innovation spillovers is more significant in the eastern region. Therefore, this paper puts forward the following suggestions: (1) For the government, cities should continue to develop their economies in order to improve the technical and material support of high-speed rail construction, and invest in the construction of high-speed rail according to the actual situation. (2) For enterprises, they should properly increase the rate of labor remunerations to improve the attractiveness to talents, prevent factor outflows, and attract new investments; at the same time, they should make good use of the “space-time compression” effect brought by the opening of high-speed railway, increase exchanges and trade with enterprises from other cities, improve their innovation level, and actively learn and master technologies from other enterprises.
Finance & Trade Economics,2019,Vol 40,No. 09
【Abstract】 This paper studied the impact of high-speed rail opening on the spatial agglomeration of the high-end service industry from the two dimensions of diversification and specialization. The conclusions are as follows. (1) From a national perspective, the opening of high-speed rail has a significant role in promoting diversification, but has no significant impact on specialized agglomeration, and there is a time lag in the effect of high-speed rail opening. (2) By region, the promotion of diversified agglomeration by high-speed rail is mainly manifested in the eastern region. In the central and western regions, due to the low number of high-speed rail lines and the late opening of high-speed rail, coupled with the time lag, the effect of high-speed rail opening was not significant until the end of the observation period. (3) The opening of high-speed rail will affect the spatial agglomeration of the high-end service industry by improving location accessibility, reducing transaction costs and improving regional factor abundance.
Spatial link and structure of urban network in China based on big data analysis of high-speed railway passenger flow
Economic Geography,2018,Vol 38,No. 04
【Abstract】 Based on the big data analysis of high-speed railway passenger flow, this paper made a preliminary study on the spatial pattern, the whole and the local link and the node attribute of Chinese urban network by using the Geographic Information System (GIS) visualization, social network analysis and statistical analysis. The results are as follows. (1) The links between cities is based on the high-speed railway lines to form the eight passenger flow lines of “four verticals and four horizontals” and the multi-scale urban network, but the influence of the location conditions shows the characteristics of decline from east to central and then to west. (2) The network of Chinese cities has low density and a certain core-periphery structure in terms of overall link. The connectivity and agglomeration intensity coefficients are similar but reflect the different regional link models. (3) In the regional network, the network is roughly formed with eight subgroups of geographically adjacent cities and has a certain coupling with the spatial distribution of urban agglomerations. (4) In the individual network, the distribution of node degree shows a certain power law distribution. In addition to its strong correlation with economic and population scale, the city administrative level also plays a crucial role.
Finance & Trade Economics,2018,Vol 39,No. 06
【Abstract】 The previous literature on the relationship between high-speed rails and regional economic growth has ignored the impact of high-speed rails on the regional economic gaps and the phenomenon of factor flow among regions. By analyzing the empirical facts of China’s regional economic growth pattern in the context of high-speed rails, and from the perspective of factor flow, this paper elaborated on the impact mechanism of high-speed rails on regional economic gaps in detail. Meanwhile, this paper studied the impact of high-speed rails on regional economic growth gaps through a qusai-natural experiment of whether to open high-speed rails and based on the data of China’s 287 cities in 2004–2014. According to the study, we found that high-speed rails had a significant positive effect on the regional economic gaps through the factor flow; that is to say, the opening of high-speed rails could widen the regional economic gaps and produce polarization effect. Besides, the opening of high-speed rails significantly expands provincial capitals’ economic gaps, but the effect on non-provincial capitals is not significant. At last, the impact of high-speed rails on the regional economic gaps is characterized by a significant time effect, and the polarization effect shows a trend of increasing and then decreasing.
China Industrial Economics,2018,No. 05
【Abstract】 With the rapid development of China’s HSR, its impact on economic development is increasingly prominent. By matching China’s urban data, HSR network data and China’s industrial enterprise data in the period of 1999–2011 and introducing the index of market access, we quantitatively explored the relationship between China’s HSR and enterprises’ productivity. As revealed by the results, firstly, baseline regression shows that the HSR connection negatively affects enterprises’ productivity and the effect size is 12.46%. Several robustness checks, such as alternative regression and proxy variables, confirm the reliability of the conclusions. To reduce the endogeneity of HSR’s construction, we adopt the least cost path spanning tree network as an instrumental variable, and results are still supportive. Secondly, mechanism research reveals that the negative effects are originated from spatial reallocation of resources. More precisely, with the connection of HSR, much more resources flow from peripheral cities to core ones. Further, sample is reclassified based on the transportation endowment of the city, factor intensity of the industry, and the distance between the HSR station and the city center to verify the mechanism. We found that the siphon effect is inversely proportionate to city’s transportation endowment and labor intensity of the industry, and the functional range of the effect is the road distance of 30 km from the HSR station to city center. Therefore, measures to enhance HSR’s welfare effect and reduce regional inequality, measures can be taken in the aspects such as controlling the speed and rhythm of HSR construction, scientifically planning HSR station and fostering industries with local advantages.
Study on the impact of high-speed rail on land price and its mechanism: evidence from micro land transactions
China Industrial Economics,2018,No. 05
【Abstract】 This paper focuses on the impact of China’s high-speed rail (HSR) construction on the urban construction land market. Based on the micro data of urban land transfer in China from 2007 to 2014, we investigated the impact of HSR on urban land price and its heterogeneity by utilizing the multiple differences method combined with the hedonic price model. First, it is found that the construction of the HSR station has a significant effect on the land price, and the construction of HSR increases the land price by about 7.0%, and on this basis, the land price increases by 1.3% with each one more station. Second, the impact on different types of land exhibits significant heterogeneity, resulting in a 22% and 11% rise in the price of residential and commercial land respectively, but the price of industrial land decreased by about 17%. Third, the study also found that the higher the average income of the industries the land parcel is planned for and the closer it located from the city center, the greater the positive impact will be. Fourth, at the aggregate level, HSR can significantly improve the quantity and income of the land leased by local governments, explaining the phenomenon of “HSR battle” between local governments. The mechanism analysis shows that the structural differences in the land market and the strategy of “lateral subsidies” by local governments in the transfer of industrial and non-industrial land have led to the above results. From the perspective of the land transfer behavior of local government, this paper provides preliminary empirical evidence for the study of the economic and social benefit assessment of the HSR construction and its growth and distributional effect on regional economy. At the same time, in the future construction of HSR, we should be aware of the uneven expansion of the regional development, the overexploitation of commercial and residential land, the strengthening of the land finance, and the systematic financial risk.
Management World,2018,Vol 34,No. 01
【Abstract】 Using the opening of China high-speed railways (HSR) as an exogenous shock to measure the sudden decrease of information asymmetry and monitoring cost, this study tries to investigate the impact of HSR opening on stock price crash risk. The results show that the operation of HSR can reduce stock price crash risk and this relationship is more significant for firms located in cities only with non-intercity lines and for the years with both intercity and non-intercity lines. Further analysis finds that the negative impact of the opening of HSR on stock price crash risk is more significant in high information asymmetry and low monitoring environment. The findings of this paper demonstrate that the opening of HSR increases information transparency and improves corporate governance, which provides empirical evidence of the impact of transportation infrastructure on the financial market environment.
Analysis on motivations, influences, and prospects of the Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed railway cooperation between Japan and India
Northeast Asia Forum,2017,Vol 26,No. 03
【Abstract】 As two important neighboring countries of China, both Japan and India are implicated in territorial disputes with China. Against the current backdrop of high-speed rail diplomacy vigorously pursued by Japan and China, India once again garnered worldwide attention by opting for the Japanese Shinkansen. The paper elaborates on the motivations for Japan-India cooperation in building Mumbai-Ahmadabad High-Speed Railway, and the influence on the three countries involved. On this basis, the paper further discusses the prospects for this cooperated endeavor. Applying a combination of theoretical perspectives including new institutionalism, geo-politics and geo-economics, the paper analyzes the strategic value of the current Japan-India cooperation from multi-dimensional perspectives, rather than limiting itself to a mere analysis of the economic efficacy of this cooperation. Adopting the Japanese Shinkansen system, Mumbai-Ahmadabad High-Speed Railway is the result of the multiple factors that function in unison, which encompass the ever-deepening diplomatic relations between Japan and India, considerations for relevant economic benefits, the Abenomics, huge profits generated by this rail, and certain factors that pertain to China. The cooperation between Japan and India in building Mumbai-Ahmadabad High-Speed Railway, while elevating the bilateral relations between the two countries to a new level, helps to secure a stable position for the Japanese Shinkansen system initiated in India, and constitutes a severe obstacle to China’s high-speed rail diplomacy. On the other hand, the prospects for this cooperation are also overshadowed by a series of factors, such as the likelihood of the continuous depreciation of the JPY, India’s implementation of balanced high-speed rail diplomacy, India’s domestic terrorism and the difficulty in expropriating land. As far as China is concerned, it ought to strengthen its research on key high-speed railway technology, learn from the comparative advantage of the Japanese Shinkansen diplomacy, and conduct on-the-site investigations and seminars in an effort to boost its influence in the high-speed railway domain. Therefore, studying the motivations, influence and prospects of the Japan-India cooperation in building Mumbai-Ahmadabad High-Speed Railway has great theoretical and realistic significance for expanding the research domain in Japan-India bilateral relations, keeping updating the latest development in this regard, and hopefully benefiting China in carrying out its high-speed rail diplomacy in India.
Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 02
【Abstract】 Through kernel density estimation, we found that the densely populated areas of employed population in the producer services couple with HSR network, presenting the characteristics of national agglomeration and provincial agglomeration. The“tunnel effect” of HSRs enlarges the difference in the agglomeration density of producer services among cities along HSRs, while no significant influence is shown among cities which are not along HSRs. To improve the measurement of accessibility, we added daily operation frequency of HSRs to the basis of weighted average travel time. And the results showed that the centripetal agglomeration of senior node cities of HSR network presents an increasing trend on scale due to the “siphon effect,” which helps them becoming core cities of the agglomeration of producer services by enlarging the difference with surrounding auxiliary cities. A dynamic (VPM), based on multi-center regional density function, is proposed to identify the process of the spatial agglomeration and dispersion of producer services within core cities under the influence of HSRs. Thus, the scope of densely populated areas of employed population in the producer services has the trend of shrinking towards HSRs and senior node cities of the HSR network, presenting the trend of regionally agglomeration and overall dispersion. In the long run, the producer services will evolve towards the multi-center network structure.
Journal of Finance and Economics,2017,Vol 43,No. 07
【Abstract】 China is stepping into the high-speed railway era. The time distance gradually replaces the traditional space distance, which has become the key factor affecting the layout of the service industry. The large-scale construction and network layout of the high-speed railway in the Yangtze River Delta have weakened the space barrier to the flow of production factors, and have made the optimal allocation of resources in a wider range. Using statistical data and train operation data in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations from 2006 to 2015, this paper quantifies the "time-space convergence effect" caused by high-speed railway implementation by constructing the difference-in-difference model and introducing the gravity model in economic geography, and quantitatively analyzes the impact of high-speed railway evolving from the line into the network on urban service industry agglomeration. It arrives at the results as follows. Firstly, at the early operation of high-speed railway (2007-2011), the impact of high-speed railway on urban service industry agglomeration in the Yangtze River Delta is not significant; and since 2012, with the rapid development of the high-speed railway network in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations, high-speed railway has played a significant role in promoting service industry agglomeration, and the intensity of the impact has gradually increased. Secondly, after the implementation of the high-speed railway network, the location of the urban market along the high-speed railway line has been improved, but there are obvious differences for the improvement in the time and space. The unbalanced time-space convergence effect caused by the high-speed railway network in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations results in the reconstruction of urban market location level along the high-speed railway line, and has exacerbated the imbalance of the location conditions of big cities and small cities. Thirdly, if the spatial effect caused by high-speed railway increases by 1% each year, it leads to the rise in the employment density of urban service industry along the high-speed railway line by about 0.3%–0.4%.
Differentiation of urban agglomeration’s tourism space competition pattern under the influence of high-speed railway
Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 08
【Abstract】 The theory of consumer utility and travel probability are used to construct the tourism space competition model under the interaction conditions of multi destinations and multi sources, and spatial econometric methods are used to explore the spatial differentiation characteristics of tourism competition system of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration under the influence of high-speed railway. The research finds that the influence of the high-speed rail lines of tourism space competition pattern of urban agglomerations has obvious cluster nodes and corridors lock effect, that is, the local effect is significant, but the overall effect is relatively limited, and cannot fundamentally change the core periphery structure model of tourism space competition of urban agglomeration. There is no significant spatial autocorrelation in the region under the influence of high-speed railway, but there are significant distance attenuation characteristics. From the high-speed rail trunk node cities to the outer edge cities, the distance attenuation degree of tourism space competition pattern changes in a small number of disordered or nonlinear characteristics, and most of them are in line with the linear attenuation law. The results show that there is a moderate correlation between the high-speed railway effect and the tourism space competition pattern, which confirm that high-speed railway is one of the important variables affecting the spatial differentiation of tourism competition pattern, and also show that the competitive effect of the high speed railway will change with the other variables, so it is necessary to adhere to the dynamic tracing research in practice. The research shows that the differentiation characteristics of urban tourism space competition pattern under the influence of high-speed railway are complex, so it is necessary to use a variety of spatial statistical methods to carry out integrated study.
A study on the coordinated development of high-speed rail station area and suburban industrial park—a case study of cities along Beijing-Shanghai and Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed rails
Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 03
【Abstract】 High-speed rail station areas and the suburban industry park, being important carriers of urban space expansion, are faced with difficulties during the process of city-industry integration development. The study found that high-speed rail station area and suburban industrial park have the basis and conditions for coordinated development due to adjacent locations, identical development phases, and complementary industries. Based on high-speed rail station hub, it is an effective way to solve the dilemma by constructing the ternary interactive system of industry park, high-speed rail station and city, prompting the coordinated development and forming a new high-speed rail industrial new town. However, by using the model of system analysis for the status quo evaluation, this paper finds that the coordinated development of stations along Beijing- Shanghai and Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed rails and suburban industrial parks is still at the low-level stage. Therefore, this paper proposes some spatial measures of coordinated development from the aspects of physical space, industrial space and transportation organization, so as to provide a new idea and perspective for the development and construction of the two.
Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 10
【Abstract】 The paper constructs the origin-destination matrix of intercity high-speed railway (HSR) operating frequency in the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. HSR network structure and characteristics in three urban agglomerations in China are studied based on social network analysis. The results show that the overall relevance of HSR network of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region is the closest followed by the Yangtze River Delta. The Pearl River Delta is the loosest. The intercity connection ability and network imbalance of HSR are the strongest in the Yangtze River Delta. HSR connection of the eastern part is closer than the western part in the Yangtze River Delta. HSR connection of the northern part is closer than the other parts in the Pearl River Delta. HSR flow frequent areas concentrate in Beijing and Tianjin in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. The order of provincial internal HSR closeness is: Jiangsu > Zhejiang > Guangdong > Hebei > Anhui. Shenzhen-Guangzhou, Shanghai-Nanjing, Shanghai-Suzhou, Nanjing-Suzhou, and Shanghai-Wuxi belong to intercity high density HSR connection. HSR network of three urban agglomerations all have significant characteristics of “small world” effect. And “small world” effect of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region and the Yangtze River Delta is stronger than the Pearl River Delta. Hefei-Suzhou-Zhenjiang-Nanjing-Wuxi-Lu’an is the HSR radiation clusters in the Yangtze River Delta. Guangzhou-Huizhou, Shenzhen-Dongguan, Tianjin-Cangzhou are the important HSR radiation pairs. Shanghai, Nanjing are the cores in the Yangtze River Delta HSR network. Guangzhou and Shenzhen are the centers in the Pearl River Delta HSR network. Beijing and Tianjin are the cores in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei HSR network.
Business Management Journal,2017,Vol 39,No. 12
【Abstract】 This paper examines the effect of the access to high-speed trains on the flow of corporate highly-educated talents with hand-collected data and the quasi-experiment setting from the establishment of high-speed train stations. The findings show that the establishment of high-speed rail stations can significantly enhance the attractiveness of the city to corporate highly-educated talents by expanding the market size and increasing the quantity and size of enterprises. In addition, high-speed trains have asymmetric impacts on SOEs and non-SOEs. Specifically, the positive influence of high-speed rail stations on highly-educated talents only exists in listed non-SOEs, but not in listed SOEs. Furthermore, the above effect is more pronounced for small and medium-sized cities than for their bigger counterparts, as well as for cities without airports than for those with airports. Meanwhile, the establishment of high-speed rail stations motivates more highly-educated talents to flow to the eastern, central and western economic areas, but reduces the attractiveness of the northeastern economic area. Finally, the establishment of high-speed rail stations attracted executives who are not in charge of routine corporate operation, instead of those in charge of routine corporate operation.
Characteristics of China’s high-speed railway diplomacy: the case of the Jakarta-Bandung highs-peed railway project
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,2017,No. 05
【Abstract】 This article applies theories of political economy to consider the content and characteristics of China’s high-speed railway diplomacy, as well as its strategy and China’s available options. This paper finds that China’s high-speed railway diplomacy in this case is characterized by its independence, focus on complementarities, and its multi-faceted approach. The paper argues that once we consider difficulties associated with land acquisition, the maritime dispute over the Natuna Islands, anti-Chinese sentiment in Indonesia, nontraditional security challenges, low expected returns on investment, and the likelihood of continued depreciation of the Indonesian Rupiah, prospects for the project are dim at best. At the same time, the paper argues that if the comparative advantage of China’s high-speed railway diplomacy is leveraged, if it can handle the maritime dispute over the Natuna Islands in an appropriate way, while also enhancing the space for local participation of Indonesians in the construction of the project, and if it can manage to adopt a flexible approach to assembling the high-speed railway cars, China can create an environment conducive to the development of its high-speed railway project in Indonesia.
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,2017,No. 05
【Abstract】 As China increases the pace of efforts to promote the globalization of its high-speed rail program, it has deepened its involvement in global markets, bringing a range of new challenges, which if not addressed, threaten to influence the implementation of these high-speed rail projects. Of these challenges, the most pressing is political risk. Research shows that the political risk factors which represent the greatest threat to the promotion of China’s high-speed railway going-out are government vulnerability and low level of social supporting. As a means of checking the negative impacts that political risk has on high-speed rail projects, as it competes for projects, China must proactively collect relevant data with respect to target countries, and in the event of political risk, it must immediately adopt measures to reduce the damage that could be caused by government vulnerability. At the same time, it must adopt measures to prevent a lapse in social supporting.
Can high-speed railway improve enterprises’ resource allocation? Micro-evidence from the Chinese industrial enterprises database and high-speed railway geographic data
Economic Review,2017,No. 06
【Abstract】 In theory, the opening of the high-speed railway can greatly shorten the time of business negotiation, reduce the cost of information exchange, accelerate the flow of personnel and capital, and optimize enterprises’ resource allocation. Using the difference-in-differences (DID) model and taking the operation of the high-speed railway as a “quasi-natural experiment,” this paper examines the effect of the high-speed railway on the re-allocation of enterprises’ resources from the micro perspective by matching the data of China’s “four vertical and four horizontal” high-speed railway stations (2008–2012) with the panel data of industrial enterprises (2006–2013). The empirical results show that, on the whole, the opening of the high-speed railway has accelerated the flow of capital and optimized the allocation of capital in between enterprises, thus resulting in enhanced enterprise productivity. However, it has no significant effect on product market distortions. In the meantime, it is found that the impact of the high-speed railway on enterprises’ capital allocation is heterogeneous. It is firstly heterogeneous in location. The running of the high-speed railway has a more obvious impact on improving enterprises’ capital allocation in urban and suburban areas where infrastructure is relatively completed than in rural areas where infrastructure is backward. It is secondly heterogeneous in industry. The running of the high-speed railway has a stronger positive influence over the capital allocation of capital-intensive enterprises. It is thirdly heterogeneous in ownership. Non-state-owned enterprises benefit more in their capital allocation from the running of the high-speed railway. In order to solve the problem of endogeneity, this paper constructs the average slope of enterprises’ locations as the instrumental variable of whether the high-speed railway is running. It also makes sure the results are reliable by using the placebo test and the parallel trend test.
The “politicization” of China’s outbound high-speed railway investment: the case of the Jakarta-Bandung Railway
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,2017,No. 05
【Abstract】 As China’s high-speed rail program continues to go global, commercial frictions have emerged between Chinese companies and the host country of projects, to the point that commercial issues are frequently politicized. Based on a review of the case of the Jakarta-Bandung Railway project in Indonesia, this paper offered a detailed discussion of the “politicization” of such projects against the background of the Belt and Road Initiative, considering especially the project’s objectives, characteristics and physical construction. It was argued that the “politicization” and gradual internationalization of this project were the result of domestic political struggle prompted by Indonesia’s weak development trends, and was not related to any conflicting interests between China and Indonesia. As such, China should work to decrease the pace of the “politicization” of its railway projects.
Technology Economics,2017,Vol 36,No. 10
【Abstract】 Based on the communication theory, this paper analyzed the origin of overall social value of high-speed railway, that is the improvement of social communication brought by its advantages including safety, convenience, and networking. It proposed the function mechanism of overall social value of high-speed railway in the communication and production circulation. Then, it used the system dynamics to simulate the process of high-speed railway improving communication and its outcomes under existing production condition. According to the calculation, increasing the speed of high-speed railway from 300 to 350 kilometers per hour will contribute to the GDP growth of three percentage points. Increasing the operation times of high-speed railway trans by 100 pairs daily can contribute to the GDP growth of two percentage points. Therefore, increasing speed and operation times of high-speed railway helps unleash the overall social value of high-speed railway fully.
Economic Research Journal,2017,Vol 52,No. 04
【Abstract】 China’s high-speed railway (HSR) network has experienced extensive growth since 2009. By the end of 2015, 19,000 kilometers of high-speed railway had been constructed, accounting for over 60% of the world’s total high-speed railway length. An additional 38,000 kilometers of high-speed railway are either in construction or planned for completion by 2030. Given the large scale of investment in high-speed railway, it is critical to ask whether it is economically justifiable and what it actually provides. Given the invest-in-the-early-stage nature of venture capital, this paper studied the effect of high-speed railway on the venture capital industry in terms of investment in cities along high-speed railway lines (HSR cities). Venture capital investment can be a leading indicator of economic development. High-speed railway can be critical for the venture capital industry because of the time and financial efficiency of the technology. This paper studied its effects on venture capital for the following reasons. First, venture capitalists foster entrepreneurs who are likely to be innovators and key driving forces of future growth. Previous studies indicated that venture capitalists support innovation, add value to their portfolio firms, and are critical for regional economic development. Thus, understanding venture capital behavior regarding high-speed railway can provide a great deal of information about future development. Second, personal (especially face-to-face) interaction is still the best way for venture capitalists and entrepreneurs to learn about each other, and high-speed railway reduces the costs of such communication. Geographical proximity is changed by new technology, and venture capital investment behavior changes geographically. High-speed railway reduces travel time and the cost of interaction between venture capitalists and entrepreneurs, and it facilitates the transfer of soft information. It also provides an excellent opportunity for empirical identification. This study applied the difference-in-differences (DID) approach with the initial operation of high-speed railway as an exogenous shock to local investment. The sample included all investment deals from 2006 to 2012 at the prefecture city level. In the DID analysis, we first conducted a full-sample regression analysis and then a paired-sample regression analysis. For the paired-sample analysis, we used propensity score matching (PSM) technology to find comparable cities for HSR cities. The DID regressions were then conducted using the paired sample. The analyses of the samples led to the same conclusion: Venture capital investment in HSR cities is significantly higher than that in other cities. The number of investment deals and the amount of money invested in HSR cities are 28.9% and 49.5% higher, respectively, than in non-HSR cities. The result was more significant for first-round investments. HSR cities outgrow their peers threefold in terms of the amount of money compared with their peers after HSR opening. Furthermore, the radiation scope of venture capital centers such as Beijing and Shanghai are extended to a 150-kilometer circle, as regions within this range witness significant increases in venture capital investment. The effect is more significant for early-stage investments and private venture capitals, which indicates that the results are more likely to be driven by direct interactions between venture capitals and their portfolio firms. The number of deals supported by private venture capitals increases by 27%, seven percentage points higher than the growth rate of government-backed venture capital fund investment. We contributed to the literature by identifying the effect of geographical proximity on the selection and value-added properties of venture capital based on the predictions of information economic theories. High-speed railway network can foster innovation and economic development by saving time, compressing space, and improving accessibility. China’s high-speed railway network greatly improves the efficiency of the capital invested by changing the spatial constraints that venture capitalists face, just as the U.S. railway network in the 19th century greatly reduced market barriers, enhanced the value of land, and reduced social costs, thus contributing significantly to economic development, as reflected in the work of Fogel (1964) and Donaldson & Hornbeck (2016). In addition, we quantified the effect of high-speed railway by the increase in the number of investment deals, the amount invested, and the extension of the VC-center circles.
Northeast Asia Forum,2016,Vol 25,No. 05
【Abstract】 In 2009, China formally proposed high-speed rail export strategy, including three transnational high-speed corridors, starting from China, across Eurasia, and connecting Southeast Asia. With the “Belt and Road” Initiative, China’s high-speed rail is now facing new opportunities to go abroad. In consideration of the worldwide increasing demand for infrastructures, the Japanese government regards high-speed rail export as a crucial support for the Economic Growth Strategy. In recent years, the Sino-Japanese bilateral relations fell into a “politically cold and economically cool” situation. Japan holds a competitive position in high-speed rail export against China. Due to the competition and influence of Japan, China’s high-speed rail export is full of difficulties. In the foreseeable future, Japan will still hold the competitive position. Therefore, China should know accurately the role Japan is playing in the process of China’s high-speed rail export, and also act appropriately in response to the competition and impact from Japan.
China Industrial Economics,2016,No. 02
【Abstract】 Traffic has growth effect and structural effect on the economic development. The growth effect lies in the regional economic spillovers brought by traffic development. The structural effect is the change of spatial economic pattern resulting from traffic development. These two coexisting effects caused by traffic development are both enhanced by the development of high-speed railway. The paper reviews the mechanism of these two effects in transportation development. Including the shortest temporal distance between cities into the empirical test, the paper verifies the two effects of traffic development on economic growth through spatial econometric model and metacartography. Based on the econometric results of 284 Chinese cities, it is proved that the spillover effects of regional economic growth in China has increased since the opening of high-speed rail. The result also shows that traffic has growth effect on economic growth. According to the map of the shortest temporal distance between Shanghai and other Chinese cities, the paper concludes that traffic development has structural effect over economic development through changing the regional and urban spatial structure, distribution structure and hierarchical structure. Nationwide, the eastern and central Chinese cities with relatively better economic foundations are being centralized while the northeastern and western regions are faced with the possibilities of marginalization.
Economic Geography,2016,Vol 36,No. 08
【Abstract】 Using three different accessibility indicators, including the weighted average travel time, economic potential and travel time to Shanghai, this paper evaluates the impact of high-speed rail on land transportation accessibility of Yangtze River Delta at the county level. The relation between the change of accessibility and the economic development level is also analyzed to predict possible impact of high-speed rail on economic development pattern. The results show that high-speed rail improves the accessibility of Yangtze River Delta entirely, and also reduces the regional difference of accessibility. There is an obvious spatial difference in the improvement of accessibility. High- speed rail evidently reduces the weighted average travel time and travel time to Shanghai of areas with lower economic level, which indicates that these areas could benefit more from the radiation effect of other areas especially Shanghai; while the enhancement of economic potential is more obvious in areas with higher economic level, which may lead to a more unbalanced economic development pattern in Yangtze River Delta.
Can high-speed rail construction reshape the layout of China’s economic space: from the perspective of regional heterogeneity of employment, wage and economic growth
China Industrial Economics,2016,No. 10
【Abstract】 Based on the new economic geography theory, the article embeds high-speed rail construction factors into the research framework of space economic organization, and uses the PSM-DID method to carry out an empirical test. The results show that, at the national level, the indirect negative effect of high-speed rail construction on wage and economic growth generated by employment effects is less than the direct positive effect, and the total effect of high-speed rail construction on the wages and economic growth is significantly positive, with the elasticity coefficients being 0.2067, 0.1907 and 0.1491. In different regions and cities of different scale, the construction of high-speed rail significantly enhance employment in large cities with high speed rail in the eastern and central regions, especially the large high-speed rail city’s construction industry and high value-added manufacturing industries in the eastern regions and the small high-speed rail city’s employment of manufacturing industries and consumer services in the central area. Productivity growth effects of high-speed railway construction in the eastern large-scale high-speed rail cities exceed the effect of convenience of inhabitants, and it shows that the indirect effects of high-speed rail construction on the region’s wage and economic growth generated by jobs are positive, while the corresponding indirect effect is negative in medium- and small-sized high speed cities in central and western China. Overall, the construction of high-speed rail mainly expands the wage gap between the large high-speed rail cities and cities without high-speed rail in eastern China, and expands the eastern medium-sized cities’ economic growth gap between the high-speed rail and no high-speed rail cities. The result confirms the correctness of the theory of reasoning, that is, high-speed rail construction directly or indirectly affect employment, wage and economic growth of an area, reshape the economic space, which provides the basis for the region by means of high-speed rail to further promote regional employment and economic growth, and to develop relevant policies according to local conditions.
The influence of high-speed railways on the accessibility of the metropolitan areas in the Yangtze River Delta region
Economic Geography,2015,Vol 35,No. 02
【Abstract】 In this paper, an integrated method of cost weighted raster was applied to the analysis of changes in five metropolitan areas’ shortest travel time accessibility, daily commuting circles and other aspects related to the isochronous rings under two conditions namely, with and without high-speed railways, in the Yangtze River Delta region. The results have provided enlightenment in three aspects. First, cities with stations for the high-speed railways became the biggest beneficiaries of time convergence, and the accessibility of the cities without stations was also slightly promoted. Second, the isochronous rings of the five metropolitan areas expanded outward along the high-speed railways, and the spatial scope showing the axial guiding role played by the high-speed railways. Third, high-speed railways expanded the coverage of the five metropolitan areas’ daily commuting circles, which increased to almost 100 percent. The coverage of the 1h and 2h isochronous rings expanded in varying degrees. This indicated that the time cost for the commuting among cities within a metropolitan area and core cities among different metropolitan areas was reduced by high-speed railways, achieving the goal of daily commuting and producing a “one-city” effect.
Reconstruction of the spatial structure of the Yangtze River Delta city group in the high-speed railway era: based on the social network analysis
Economic Geography,2015,Vol 35,No. 10
【Abstract】 Taking the 16 core cities in the Yangtze River Delta city group as a sample, from the network density, centrality and condensing subgroup, we analyzed the characteristic evolution of the spatial structure in the Yangtze River Delta city group before and after the high-speed railway era. The results of the social network analysis are: the network density is rapidly increasing in the Yangtze River Delta city group; the out-degree and in-degree in each city are on the rise, the external radiation of center cities enhance; network centralization has a slow downward trend, city group exist asymmetric and unbalanced phenomenon; the close centrality of city increased year by year in the city group, the contact among cities become more closely; the betweenness centrality showed a downward trend year by year in the city group, network structure gradually tend to the equilibrium; The Yangtze River Delta city group is divided into four sub-groups, the association strength between subgroups is greater than the density of the whole network. Since the completion of high-speed railway, the spatial structure of the Yangtze River Delta city group has been optimized. To promote effective allocation of resources in the Yangtze River Delta city group, the “one-zone-two-node” external radiation is to play their role and the edge cities' transportation facilities is to be improved.
Economic Geography,2015,Vol 35,No. 10
【Abstract】 Some impacts on the promotion of city accessibility and on urban development of high-speed railway stations' location have been the hot topic of scholars at home and abroad. The paper systematically calculates the locations of 359 high-speed railway stations in cities, and with document analysis, to study the impacts of high-speed railways for different scale cities through three angles including accessibility, the development around stations, and the development of the whole city. The research shows that: Levinson's conclusion about Western high-speed railways' accessibility does not totally correspond with their counterpart in China, because large cities get the better relative accessibility while some medium-sized and small cities do not get the ascension of absolute accessibility which is on the contrary of Levinson's conclusion. Under the background of industrial transfer and industrial homogeneity, two remarkable features emerge: high-speed railways contribute to the appearance of modern service industry's space polarization effects in metropolises; however, secondary industry obtains balanced development among metropolises, medium-sized and small cities. High-speed railways promote the "urban integration" of the neighboring metropolises, but it is still in the initial stage, and at the same time, the high-speed railways also make the beneficial effects on the medium-sized and small cities around the metropolises.
Research on the Yangtze River Delta tourist traffic pattern and linkage under the high-speed rail network
Economic Geography,2015,Vol 35,No. 12
【Abstract】 According to the data of 16 cities' shortest travel time and operating frequency of high-speed /conventional rail network as well as the domestic tourism income and domestic tourists during 2010-2012 in the Yangtze River Delta. Using the transportation accessibility, Hirshman-Herfindahl Index, centralized index to measure the spatial pattern of rail tourist transport accessibility, traffic flow in high-speed rail network. On the basis of the shortest travel time modified gravity model among 16 cities in high-speed rail network, the tourism economic linkage intensity, quantity and direction are comprehensively valued. And the high-speed rail's influence on the tourism linkage in the Yangtze River Delta are identified. The result shows following conclusions. (1) The continuous improvement of high-speed rail network enhances the tourist transport accessibility among cities, brings about the effect of location superposition, time-space astringency, and makes the spatial pattern of accessibility to be balanced. Spatial distribution of the rail traffic flow in the Yangtze River Delta represents that Shanghai is the center of this area and the north wing is more assembled than south wing. It highlights the north wing's transportation gateway functions. Shanghai acted as the hub connecting the north and south wings, and the south wing's traffic function enhanced due to the supply of high-speed rail traffic.(2) The tourism economic linkage intensity shows that Shanghai is the main core, Nanjing and Hangzhou are the sub-cores. The tourism economic linkage quantity shows that Shanghai act as the center, the north wing area is intensive while the south is scattered. The linkage direction appears to be core cities directional and spatial location near directional. It turns out that the spatial distribution characteristics of the Yangtze River Delta's tourism economy in the High-speed rail network are as follows: Shanghai is the main core; Nanjing and Hangzhou are the sub-cores; north and south wings bond together within themselves; and the economic pattern of“one main core, two sub-cores and two wings” is constituted as a whole.