Globalization shock, internet democracy and the formation of a hybrid populism: an explanation of the rise of the Five Star Movement in Italy
Chinese Journal of European Studies,2019,Vol 37,No. 01
【Abstract】 The Five Star Movement (M5S), one of the ruling populist parties in Italy, represents a hybrid populism that transcends the traditional left-right political divide. The form that the populism shall take is a result from the interaction between the demand and supply sides. On the demand side, the shock of globalization may contribute to widening social cleavages. The economic/class cleavage provides the right soil for the left-wing populism, while the national/racial/cultural cleavage is the breeding ground for the right-wing populism. The co-existence and simultaneous growth of the above two cleavages will give rise to both the left-and right-wing populism or a kind of hybrid populism. However, the form that populism will take ultimately is an immediate outcome of what is supplied by political parties. In Italy, taking advantages of the growing social cleavages, the Five Star Movement has provided “programmatic supply” to voters with different positions in the political spectrum. And to integrate its heterogeneous supporters into one camp, the Five Star Movement offers internet-based direct democracy as a way to address ideological disputes. In the digital age, the direct democracy advocated by the Five Star Movement is worth serious attention.
China’s view of globalization and the “Chinese Approach” of global governance: from the perspective of a community with a shared future for mankind
Northeast Asia Forum,2019,Vol 28,No. 03
【Abstract】 In the 21st century, protectionism, unilateralism and anti-globalization trend of thought in some developed countries began to prevail, which led to the imbalance between globalization dilemma and global governance, such as continuous trade friction, disordered economic development, political opposition, and frequent security issues. The setbacks of globalization and the plight of global governance are profoundly affecting the evolution of the international pattern and order. In this context, China proposes to build a community with a shared future for mankind, which shows that China’s concept of global understanding and global governance has been formed.
World Economics and Politics,2019,No. 03
【Abstract】 Theoretically speaking, the globalization wave resulting from past industrial revolutions is expected to boost the world economy and strengthen countries around the world, but developing countries around the world are not beneficiaries of the First Industrial Revolution, Second Industrial Revolution, Globalization 1.0 and Globalization 2.0. Since the 1990s, developing countries and transition countries have actively participated in global value chains, and in the meantime conducted domestic reforms in economic systems, which has driven Globalization 3.0 and brought a lot of benefits to those countries. Furthermore, with the above-mentioned steps, as catch-up countries, developing countries and transition countries surpass developed countries on the economic front, leading to obvious convergence of the world economy. In the context of a new round of globalization wave, China creates “Chenery conditions” necessary for economic development by means of economic reforms and opening up to the outside world, which brings a series of benefits to China listed as follows: incentive improvement, more efficient resource allocation, more share of dividend of globalization and leading role in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Against the backdrop of changing international landscape, shifting development stage, reverse globalization and fewer powerful traditional drivers for economic growth, China’s economic development is confronted with severe challenges. To realize long-term and sustainable development, China needs to deepen reforms, open wider to the outside world, keep globalization open and inclusive, and stick to and improve “Chenery conditions” necessary for China’s development.
Northeast Asia Forum,2019,Vol 28,No. 04
【Abstract】 In recent years, the trend of reverse globalization is rising day by day, economic and trade tensions have escalated, and separatism has spread further around the world. According to the study, reverse globalization exerts downward pressure on East Asian regional economic development, but this effect has two sides, either stagnating the rapid development of regional cooperation in East Asia in the previous period, or forming a forcing mechanism, which brings new opportunities for regional economic development of East Asia. Symbiosis theory provides the direction for the East Asian regional economic cooperation, and coexistence and co-development is the inevitable choice for East Asian regional economy under the reverse globalization. East Asian economies have broad common interests. Through deepening of economic cooperation in the region, we can realize the economic balance in interdependence, stable and sustainable growth, and further enhance the overall value of East Asian regional economic sectors, create “new miracle” of East Asian development.
National solidarity under conditions of globalization: the theoretical basis of Xi Jinping’s governance of China
Northeast Asia Forum,2019,Vol 28,No. 03
【Abstract】 Globalization provokes populism and polarization, posing risks to the stability of national societies. A mainstream in classical sociology based social integration on core values. Xi Jinping advocates core socialist values for China: prosperity, democracy, civility, harmony, freedom, equality, justice, rule of law, patriotism, dedication, integrity, and friendship. Emile Durkheim’s theory of state-society oscillates between the organic solidarity generated by the division of Labor and universal values. Talcott’s answer to this dilemma was to require that a society’s core values be underpinned by a central power, but the US fails to meet this requirement. In Xi’s account, power is central but should be caged by the system. By combining Western, Marxist and non-Marxist theories with its unique political system, China has become the most united and powerful nation-state in the history of the world
Identity politics and national identity: American dilemma and its solutions in the age of economic globalization
Cass Journal of Political Science,2019,No. 04
【Abstract】 The phenomenon of identity being a political issue has existed since ancient times. In the 21st century, where economic globalization collides intensely with nation state, the political challenges that identity poses have been increasing in severity. Ever since 2016, the shadow of identity issue is clearly visible in the sharp right turn of the American and European politics. Due to the major impacts that Trump’s elected presidency has on Western democracy and the order of world politics, it is even more crucial to investigate the identity concerns behind the American politics. In the U.S., the liberal leftist advocates pluralism identity and different cultural power, flaunting the so-called “the personal is political,” and putting forward a series of affirmative action policies. However, along with the emergence of economic globalization’s negative effects, the reverse of pluralism identity politics has induced a type of white identity politics. As a result, a right populist tide is now in action. In order to save the liberal democracy from this crisis, American intellectual elites have proposed series of plans and rationales. But in truth, neither Huntington’s American Creed, nor Fukuyama’s creedal national identities proves successful in settling the dispute between the identity politics and the national identity.
Globalization, regional difference and populism: the rise of the Front National from the perspective of electoral geography
World Economics and Politics,2019,No. 06
【Abstract】 The relative change in factor endowment leads to division among labors in France: the unskilled/semiskilled labors have policy preferences different from those of human capital. Because of the agglomeration of factors of production in different regions of France, the differentiation of these factors is reflected in the differentiation between regions, between the urban areas and suburbs, and between metropolises and small towns. The unskilled/semiskilled labors in France are increasingly difficult to find suitable jobs due to the decline of traditional manufacturing in the face of competition of similar products from developing countries. At the same time, the labor migrants from southern Europe and North Africa and refugees in recent years compete with them for jobs and welfare. Both shocks force unskilled/semiskilled labors in France to call for anti-globalization, anti-European integration and anti-immigration policies. The Front National (FN) which responds positively to them has won their political support, and thereupon performed well in several presidential elections. The “Rust Belt” in northeastern France and the Mediterranean coast has been hit most, and thus these regions have become the main supporter of the FN. In addition, the outer suburbs far from urban centers, and smaller cities, have concentrated more unskilled/semiskilled labor, so more voters in those regions have voted for the FN. The rise of the FN has not only reshaped the political party system in France but also has facilitated the spread of populism in European and even world politics.
“Wall” or “ladder”: value conflicts of the US globalization process and Trump administration’s policy options
The Chinese Journal of American Studies,2019,Vol 33,No. 04
【Abstract】 The longest government shutdown in US history reflects not only political wrestling between the Republicans and Democrats but also value conflicts over globalization among the US public. The US is the dominant force and beneficiary of the second round of economic globalization. Its traditional globalization values emphasize liberalization and marketization and promote global economic liberalism on this basis. However, against the backdrop of a weakening global economic recovery and growing income inequality, anti-globalization sentiment is gaining momentum in the US. The anti-globalization trend is the main reason for value conflicts in the process of globalization in the US. The people who suffer from increasing income inequality due to globalization and the beneficiaries of globalization argue about and play games on the policies of economic globalization including immigration, trade, and financial policies. At the same time, the value conflicts promote the Trump administration to adopt an America First strategy. This policy choice is a manifestation of political populism, economic nativism, trade protectionism, and neo-isolationism in international relations. This is the result of the Trump administration’s choosing a less costly policy in the impossible trilemma of globalization.
Northeast Asia Forum,2018,Vol 27,No. 03
【Abstract】 The institutional building of East Asia cooperation was driven by the Asian financial crisis. After two decades of development, a multi-layered framework of cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as the leader, “10+3” cooperation as the core, and the East Asia Summit as the main platform has gradually formed in this region. Based on the perspective that China and Japan chase to dominate East Asia cooperation, this paper reviews the evolution of policies of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK) on East Asia cooperation under the influence of exterior factors. The paper holds that the current cooperation dilemma in East Asia mainly stem from the Cold War mentality and zero-sum thinking in this region, and anti-globalization phenomena have brought shocks to East Asian countries as well as the opportunity for cooperation. Based on a reciprocal economic relationship and the common demand for peace, China, Japan, and the ROK should restart the trilateral summit, accelerate negotiations of regional economic cooperation, and through the construction of pilot free trade zone around national frontiers to acquire early achievement in economic cooperation.
From “integrating into” to “pushing forward”: China’s strategic transformation responding to globalization in commemoration of the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up
Journal of International Trade,2018,No. 04
【Abstract】 A new round of economic globalization with essential characteristics of factor mobility is more conducive to developing countries with proper conditions and strategies. Since the reform and opening-up, China has seized the opportunity brought about by globalization, actively integrated into globalization, and has made great achievements in economic development. Thus, the world economic pattern has undergone a turning point. The developed economies have overflowed the trend of globalization and turned to protectionism. The developing countries, represented by China, were advocating free trade and establishing open world economy. From integrating into globalization to pushing forward globalization, China has achieved a strategic transformation in response to globalization. In the transformation of global economic governance, China has increasingly played a leading and promoting role. China will also open up a new situation of openness and development in its continuous opening to the outside world.
Economic Research Journal,2018,Vol 53,No. 08
【Abstract】 Over four decades of reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has witnessed extraordinary economic growth with rising income inequality. This phenomenon has triggered a heated academic debate on the relationship between globalization and income inequality. The current consensus is that globalization has been one of the most important drivers of economic growth in China, but diverse views remain on the impact of globalization on income inequality and the transmission mechanisms. Foreign direct investment (FDI) has been an important impetus in accelerating the capital accumulation, technology upgrade and market expansion in China as globalization advances. Current research on the impact of FDI on income inequality centers on the debate and validation of the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, which shows how globalization prompts changes in factor prices, leading to changes in income inequality. Other studies investigate how FDI influences the local governments’ behaviors and how different behaviors of the local government lead to income inequality. Few studies unite these arguments and explore more deeply the indirect channels through which FDI affects income inequality. By analyzing the behavior of local governments, our paper explores the impact of globalization on income inequality and its transmission mechanism in China. We hypothesize that in addition to the direct impact of FDI on income inequality, local governments lower labor and environmental standards to compete for more FDI. Thus, local enterprises distort or incompletely comply with labor and environmental policies issued by the central government, which leads to the rise in income inequality. We test our hypothesis empirically by using a panel data covering 31 provincial-level regions in China from 2004 to 2014. Because FDI is concentrated in urban areas, we measure income inequality as the ratio and the logarithm of the gap in per-capita disposable income between the top and the lowest income quintiles in urban China. Labor standard are captured by the acceptance of labor dispute cases corresponding to per unit of industrial value-added and the fraction of identified work related injuries in total employment. The pollution emission per unit of industrial value-added and the emission treatment rate are used as proxies for environmental standards. Because of possible endogeneity caused by reverse causality and omitted variable problems, we use instrument variables and apply the IV-GMM estimation strategy. We find that in the context of globalization in China, FDI entry contributes positively to income inequality, with almost half of the total impact realized indirectly through the channels of labor and environmental standards. Further decomposition of the contribution by labor standard and environmental standards shows that the average contributions are 5% and 40%, respectively. We also conduct robustness tests by taking different measures of labor and environmental standards, using different subsamples and introducing interaction terms, with no qualitative change in results. The new mechanism and new evidence revealed in our paper enrich literature on globalization and income inequality. We offer new policy alternatives for the launch of new development concepts of opening, sharing and green development. These results are important for the implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative and for considering policies for income redistribution. FDI has contributed greatly to China’s economic growth. Despite the negative shock of globalization on income inequality, it is unwise to turn against FDI or repudiate the opening policy completely. Special attention should be paid to the behavior of local governments in conforming to labor and environmental standards. To alleviate the negative impact of FDI on the income distribution, it is important for local governments to strengthen regulations on labor and environmental standards.
Chinese Journal of European Studies,2018,Vol 36,No. 01
【Abstract】 The issue of whether regionalism and globalization are contradictory or complementary has always been controversial among academia. From its own experiences of regional integration, the European Union has long attempted to manage and lead globalization by playing the role of an innovative laboratory in the process. Nevertheless, confronted with the changes brought by Brexit and Trump’s victory in the presidential election, the EU is facing the challenge of reorienting its role in globalization. This paper first traces the relationship between European integration and globalization over the past decades, explores the doctrines and policy developments of Pascal Lamy’s “managed globalization” since the late 1990s, and analyses the changes of the EU trade policy since the beginning of the 21st Century, which are reflected in the EU trade policy papers, WTO policies, plurilateral and bilateral PTAs negotiations, and trade defence instruments. It finds that the EU’s managed globalization based on exporting its rules, norms and models and a pursuit for its own interests has intrinsic flaws and limits. In conclusion, the authors argue that the EU needs to play the role of a vital shareholder in the globalization and strives jointly with the rest of the world including the developing and emerging countries to form a new consensus on globalization, while taking into full account the diversity of the international community, so as to contribute greatly to the development of globalization and of the progressive reform of the international system.
Marx’s world market theory and its practical significance: a comment on the fallacy of the “reverse globalization” trend
Economic Research Journal,2018,Vol 53,No. 06
【Abstract】 As an important part of Marx’s “Six Book Plan”, world market theory is part of the overall theoretical system of political economics that Marx hoped to complete but did not. It is of great theoretical significance for the study of Marx’s theory of political economics to analyze the specific content of world market theory by looking at Marx’s comments on the world market. Marx’s brilliant discussion of the world market is also a starting point for studying new issues and new situations in the current world market. Since the 2008 international financial crisis, the global economy has continued to slump, trade protectionism has risen and there has been a surge in “reverse globalization.” It is of great practical significance to explore the problems of reverse globalization and to provide the correct guidance for global governance by applying Marx’s world market theory. Both domestic and foreign scholars have paid great attention to Marx’s world market theory, but theoretical and applied studies have not yet formed a complete system. Therefore, building on the author’s preliminary theoretical study, “Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin on International Trade,” this paper presents Marx’s world market theory and its practical significance in a comprehensive way. Some studies point out that Marx’s world market theory originates from the bourgeois classical politician, but there is a lack of systematic understanding of these classical political scientists’ world market thoughts. Therefore, this paper seeks to understand the source of Marx’s world market thoughts more accurately. From a practical point of view, the current reverse globalization policy trend has surged. Although studies have considered the performance, trend and influence of reverse globalization, the phenomenon of reverse globalization has yet to be studied from the perspective of Marx’s world market theory, an attempt made by this paper. By systematically sorting out through the world market ideas of Petty, Smith, Ricardo and Sismondi, and using Marx’s insights into the world market, this paper improves our understanding of Marx’s world market. This sheds light on important factors that promote the formation of the world market, such as the rise of the city, the opening of new trade routes, the outbreak of the industrial revolution and development in transportation and communications. This study also makes clear the dialectical relationship between the world market and the capitalist mode of production, the world market and the financial crisis and the important role played by the world market in the process of communism replacing capitalism. Insight is also gained into the basic rules of the world market operation. This paper proposes that world market theory is the extension and application of the theory of surplus value and labor value to the world. World market theory has important practical significance for the rise of economic globalization, the establishment of the international economic order and the promotion of trade liberalization. These trends can be used to criticize the phenomenon of reverse globalization from four directions. First, it is the fundamental contradiction of capitalism that led to the global economic crisis and its related problems. Second, the old international economic order causes imbalances in global economic development. Third, the bourgeoisie uses trade policy to safeguard the interests of the ruling class. Fourth, impeding regional integration is preventing global integration. Marx’s world market theory makes several suggestions for dealing with reverse globalization. First, leaders should actively participate in globalization and to further open to the outside world. Second, leaders should set a goal of raising the efficiency of labor production and promoting the establishment of a fair and rational new international economic order. Third, leaders should look to strengthen China’s role in the development of the world market and promote the development of a higher-level open economy.
When will compensation “buy” the support for globalization? Embedded liberalism, labor mobility and open economy
World Economics and Politics,2018,No. 10
【Abstract】 Global economic integration has been a major driver for world economic and social development ever since the 18th century. There is large and growing literature trying to understand and propose solutions to the unavoidable tensions between economic efficiency and social harmony. The theory of embedded liberalism, first proposed by John G. Ruggie, has evolved into a canonical summary about the post-Second World War international economic order and domestic arrangements. The literature on the embedded liberalism compromise has argued for a positive correlation between the size of public sector and its integration with global economy, where a larger public economy is needed to compensate or insure the losers from globalization. The author argues that levels of interindustry labor mobility greatly influence how compensation strategy will be correlated with openness of economic policies. This is because interindustry labor mobility shapes the income distribution among workers, with higher interindustry labor mobility is associated with more coherent distribution. As a result, when interindustry labor mobility levels are low, compensation often fails to be correlated with economic policy openness; and the positive correlation as predicted by the embedded liberalism compromise becomes more likely when interindustry labor mobility levels are high. This paper conducts an empirical analysis on these conditional effects and finds strong support for them.
China Industrial Economics,2018,No. 10
【Abstract】 As the development of the world economy, characterized by the deepening of global value chains, incomes across countries have become increasingly unbalanced, the U.S. has initiated its “rebalancing” strategies with the “Tax Cut and Job Act” as the starting point, as well as large-scale trade frictions with China. Under the “rebalance” of economic globalization, this paper started from a new perspective of China-U.S. economic and trade relations adjustment and the assessment of China-U.S. trade frictions effects based on global value chains. Employing Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model and its database developed by Purdue University, based on the latest tariff lists released by China and the U.S., this paper decomposed the economic effects of the global value chain activities among China, the U.S. and their major trading partners triggered by the current large-scale trade frictions between the two countries in the context of U.S. tax cuts in detail. The fundamental coping strategies have been, ultimately, settled in mid-term to long-term responses to the “rebalance” of economic globalization. Findings in this paper showed that the global value chains have played as buffers to the China-U.S. trade frictions. Nevertheless, as the scale of the frictions growing, negative implications on China will be accumulated. However, the tax cut, as the cornerstone in the U.S. rebalancing strategies, plays an important role that may change the process of economic globalization, and the follow-up measures by the U.S. will be systematic package arrangements. Therefore, this paper proposed that China should strengthen its free trade agreement network based on global value chains, to seek the new closure of global value chains, and improve intellectual property rights protection while continuously carry on internal economic restructuring for the long-planned readjustment to China-U.S. trading relations. The simulation on the above-mentioned proposals has shown that restructuring new free trade agreements and improving intellectual property rights protection will not only alleviate the negative impact of China-U.S. trade frictions on China, but also cultivate new growth points, to promote China’s economic growth.
Globalization and national economic influence: a socio-economic analysis of China’s economic influence in East Asia
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,2018,No. 02
【Abstract】 How does economic globalization shape a country’s economic influence? For China, how does its participation in globalization affect its economic projection over foreign countries? Accordingly, what are the implications of such effect on these countries’ economic policies towards China? Considering the rising trend of “anti-globalization,” answers to these questions have important theoretical and practical value. By adopting multi-level model analysis, this study explores China’s economic influence in East Asian countries and arrives at the following findings. First, concerning the extent of China’s economic influence, there is no significantly different social classes within these countries. The urban professional middle class is more inclined than other social groups to view China’s economic influence as strong. This should be attributed to the emergence of a transnational interdependence class which is caused by globalization. Second, as for the nature of China’s economic influence as positive or negative, it is closely related with China’s linkage with these countries in the global value chain. While countries with stronger forward linkage with China are more inclined to negatively evaluate China, countries with stronger backward linkage are more likely to positively evaluate China. This study contributes to the existing literature by using a society-centered approach. It moves beyond the view that the state represents an integral unit of research. In addition, it introduces the concept of global value chains in perceiving basic modalities of interstate political economic relations, and this has updated current polarized division between developed and developing states.
The Journal of International Studies,2017,Vol 38,No. 01
【Abstract】 While the evolution of globalization promoted the global socioeconomic development,it has also caused such problems as the worsening imbalances of global development,growing inequality and inequitable distribution,rising domestic social tensions and governance crises,and the aggravated risks of globalization.In particular,with the development of new scientific and technological revolution and acceleration of economic integration,the basic connotation,driving force,focal points,and governance system of globalization are all undergoing changes,and globalization is in the process of deepening and adjustment.The imbalances and negative effects of globalization have not only driven the resurgence of populism,but also brought many new uncertainties to the world political order.Therefore,China should strategically further the modernization of national governance,construct a new type of globalization,and promote the reform of global governance so as to increase the benefits from the deepening of globalization and avoid the harm of extreme populism.
China Industrial Economics,2017,No. 06
【Abstract】 At present, the deglobalization trend is rising in the global context, and trade protectionism has risen. This trend will profoundly affect the global economic structure and have a significant impact on China's real economic transformation and upgrading. In order to promote the study of the deglobalization and the transformation and upgrading of real economy, we plan this discussion on the basis of the speech in High Front Forum of China Industrial Economy (2017·Spring) , whose theme is the deglobalization and the transformation and upgrading of the real economy. We invite nine well-known scholars to discuss the development trend of globalization, the impact of the deglobalization on China’s economy and China’s response. This group tries to explain the new problems and new phenomena in the process of economic globalization, and provides theoretical exploration for China to actively guide the process of economic globalization towards a more inclusive and popular direction.
The Journal of International Studies,2017,Vol 38,No. 01
Globalization faces challenges but will not be reversed: economic governance role of China in the global economic governance
Finance & Trade Economics,2017,Vol 38,No. 10
【Abstract】 In the past year, the doubt over globalization has been increasingly hot. Does it mean that globalization has reversed? For this question, the tendency of globalization is analyzed by using the data of World Bank combined with the reflection on the globalization history. It is found that globalization has not been reversed. However, globalization has been challenged by a series of problems. It needs to face the reality of enlarging global income disparity, outstanding poverty, and the huge size of aging population. It also should face the dragged statistical method of international trade, the insufficient supervision of internet security as well as the weak infrastructure of the global financial system. Only when globalization continues, may we solve those problems and ensure people all over the world enjoy the fruit of globalization. What China, which has the largest size of economy next to the US, will be and what it will do has stimulated the interest of the world when globalization is at the critical point. Combined with the analysis on the absolute and relative economic size of China, the control of energy, the size of export and the ability to acquire gains from trade, the relative share of RMB in the special drawing right, its acceptance by the official foreign exchange reserves as well as the global innovation index, it is pointed out that China will be continuously an active participant in globalization instead of a leader. In order to facilitate globalization, China needs to strengthen national governance and participate actively in regional and global governance. By managing the relationship between further openness toward domestic enterprises and gradual openness toward foreign capital, China can establish a solid foundation for national development. By relying on the think tank, China can share its wisdom of governance with the whole world in time.
Chinese Journal of European Studies,2017,Vol 35,No. 06
【Abstract】 Globalization is a historical process in which products, capital, services and persons move and ideas and norms spread across borders, which mainly consists of economic, political, social and demographic dimensions. To the Western Europeans, economic globalization brings cheap products and services while widening the gap between the rich and poor and causing severe job losses. Political globalization provides a variety of international public goods while incurring moderate monetary and life costs. Societal globalization consolidates European centralism and cultural superiority, while posing threats to cultural and physical safety. At last, population globalization reduces living costs at the cost of national security and leads to massive welfare spending. Overall, globalization has decreased the life satisfaction of the Western Europeans. The mixed level ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions and subsequent robustness test based on data from European Social Survey (2002–2014) provide sound empirical evidence to hypotheses in this paper. That is, globalization as a whole, and especially that in the economic, societal and population areas, has reduced the subjective well-being of the Western Europeans, whereas political globalization has not increased their happiness. Additionally, the European integration has significantly promoted the quality of life of the citizens in Western Europe, which provides not only an important impetus to globalization but also a protection belt against the negative externalities of globalization.
Chinese Journal of European Studies,2017,Vol 35,No. 04
【Abstract】 From the perspectives of globalization theory and anti-globalization ideological trend, this paper summarizes and analyses the momenta, mechanisms and cognition of the phenomenon and political results of anti-globalization from the aspects of economy, society and politics. It argues that Brexit is the turning point of anti-globalization, and the very issue about “who will pay the bonus of globalization” caused by economic globalization has increased the complexity and difficulty of the social problems which the nation states have to deal with. However, the grassroots’ social movements have received responses from some Western political elites and contributed to the transformation of political philosophy, which are important factors influencing the anti-globalization. The traditional mainstream parties, no matter left or right, are unable to meet the challenges brought about by cross-sector coalition of the far-right parties, which consequently results in the civilization conflicts and confrontations at different levels. The spread of anti-globalization social cognition and political ideology is playing a decisive role in current anti-globalization tide.
International Economic Review,2017,No. 03
【Abstract】 In the past three decades, China took a serial of promotion measures to boost trade and investment, including reducing import tariffs, building interregional free trade areas, signing bilateral investment agreements, opening up domestic free trade zones, streamlining administration and delegating power, offering preferential policies on tax and land, and strengthening infrastructure construction. Those measures have led to rising productivity, improved consumer well-being and promoted China’s economic development. In the future, China still has great potential to further improve trade and investment through building interregional free trade areas, domestic free trade zones, and strengthening infrastructure.
Northeast Asia Forum,2017,Vol 26,No. 05
【Abstract】 In recent years, de-globalization has become increasingly significant. The most prominent manifestations are the objection to government’s external transfer of economic sovereignty, the spreading of trade protectionism, and the strong rejection to immigrants and refugees. The de-globalization trend reverses the rapid development of regional integration in the previous stage and might bring regional integration into low ebb. In this context, the regional cooperation in East Asia might stagnate. As the largest economy and the largest overseas market for other East Asian countries, China should play a leading role in East Asia regional cooperation and explore actively new ways to promote the regional cooperation.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 07
【Abstract】 The globalization of Chinese traditional sports culture is not only the process of cultural diffusion, but also the process of its modern transformation. In order to explore the problems faced by the globalization of Chinese traditional sports culture and its sustainable development path in the future, the author systematically examines and analyzes the connotations and motivation, the dialectical relationship and the enlightenment of the globalization of Chinese traditional sports culture by using the methods of literature review and expert interview. The result shows that the globalization of Chinese traditional sports culture originates from the endogenous motivation of diachronic latitude and exogenous motivation of synchronic latitude, while the former plays a decisive role. The most direct and the most realistic problem that the globalization of Chinese traditional sports culture faces is the paradoxical relationship of “monism” and “pluralism,” “nationality” and “globality” as well as “traditionality” and “modernity.” The author suggests that the globalization of Chinese traditional sports culture should take the “construction of advanced nature” as the foundation, “innovative development and creative transformation” as the essentials, “the globalization of ecological sports culture” as the direction, and “community with a shared future” as the idea guidance.
The Journal of International Studies,2017,Vol 38,No. 01
On the globalization of innovation in China and its determinants: based on the comparison of China, the United States, Japan and India
Journal of International Trade,2017,No. 08
【Abstract】 This paper analyzes the globalization level of China’s innovation, through the comparison with the United States, Japan, and India based on the patent data of 2001–2015. The paper also empirically studies the determinants of China’s innovation globalization level by using quantile regression model. The results show that the globalization of innovation in the United States, Japan, China and India has improved in the study period, and China’s patented technology level grows rapidly. International competitiveness and technology density significantly influence the level of innovation globalization, and international competitiveness has greater influence on those countries with low globalization level of innovation, while technology density has great influence on all countries; the influence of global import and export trade on the globalization of innovation is not clear; in the process of patent invention or application, the scale of technology activities influences the globalization of innovation significantly, especially for the country with high globalization level of innovation; when the country is both the inventor and the applicant, revealed technological advantage has great impacts on the innovation globalization level of China, the United States, Japan and India. These findings have important implications for China to actively participate in the global innovation chain, and to seek new impetus mechanism.
Economic Geography,2016,Vol 36,No. 09
【Abstract】 To identify the spatial evolution trend and shifting track of center of gravity of multinational corporations’ (MNC) R&D globalization, this paper chose 84 samples and 27 indicators based on the data of 2010, and obtained three major factors affecting MNCs’ R&D globalization by using factor analysis with SPSS19.0. The samples were divided into five spatial levels and presented the spatial distribution of MNCs’ R&D globalization based on the data of 2010. Compared with the data of 2000, it is found that the location factors have changed from comprehensive strength, R&D environment and market scale to development level, R&D strength and market potential respectively, and the implication of each factor and spatial distribution of MNCs’ R&D globalization have also changed. It is observed that developed countries (regions) are more concentrated in the first and second level, while developing countries (regions) are tending to differentiate, presenting coexistence of agglomeration and diffusion in spatial evolution. Finally, it is concluded that the focus of MNCs’ R&D activities is always in Northern Hemisphere based on comprehensive score by Centroid Method, and has shifted from southwest to northeast in Europe. To some certain extent, the focus of global R&D has begun to move from Western Hemisphere to Eastern Hemisphere.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 02
【Abstract】 For the purpose of following world development trend, this paper analyzed China sports’ attitude and system designing about globalization by the methods of literature review and logical analysis. Conclusion: on the one hand, China sports should join in sports globalization and talk with world sports, which is a right view on China’s sports’ meaning in world history and China history, and is the right attitude for China sports development in sports globalization background. On the other hand, China sports should join in international sports system and develop system to provide public product for Chinese citizens and foreign citizens. Only this way may make China be the system initiator and international system leader, make China have more discourse power on sports international system and agenda setting. This is an important system coping strategy for China sports to sports globalization.
Journal of World Peoples Studies,2016,No. 02
【Abstract】 Any “hot issue” on earth would influence the development of the world geopolitics in the era of globalization, when informatization and networking develop at a high speed. Therefore, the Rohingya issue of Myanmar, though marginalized before, has also become the hotspot of world ethnic problems at present with the drive of globalization. Accordingly, the author of this paper studies the Rohingya issue of Myanmar from the perspective of globalization and emotional geopolitics. Based on problems existing in the research on the Rohingya issue, the author analyzes its cause and evolution as well as the effects of emotional geopolitics to draw a whole picture of the issue and forecast the future development.
World Economics and Politics,2016,No. 11
【Abstract】 The climaxed globalization since the 1990s has outstripped previous ones in terms of scope and depth, so that social and economic policies in many industrial countries fail to handle its consequences, resulting in loss of jobs and stagnation of income. As the middle classes and low-income households in those countries consider themselves losers in the globalization, complaints through various channels have intensified. Wrongly implemented countermeasures, such as credit expansion aiming at stimulating the real estate market, not only were unavailing but also caused economic bubbles, which inevitably gave rise to the world financial crisis, the European debt crisis, and subsequent mediocre growth of the world economy. As the political structure in the Western countries goes to populism, which tends to create protectionist policies in the international cooperation arena, globalization has been put at risk of reversal. During its dual economic development period, China has fully taken advantage of globalization opportunity to spur economic growth and share its outcomes on a broad basis. Given its economic size, huge potential of growth and consumption, and rising influence in global governance, China should actively take initiatives to give impetus to a new round of globalization.
The Chinese Journal of American Studies,2015,Vol 29,No. 01
【Abstract】 Since the beginning of the 21st century, the United States has encountered a series of new challenges—the 9/11 terrorist attacks, anti-terrorism wars, global financial crisis, the polarization in politics in the U.S. and the comparative decline of the U.S. influence on world affairs, all of which have dented the confidence of the United States. Assertions about “America’s Decline” have reemerged and a pessimistic atmosphere even prevails among the usually confident American mainstream academic circles. A new wave of badmouthing the United States also arises in the world. In fact, the U.S. is facing a new round of the paradox of democracy. Nevertheless, the paradox about the American-style democracy is by no means the decline of the U.S. Rather, it is the reaction of the American democracy towards globalization, which, in essence, is the paradox of democracy in globalization era. Therefore, American scholars center their discussions about the paradox of democracy not on negating or giving up democracy, but on trying to find the cure for the reform of the American-style democracy. The so-called America’s Decline is totally out of the question, while the focus on how to rebuild democracy in this globalization era is the key point. In the long term, the paradox of democracy will be an essential problem facing American politics in the time of globalization unless the American democracy system could undertake a large scale of reform.