Research on the influence of marriage and birth on wages: from on the perspective of gender wage gap
Population Journal,2020,Vol 42,No. 01
【Abstract】 With technology progress and the improvement of female human capital, men and women more similar in productivity, but is the gender wage gap narrowing in China? Whether the universal two-child policy has increased women’s employment difficulties? Using CGSS 2015 data, from the perspective of marriage and birth, this paper studies the influence of marriage and childbearing events on the wages of labor force and its mechanism, by the instrumental variable method, quantile regression and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, discusses the gender pay gap problem under the perspective of marriage and birth, and puts forward the corresponding policy recommendations to promote gender equality. Main findings are as follows. First, through an empirical analysis on the marital status, fertility status and wage income of urban labor force, this paper found that after controlling personal characteristics, human capital, job characteristics and other factors, the gender wage gap still existed significantly, and the marriage and childbearing widened the gap. Marriage makes labor wages of men and women increased, but due to differences in raw wages and premium, the size of the gender pay gap is widening. Birth makes men wages growth and female wages shrink. It also increased the gender wage gap. Secondly, based on quantile regression results, the analysis of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the average wage difference shows that, as the income increased, the gender wage gap was narrowing. However, the explanation of this gap by marriage and fertility was more and more powerful and relatively stable, especially among the high-income groups. The wage gap of the low-income group is larger, but marriage and fertility have relatively small explanation power for this gap. On the contrary, the gender wage gap of high-income groups is relatively small, but marriage and fertility make a great contribution to the gap. Therefore, it is urgent to reduce the gender wage gap caused by marriage and childbirth, reduce gender discrimination, and to ensure women’s career development.
Gender gap in the labor market and women’s empowerment: evidence from China Urban Labor Survey in 2016
Population & Economics,2019,No. 01
【Abstract】 Gender gap in the labor market is a common challenge experienced by many countries in the development of economy and society. Drawing upon the data of China Urban Labor Survey in 2016, this paper analyzes the gender gap in China’s urban labor market and puts forward policy suggestions from the perspective of women’s empowerment. This study finds that gender gap in China’s urban labor market is mainly reflected in the following aspects: employment opportunities, wage level and wage right protection. There is no significant gap between men and women in signing labor contract, and attending basic pension insurance, basic medical insurance, unemployment insurance and employment injury insurance. The regression analysis indicates that gender discrimination is the key factor leading to gender gap. For women laborers, age, marital status, household registration status, years of schooling, and whether there is labor union or not affect women’s performance in the labor market. To narrow the gender gap and promote women’s empowerment, appropriate intervention of police is necessary. Empowering women in the aspects of law construction, public opinion supervision, social security coverage, education, and labor union construction will be constructive to narrowing the gap.
Population Research,2019,Vol 43,No. 01
【Abstract】 This paper attempts to investigate the relationship between the double taxes, “gender tax” and “motherhood tax,” and female labor force participation among the population aged 18–39 in the Chinese context. Analytical results indicate that the interplay of gender, marriage and fertility bears significant impacts on these measures of work. Controlling for multiple measures of human capital and devotion to work, male and female, unmarried and married, and father and mother all differ in these regards such that females are more disadvantaged than males, and mothers are more vulnerable than women without children and all males. But the mechanisms of gender effect vary by measurements of labor market participation, and by women’s life course. Whether or not in the labor market is largely affected by gender per se and marital status, while work stability by marriage and fertility, and wage by gender and fertility. Such findings support the conceptual framework of “double-taxes.” With the relaxation of fertility policy, more women will have more than one child, which will render them to be in further disadvantaged positions in the labor market, which presents greater challenges for the government in reducing the negative effect of “double taxes” on female labor force participation.
Left-behind experiences and the formation of gender division of labor: an empirical study based on fieldwork at sites of origin and destination for migrant workers
Sociological Studies,2019,Vol 34,No. 02
【Abstract】 Based on the fieldwork conducted at sites of origin and destination for migrants in southern China, this article found that left-behind experiences led to the formation of gender division of labor. Left-behind girls are forced to participate in extensive reproductive labor, while left-behind boys indulge themselves in leisure activities. The gender division of labor between left-behind children is caused by intervention from both left-behind grandparents and migrant parents in the context of the family reconfiguration. Labor migration transfers the burden of labor reproduction to family members who are left-behind, and reconstructs gender power relations of the migrant family, defining the reproductive labor as women’s labor. This finding highlights that through the intersection of the migrant labor regime and patriarchal migrant family, left-behind experiences advance and shape the gender-based labor habits and attitudes in childhood, preparing the foundation of further gender division of labor when the younger generation becomes the new generation of migrant workers.
Gender difference in social security participation rate of migrant workers in cities and towns: an analysis based on the extended Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition
Chinese Rural Economy,2019,No. 05
【Abstract】 Gender difference in the labor market remains a focus of public attention. Migrant workers, especially females, are at a disadvantage in the urban labor market. This article uses the data of China Migrants Dynamic Survey in 2011 and 2016 to analyze the gender difference in social security participation rate of migrant workers and its determinants. In 2011, the participation rate of male migrant workers in three Insurances, five insurances and five insurances and one fund were lower than those of female migrant workers. By 2016, the overall participation rate of migrant workers in urban social security has increased, and gender difference has shown a downward trend. The social security selection model reveals that males have a lower tendency to participate in insurance, which makes the participation rate of females higher than that of males. But the extended Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition further reveals the difference in employment distribution (women are in a disadvantaged position), leading to narrowing the gap between males and females in social security participation.
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2019,Vol 43,No. 02
【Abstract】 The physical education activities started to be valued as a critical technique to transform women’s bodies and thrived in schools in modern times. From Foucault’s disciplinary perspective, this study takes modern school female bodies as research objects, and examines the female physical education activities in schools with the deduction of disciplinary powers in modern China. It finds that female physical education activities in schools have strengthened government’s control of women’s bodies, promoted their own development and the reconstruction of gender space in school physical education, and changed the marginalized state of women’s physical education development. Nonetheless, there also existed the dilemma of the alienation of women’s bodies, which dissolved, to some extent, the real purpose and meaning of female physical education activities in schools.
Gender differences in the academic output of Chinese tourism scholars: based on literature published in Tourism Tribune
Tourism Tribune,2019,Vol 34,No. 12
【Abstract】 In the field of tourism research in China, the development of higher education and tourism education has greatly increased the opportunities for women to receive tourism academic education, and an increasing number of female scholars have paid attention to tourism research, exerting an increasing influence. However, huge differences and even inequalities still exist between female and male scholars. Foreign scholars have paid attention to the weak position of female scholars in tourism academia. Their studies have shown that the number of female scholars holding important positions in the tourism academic journals, international conferences and international tourism academic organizations is smaller than that of male scholars, which implies under-representation of female scholars. Currently, research in gender differences in Chinese tourism research field lacks attention. In this paper, a mixed research method approach is used to analyze the gender differences in the academic output of tourism scholars by selecting papers published in Tourism Tribune from 2000 to 2016 as samples. This paper made a quantitative analysis of the gender differences in the authorship structure, the number of authors, the number of papers, the methods adopted and the research themes. This paper also selected some scholars for semi-structured interviews to further explore the influence factors of gender differences in the academic output. The analysis showed that gender differences existed in the tourism academic output. Chinese female tourism scholars were younger than male tourism scholars, and would soon become the main group in the research field. The number of female tourism scholars’ output was always smaller than the number of male scholars. According to the tourism research methods used, the quantitative method had become the mainstream in Chinese tourism research. This situation made female scholars who often adopted qualitative research difficult to display their advantages under the positivist paradigm. From the perspective of research themes, female and male tourism scholars paid attention to different topics. The former tended to focus on social issues in tourism development, while the latter tended to focus on tourism development practices. According to the summary of the interviews, the development of tourism discipline, gender discrimination in employment, academic earnestness, gender structure of tourism education, Chinese traditional culture, gender differences in tourism research practices and other factors all played a role in making the differences. Overall, males dominated tourism academia in China. The academic output of female tourism scholars has shifted from rapid growth to stable growth. However, gender inequality still existed in academia. Female tourism scholars had broken through the threshold of academic career and would become the main force in China’s tourism academia in the future. However, they are also facing severe academic career difficulties. How to correctly understand gender differences and guide women’s career planning is a major challenge for the development of tourism academia.
Gender differences in adult children’s support for parents in rural China: an intergenerational perspective
China Rural Survey,2019,No. 06
【Abstract】 Based on the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) data in 2016, this article analyzes the gender differences in the support behavior of rural families’ children from the perspective of intergenerational differences and discusses the specific impact mechanism. The results show that, as a whole, there still remains a traditional elderly care model of raising sons to prepare for old age in rural areas. However, this traditional model begins to change among the new generation of children. The differences in financial support and care between daughters and sons have been greatly reduced, and the differences are no longer significant. This means that although the family elderly care mode with sons as the core in rural areas has not been completely changed, it has undergone significant change. By analyzing the behavior mechanism, the study further finds that the improvement of women’s status and the decrease in the number of children in the family promote adult daughters to provide more support for their parents. Meanwhile, the weakening of the traditional gender concept also has a role in pushing daughters to support their parents. In addition, the increase in rural elderly parents’ demand for care and the female advantage in emotion and care increase the role of daughters’ care, but the role in improving financial support is not obvious.
Management World,2019,Vol 35,No. 08
【Abstract】 Based on the data of China Household Income Project (CHIP) of 1995, 2002, 2007 and 2013 conducted by the Research Group of CHIP, this paper discusses the sectoral factors in the gender wage gap. This paper finds that the gender wage gap decreased from 2007 to 2013. Oaxaca-Blinder (O-B) decomposition is carried out on the gender wage function containing sectoral factors, and the results after 2002 show that sectoral factors narrow the gender wage gap. The characteristics of wage distribution show that industry distribution has a higher explanatory effect on the gender gap at the lower quantile of wage distribution, but the sectoral effect of gender wage gap at the quantiles is mainly explained by discriminatory factors. There is serious gender discrimination in most sectors. The discriminatory factors in the sectors are main reasons for the gender wage gap. The sectoral selection based on observable characteristics also partially explains the gender wage gap, but the sectoral selection caused by unobservable factors is beneficial to female wages.
Population Research,2018,Vol 42,No. 01
【Abstract】 Using the 2016 survey data of fertility decision making collected in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, this paper examines the effects of family resources, cultural norms, and gender of the first child on fertility decision making of the second child. Results show that fertility decision making of the second child is constrained by both family resources and cultural norms. About 20% of the women with one child want to have the second child. However, the second child fertility decision-making model is complicated. Women’s decision is heavily influenced by whether the existing child can meet their boy preference, the cost-utility of the child, and family resources. In addition, the decision-making model varies by household registration. Urban women have relatively low preference for boys, and their decision is primarily determined by family resources. Therefore, their second child fertility decision is more rational. In contrast, migrating and rural women’s fertility decision-making of the second child is characterized by the value orientation. Children’s utility and boy preference have a greater impact on their fertility decision-making.
Population Research,2018,Vol 42,No. 02
【Abstract】 Using 2016 national sampling survey data, this paper analyzes the intergenerational effects of gender preference on the first married women in urban China. The influence is observed through either parents’ gender preference for grandchildren or parents’ fertility behavior represented as the siblings’ gender structure of the women. Results show that women’s parents have positive effects on their gender preference regardless of the number of the desired children, while the effects of their parents-in-law are significant only for their first child. The sibling’s gender structure of the women also has significant positive effect on their gender preference. In addition, compared with the only child, women who grew with both brothers and sisters have stronger male preference. The findings imply that although the majority of urban women have no gender preference for the first child and have both son and daughter preference when desire to have two children, there are exceptions who still prefer boys. Their parents’ desire and behavior play important roles on their son preference. This paper also finds that the gender structure of women’s existing children and the provinces where they live significantly affect women’s gender preference.
Economic Research Journal,2018,Vol 53,No. 02
【Abstract】 It is well known that the Chinese manufacturing sector competes in the international market with relatively traditional production technology and lower labor costs. However, the situation is gradually changing. With the aging of the population and growing labor costs, the advantage of the manufacturing sector with respect to low labor costs no longer exists. Chinese entrepreneurs are fully aware of the potential shortcomings of the original development path and are actively upgrading their production technology, such as implementing large-scale production line upgrading in plants. The recent wave of large-scale “replacement of workers with machine” in the manufacturing sector in the Pearl River Delta directly reflects this phenomenon. The production line is one of the observable objects that most directly reflect the manufacturing technology. Technological progress in plant production lines is biased, having different effects on various skill groups. By reshaping jobs and competition mechanisms, manufacturing technological innovation has profoundly affected labor participation and income distribution among different groups in the labor market. Recently, China’s labor market has witnessed several structural changes. Women have become increasingly favored in the manufacturing sector, the share of female employment has increased and the gender wage gap has narrowed. The literature shows that women have comparative advantages in cognitive skills, while men have comparative advantages in motor skills. Based on the literature, we speculate that compared with the old lines, advanced production lines, as a form of skill-based technology innovation, tend to reduce both the physical exertion required and the need for motor skills, but increase the need for cognitive skills. The growing returns to cognitive skills eventually narrow the wage gap between men and women. This paper attempts to examine empirically how production line upgrading in the manufacturing sector impacts the gender wage convergence. It thus provides evidence on the effect of the labor market under the condition of large-scale production line upgrading in China. This research is based on data from the manufacturing employer-employee matching survey (2016) conducted in Nanhai District, Guangdong Province, China. This survey covered nearly 145 enterprises and more than 3000 employees and reflected the living environment, business conditions and current difficulties of transformation in the manufacturing sector in the Chinese frontier developed regions. In this paper, a variety of analytical methods, including the treatment-effect model, Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition and quantile decomposition, were used to guarantee the robustness of the results. We find that (1) while production line upgrading brings more wage premiums to both men and women workers, women have a higher return. Therefore, production line optimization and upgrading can narrow the gender wage gap. (2) The production line upgrading has a limited effect on reducing the gender wage gap for low-skilled workers, although it sufficiently narrows the gender wage gap for highly skilled workers. (3) Based on the mean and quantile decomposition, the gender wage gap is mainly due to higher return to skills rather than better male skill endowments. Production line upgrading significantly reduces internal gender discrimination within enterprises. At the top of the wage pyramid, the production line upgrading plays an even greater role in narrowing the gender wage gap. This paper provides a new perspective on the gender wage structure in the current labor market in China. It also provides a new policy insight into the reality of gender inequality from a perspective of technical innovation. In the context of production line upgrading, it is important and meaningful to encourage women to develop cognitive skills so as to improve gender equity. To our knowledge, no Chinese literature has directly associated production line upgrading with the gender wage gap. In addition, the employer-employee data we used in this paper are relatively new and can help easily control unobservable heterogeneity, which can also be considered a contribution.
Effect of Exercise on the Expression of GFAP, s100β and Cx43 in the Hippocampus of Depression Model Mice with Different Genders
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 02
【Abstract】 Objective: The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of exercise on the behavior of depression model mice with different genders, and to explore the role of astrocytes in exercise antidepressant by analyzing the important protein expression in astrocytes. Methods: Forty male and 40 female mice were divided into control group (Con) and exercise group (Exe) according to the body weight. After 28-day wheel running, mice were divided into no inescapable shock group (NIS) and inescapable shock group (IS). The effect of exercise on the behavior of depression model mice with different genders was observed by locomotor activity test (LAT), tail suspension test (TST), and forced swimming test (FST), and the protein expressions of GFAP, s100β, and Cx43 in hippocampus were measured by Western blotting. Results: 1) There was no significant difference in the level of locomotor activity in mice of the same gender between Con and Exe groups ( P > 0.05); 2) escape failure (EF) and escape latency (EL) significantly increased after electric shock (ES) in male and female mice ( P < 0.01, P < 0.001); compared with those of male mice in Con group, EF and EL significantly decreased in Exe group after ES ( P < 0.001); in Con group, EF and EL were significantly higher in female mice after ES than male mice ( P < 0.05); 3) the immobility duration of mice in TST and FST of Exe group was significantly shorter than that of Con group ( P < 0.05); 4) compared with that in quiet control group, the protein expressions of GFAP, s100β, and Cx43 in hippocampus of mice increased after exercise ( P < 0.05–0.001), and they had no difference between male and female mice ( P > 0.05). Conclusions: 1) Exercise has the effect of anti-depressive-like behaviors in learned helpless and behavioral despair model, and this effect is more obvious in male mice than in female ones; 2) The possible mechanism of anti-depressive effect of exercise is that exercise could enhance the function of astrocytes and enhance the two-way communication between astrocytes and neurons.
Management World,2018,Vol 34,No. 06
【Abstract】 Upper echelon theory holds that men and women are distinguished by personality. Female leaders are generally risk averse, having more other-regarding preferences and less taste for competition. However, this assumption fails to acknowledge that culture is a predominant factor in shaping personality. On the basis of upper echelon theory, this paper studies the impact of gender role on the preference of women investors. It constructs gender equality index based on data set at both micro and macro levels. The conclusions are as follows: (1) in general sense, enterprises with female owners are less likely to innovate, more likely to train employees and pursue diversified strategies than enterprises with male owners only; (2) the above differences, however, are moderated by cultural factors. In the context of lower levels of gender equality, women do not have more other-regarding preferences and less taste for competition compared with male counterparts; and (3) gender equality is a multi-dimensional concept. Both family environment as well as institutional environment exerts impact on gender roles; women under traditional gender roles need to overcome more prejudices and obstacles. The conclusion of this study complements the upper echelon theory and provides guidance on improving business performance.
Population & Economics,2018,No. 04
【Abstract】 There exist multiple segmentations in China’s labor market, and two of the most important factors are gender and ownership. This paper attempts to clarify the time evolution of the gender discrimination in different ownership sectors from the perspective of wage disparity. We analyze the gender discrimination from the wage gap based on the data of China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). From the perspective of gender wage ratio and discrimination coefficient, the gender wage disparity in non-state-owned sector is higher. In the past 20 years, gender discrimination in the state-owned sector has slightly fluctuated, rather than an upward trend in the non-state-owned sector. Further, we divide the gender wage gap into “endowment effect” and “composition effect” by Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, finding that the gender wage gap in the state-owned sector is mainly caused by gender difference.
Chinese Journal of Population Science,2018,No. 06
【Abstract】 Using censuses data, this paper focuses on the mortality level and pattern of China’s unmarried male adults in the context of population sex imbalance. Our research findings show that there is a significant difference in mortality between married and unmarried male adults. Compared with married males, the unmarried ones have higher death risks and larger disparities in their life expectancy. The life expectancy at the age of 30 is 7.6-year lower for the unmarried men as compared with the married. The rural unmarried male adults constitute “the most vulnerable group” due to the socio-economic disparities between rural and urban areas and unmarried status. Among the unmarried male adults, mortality differs significantly by education level, and the educational difference is severer than that exemplified by marital status or residence type. The study concludes that while it is less feasible to reverse the sex imbalance in the short term, developing education may be more effective to mitigate the excess mortality of China’s unmarried male adults.
Youth Studies,2018,No. 05
【Abstract】 The daily consumption contains the labor value that cannot be ignored. From the perspective of labor, we should revisit the family daily shopping with dual attributes of consumption and labor, which can help us to reveal the mechanism for power operation and gender inequality within the family. Based on the analysis of data from the Third Survey of Chinese Women’s Social Status, we found that the factors like conjugal power and emotion involvement could partly influence the relationship of labor and consumption within the family. Especially after analyzing the interaction effect between conjugal power and emotion involvement, we had the following findings. In the families where the husbands had more real power, the more emotion involvement the wives would invested, the lower probability the husbands would undertake daily shopping; the more emotion involvement the husbands invested, the higher probability the wives would undertake daily shopping. However, in the families where wives had more real power, the interaction effect between emotion and power did not reduce the wives’ probability of daily shopping significantly. In other words, the wives always undertook more family daily shopping than the husbands. Therefore, the gender inequality in consumption labor was reflected invisibly.
The Journal of World Economy,2018,Vol 41,No. 12
【Abstract】 In view of China’s growing gender employment gap, this paper examines the relationship between entry of foreign capital, gender employment gap and enterprise exit by the use of multiple enterprise-level microeconomic databases. The results show that entry of foreign capital reduces the gender gap in employment, thus lowering the likelihood of enterprise exit. The results are robust and remain unaltered in considering sample bias, for different measurements of entry of foreign capital and domestic firms. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effects of market competition and technological progress are the underlying forces that lead to the results. This paper provides a significant referential value in formulating policies to attract foreign direct investment to China and improving labor market equality and enterprise competitiveness.
New measurement of occupational gender segregation in transitional China: based on K-M decomposition method
Population & Economics,2018,No. 06
【Abstract】 This study distinguished the concept of the level of occupational gender segregation (OGS) and the degree of OGS to measure OGS in China transitional period. In previous studies, the level of OGS measured by the summary indices cannot eliminate the impact of changes of occupational structure and gender structure. For a transitional labor market changed dramatically like China’s, the impact of occupational structure or gender structure on the level of OGS could be huge. Using K-M method this study measures the level of OGS of China’s labor market from 1989—2006 and decompose the level into degree of OGS (composition effects) and mix effects. The results indicated the increasing level of OGS in transitional period is due to not only the degree of OGS but also the change of occupation effect.
Ethno-National Studies,2018,No. 02
【Abstract】 This article presents the process of the reconstruction of the gender role of the Uygur women moving into Nanyang of Henan province in the three dimensions: domesticity, social interaction and participating in public affairs. Although traditional gender attitudes still affect their daily lives, the new livelihood pattern, new living space and overall guidance of the local government are leading the gender role of this group to undergo complex dynamic reconstruction from multiple perspectives and multiple angles. This process also enables them to improve their social status and play a unique role in participating in community construction and promoting social harmony.
Tourism Tribune,2017,Vol 32,No. 01
【Abstract】 In the transformation period of China, crisis of masculinity has already provoked widespread social anxiety. How to become a (gentle)man is not just a social issue, but also an important academic question. This paper focuses on male workers in Guangzhou’s upscale hotels and the process in which their gender identity is constructed using various qualitative research methods. The findings are as follows. First, male workers undergo a gradual journey from passive gentlemen to active gentlemen thanks to management regulations and daily practices. Second, a sense of gentility is not merely reflected through these workers’ appearance, but actually naturalized in their mind. Third, the complete construction of gentlemen is achieved by self-discipline. These findings concur with the recent works on the identity politics of masculinity, supplementing the meaning of construction of masculine personality. This study believes that this process is interactive with space and occupation, which is consistent with the argument that the environment determines how to become a man. Practically, this paper generates valuable suggestions for human resource management in upscale hotels.
Finance & Trade Economics,2017,Vol 38,No. 06
【Abstract】 In this paper, the authors analyzed the effect of quantity and skill structures of employees’ genders on firm productivity by using the economic census data of 2004 and 2008. The results show that there are quantitative complementarity and division of labor in skills between employees’ genders, but there is also heterogeneity in industries and enterprises. Specifically, the complementarity in quantity of gender significantly exists in the service industry where the optimal proportion of females is about 45%, but such complementarity does not exist in manufacturing enterprises. The reason is that, compared to the service industry, there is a big difference in productivity between males and females in the manufacturing industry. In terms of division of labor in skills between genders, there is a division of labor in skills characterized by “high skills for men and low skills for women” in production. The optimal skill difference is that males’ average years of schooling are about one year longer than those of females, and the effect can partially explain the ceiling phenomenon in women’s careers. From the perspective of enterprise heterogeneity, the improvement of capital and technical levels will help strengthen the complementary effect in quantity and weaken the division of labor in skills which characterized by “high skills for men and low skills for women.” That is to say, enterprise development is conducive to strengthening the role of females, especially high-skilled females in production.
Gender barrier: analysis on the occupational situation and gender temperament construction of male in female occupations
Youth Studies,2017,No. 05
【Abstract】 Based on the interviews of 20 males who take the traditionally female occupations, this study tries to explore their self-identity, individual adaptation and coping strategies emerged after spanning the traditional concept of gender work. According to the findings, under the influence of traditional culture’s socialization, there still exists strong gender identity and gender expectation in the labor market of current Chinese society. For the interviews of males in female occupations, the phenomenon of “glass escalator” mentioned by western scholars did not appear clearly; the systematic gender concept still has some influences on males who initially enter the traditional female job fields, and has some constraining effect on the promotion of some workers. For the workers in different occupations, they tend to adopt different coping strategies and response methods to transfer their personal pressures in job fields, and hence reconstruct their social relationships in job fields.
Youth Studies,2017,No. 01
【Abstract】 Based on the data from the third survey on the Status of Chinese Women in 2010, this paper tries to study the effect of higher education on Chinese youth’s first marriage and its gender difference. According to the findings, the youth who received higher education are more likely to be unmarried; their age at first marriage would be late. Regarding the effect of higher education on young people’s marriage possibility, there is a significant gender difference, but there is no significant gender difference in its effect on the youth’s age at first marriage. For the young women over 30 years old, receiving higher education is not beneficial for them to enter into marriage. Hence, this verifies the hypothesis of the “older women’s marriage squeeze under the blended marriage pattern” put forward in this paper. We argue that the higher education can not only produce a direct influence on Chinese young women’s marriage possibility, but also produce an indirect influence through marriage market and social gender concept.
Psychological capital, emotional adaptation and college students’ Internet addiction: analysis on the total effect moderation model based on gender differences
Youth Studies,2017,No. 03
【Abstract】 Based on the revised version of College Student Adaptability Inventory, Internet Addiction Test and Positive Psychological Capital Questionnaire, this paper studies college students’ Internet addiction, and the influencing mechanisms of gender, personal emotional adaptation and psychological capital. According to the results, the psychological capital is the important negative factor which influences college students’ Internet addiction, its direct effect is not moderated by gender; the personal emotional adaptation has significant negative effects on Internet addiction, it has partial mediation effects on the relationship between psychological capital and internet addiction; regarding the personal emotional adaptation, its mediation effect is moderated by gender in two stages. In terms of the relationship between psychological capital and Internet addiction, this indirect relationship is more significant among male students comparing to female students. The findings would be helpful to clarify the concrete mechanism of the psychological capital’s effect on Internet addiction and the gender difference in this relationship.
Population & Economics,2017,No. 06
【Abstract】 According to the theoretical analysis framework of industrial distribution and the impact on the gender wage differentials for migrant workers, the paper introduces the Appleton decomposition method to the empirical analysis based on the dynamic monitoring data of the floating population in 2013. The results of the study are as follows: there is occupational segregation between males and females. Compared with male migrant workers, female migrant workers are more likely to be employed in the labor-intensive and low-wage industries. The gender wage gap exists within industry and between industries. The gender wage gap is mainly due to differential rewards within industry and the gender occupation segregation. The occupation segregation accounts for 23.2% of the gender wage gap.
Does regional gender imbalance affect the labor share of income: theoretical analysis and evidence from China
The Journal of World Economy,2017,Vol 40,No. 04
【Abstract】 This paper shows that the impact of gender imbalance on the labor share of income for firms is negative through a theoretical framework. The corresponding mechanism is that gender imbalance would increase the capital intensity of firms, which would decrease the labor share of income when the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor is above 1. Using the 2000 census and 2005–2007 industrial firm data of China, the empirical results support our argument that gender imbalance would lead to a decline in the labor share of income for micro-level firms. The conclusion is still reliable even after we control marriage flow, ethnic minority samples, premarital age intervals and so on. In addition, we find that the capital intensity of firms is a mediator in the influence of gender imbalance on the labor share of income for firms. Furthermore, the effect of gender imbalance on the labor share of income differs among firms with different investment sources. The reason behind this is that different types of firms have various degrees of dependency on the local financial market.
Explaining the puzzle of gender difference of functional limitation incidence of the Chinese elderly
Population Research,2017,Vol 41,No. 03
【Abstract】 There exists marked gender difference of functional limitation incidence among the Chinese elderly. Specifically, women are more likely to suffer from difficulties of activity of daily living. This paper intends to explain this puzzle from the perspective of family human capital investment with the son preference that results in gender difference of educational attainment. Cognition is critical for maintaining activity of daily living and education has a positive effect on cognition at older age. Thus, gender difference in education in early life is transmitted to gender difference of functional limitation in later life. We verify this hypothesis by using CHARLS baseline data and find that cognition, especially the crystallized intelligence part, has an important effect on the reduction of functional limitation impairment rate. With the improvement of girl’s education, better health equality can be achieved among older men and women.
Economic Research Journal,2017,Vol 52,No. 10
【Abstract】 The notion of happiness as the “hidden wealth of nations” has drawn increasing attention worldwide. This paper investigates whether and how the gender of a child affects the happiness of Chinese parents. These questions are particularly interesting in current China, as Chinese society has both a long tradition of farming practice and patriarchal culture and has experienced substantial transformation. In the agrarian epoch, sons brought more happiness to parents, as men are naturally more capable of home production and kinship finance. In recent decades, China’s market-oriented reforms have handed over the majority of productive and financial activities to enterprises and markets, which has improved the comparative economic situation of women. Along with the fact that women are better at providing emotional support and physical care, daughters are now expected to have a more positive effect on parents’happiness. In addition, the serious gender imbalance has created intense competition for men in the marriage market, which may potentially lower the happiness of families with sons. However, market-oriented reforms and social transformation are far from completed. The relatively closed and personalized networks and the open and impersonal market mechanism both play important roles in organizing economic activities. It remains an open question whether daughters indeed bring their parents more happiness compared with sons. Using data from the 2008 Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS), the paper provides an empirical test. The major challenge of this analysis is that the gender of a child may be manipulated due to the traditional son preference and the family planning policy of China. The gender selection of a child can be correlated with other factors that may influence parents’happiness and cause omitted-variable bias. We alleviate this problem by exploiting the plausible exogeneity of the gender of the first-born child. Studies have shown that parents generally welcome their first-born child regardless of gender and seldom practice gender selection on their first-born child. This is especially the case in rural areas, where a second-born child is officially allowed if the first-born is a girl according to the“one-and-a-half children” policy. A robustness check using a subsample from rural areas can better verify our results. We find that the gender of the first-born has a non-trivial effect on parents’happiness. In general, sons are found to bring less happiness than daughters in all of the specifications—OLS regressions, ordered logistic regressions, IV estimations, and related robustness tests. But results vary with children’s age. Parents’happiness is not affected when children are young or when they are in primary and middle schools (0–16 years old). However, sons are correlated with lower levels of parents’happiness when it is time to worry about career and marriage (17–30 years old). The analysis of the subsample of elderly parents exhibits a similar pattern: parents with daughters are happier than those with sons. The effect is more evident for elderly mothers (compared with fathers) or elderly urban parents (compared with rural parents). Furthermore, our data lend no support to the idea that parents lean on sons for family care when they get old. First, in terms of living arrangements, parents are equally likely to live with sons as with daughters. Second, in terms of financial support, for parents who are covered by social security programs, sons bring significantly less happiness than daughters do. However, for parents without social security, the effect is smaller in magnitude and becomes statistically insignificant. These results suggest that the traditional idea of the “nurture-in-exchange-for-support effect” has already faded away in today’s Chinese families. Instead, there exists a “nurture-up-to-housing-support effect” in urban areas: an increase in housing prices reduces more severely the happiness of parents with sons. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that urban parents with sons bear the pressure of their sons in the marriage market competition and worry more about higher housing prices.
Tourism Tribune,2016,Vol 31,No. 01
【Abstract】 The study of community tourism elites is an important part of the study of the division of social strata. With the growing prosperity of ethnic tourism, women tourism elites begin to stand out from the ethnic communities. They play an important role in community development, but their importance has not been sufficiently identified in tourism studies. By employing the grounded theory, this study examines the role of women tourism elites based on interviews of 22 women tourism elites from 8 ethnic regions in 4 provinces in Western China. The study reveals that women tourism elites, like the general community elites, are authorities of their community and play both positive and negative roles. They mostly function as non-governance elites due to the traditional concept of gender relations. Meanwhile, they play the role of the guardian of female arts and the caregiver of women and the underprivileged.
Sociological Studies,2016,Vol 31,No. 04
【Abstract】 This paper explores the origin, core concept, fundamental methodology and trend of intersectionality as a paradigm in the global gender study. It also discusses the boundary of this paradigm used in the Chinese gender sociology. Originated from the American anti-racist movement, intersectionality brings class and race inequality into gender analysis. As a critique of the post-modern feminism, the development of intersectionality includes three models: the inclusion model, the process-center model, and the systematic model. It has been introduced into the developing country and provides guidance to practices to change the gender inequality.
Population Journal,2016,Vol 38,No. 03
【Abstract】 Since the 1980s, the SRB has been long-lasting high in China, despite a 6-year continual drop from 2008. Moreover, high SRB is increasing with the broadening in geographic distribution, expansion in the accumulative male-female population gap and the increasing difficulties in the combat against illegal fetal sex identification and sex-selective abortion. Given these challenging facts, the central government has been guiding all provinces to carry out comprehensive control and implement programs led by the leaders of Party Commission and government, advanced gender culture project, female priority and preferential project, medical and health market purification project, appraisal and assessment system construction project, and full-course maternal service project, which have well contributed to the comprehensive control of high SRB. However, these practices are faced with such problems as comprehensive control initiatives remaining in the transition stage from action level to institutional level and statistical data being inadequate to assess the objective situations. The experience shows that the comprehensive control of high SRB requires the development of a sophisticated institutional mechanism seeking both temporary and permanent solutions and the cardinal rules of ruling by law, so as to resolve the current problems and eliminate the root causes, and carry out scientific and prognostic control. By putting into implementation the organizational leadership, appraisal and assessment and family services, we would be able to put high SRB under control.
China Industrial Economics,2016,No. 08
【Abstract】 This paper studied gender discrimination in hiring markets by sending 19,130 matched resumes in response to professional employment advertisements posted on major Internet employment boards in China for positions such as engineers, accountants, secretaries and marketing positions in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Wuhan and Chengdu. The results were as the follows. In contrast to developed countries, employers in hiring markets for mid-to-high end positions in China generally preferred female applicants, which could be related to the high labor participation rate of Chinese female workers. With respect to ownership of enterprises, foreign and private enterprises tended to prefer female applicants. State-owned enterprises have no significant gender preference, and state-owned enterprises do not prefer female applicants in the positions with female preference in other types of enterprises. On one hand, this supported the hypothesis that economic reforms and the market economy might mitigate gender discrimination. On the other hand, this was consistent with statistics that described discrimination based on gender segregation and information asymmetry that originated with high ratios of female workers in foreign-funded and private firms. With respect to regional pay disparity, we found that the differences in gender discrimination between the first-tier and the second-tier cities were not significant. We also found that the gender ratios of births in the six cities had nothing to do with the distribution of gender discrimination, indicating no taste discrimination based on traditional son preference in China. This paper is the first attempt to implement the correspondence study to investigate gender discrimination in Chinese hiring markets, and to summarize and explain the characteristics of the market.
Journal of Finance and Economics,2016,Vol 42,No. 11
【Abstract】 Against the background of constant expansion of gender employment gap in China, this paper uses the China Industrial Enterprise Database from 2004 to 2007 to examine the influence of foreign capital entry on gender employment gap at the enterprise level through competition effect. It shows that the regions and industries with relatively high degree of foreign capital entry experience relatively small gender employment gap, and the increase in foreign capital entry by 1% results in the increase in female employment share in domestic enterprises by 0.0407%. The result is still robust after considering the sampling bias, the different definitions of foreign entry scope, different measures of foreign capital entry degree and the control of endogeneity. Further study indicates that foreign capital entry advances enterprises aiming at profit maximization to employ more female labor with relatively low costs by improving the competition degree that enterprises encounter, thereby leading to the reduction in gender employment gap. More importantly, the effect of competition resulting from foreign capital entry on gender employment gap varies with groups with different education background, and it has the greatest effect on groups with higher education, especially postgraduate and above. It concludes that against the background of economic globalization, the improvement of market competition mechanism and female education are beneficial to the reduction in gender employment gap. In addition, it also offers a different way of thinking for the research of social and economic effects of foreign capital entry.
Impacts of family planning policy on sex ratio at birth in rural China: an empirical test based on DID method
Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 04
【Abstract】 Based on the health and nutrition survey data collected from residents in rural China, we use DID method to identify the impact of family planning policy on the sex ratio at birth in rural China using the difference in the implementation of family planning policy between Han ethnic group and ethnic minorities, and calculate the contribution rate of family planning policy to sex ratio at birth. The findings of this study are as follows. Family planning policy is one of the important causes for imbalanced sex ratio at birth in rural China. It can explain 78.5% of the change in the sex ratio at birth of 1989 of Han people in rural China and has less explaining power for the sex ratio at birth of 2000 and 2011, contributing 35.57% and 32.13%, respectively. Family planning policy has different impacts on sex ratio at birth in rural China for different birth orders and children’s sex composition. As far as the first child is concerned, the impact of family planning policy on sex ratio at birth is particularly prominent. As far as multiple children are concerned, the impact of family planning policy is more prominent for children of higher birth orders. Nowadays, more relaxed family planning policy helps to solve the problem of imbalanced sex ratio at birth in rural China, however, only to a certain extent.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 09
【Abstract】 From the perspective of social gender theory, through the combinative adoption of literature review method and social observation method, we have found that the position of women in society can be reflected in the sports field. The biological differences and historical issues make women suffer from discrimination that not only exists in the workplace but also in the sports field. This study combed the historical hardship of women’s participation in the competitive sports, and found that the more outstanding female athletes are, the more likely they are to be degraded out of their seemingly masculine movements, which indicates that no matter what excellent score a female gets, the possibility that she is situated at a marginalized zone in any field without receiving deserved attention is still high. From three aspects including physiology structure, culture construction and social division of labor, this paper identified the causes of the marginalization of women’s sports and pointed out the way of constructing harmonious sports world with “co-existence with difference” by breaking the stereotypes of gender, building up a new world of women’s sports, opening up the whole society’s ideology, eliminating the body construction which is ingrained in culture, giving more power of discourse, thus to balance the social division of labor.
Youth Studies,2016,No. 04
【Abstract】 Based on the data from Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2013, this article has examined the different effects of the objective class status of husbands and wives on the subjective class identification of married women and men. The research shows that the status determinism which suggests that an individual’s objective socioeconomic status will influence his/her subjective class identification is only applicable for explaining class identification of married men, but not for explaining the formation of married women’s class identification. Class identification for most married people manifests a gender difference which signifies that wives can acquire social honor through their husbands while husbands must rely on themselves. This mentality of subordination and dependence in women’s class identification manifests not only the traditional gender consciousness but also gender inequality. Married women’s social identification is mostly a borrowing model, that is, the objective class status of their spouses is of greater importance than their own. On the other hand, married men’s class identification is mostly an independence model, that is, their own objective class status is more important than that of their spouses. Hence, promoting awareness of gender equality in China is still a vital task that has a long way to go.
Does only child's gender affect the fertility desire of only-child parents to bear a second child? A Study based on Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS)
Population Journal,2016,Vol 38,No. 06
【Abstract】 Based on data from Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2012, it is found in the research that the only child’s gender can affect the fertility desire of only-child parents to bear a second child. The fact that a one-child family with a boy has obvious negative effect on parents’ fertility desire to bear a second child is extremely prominent for urban residents and fathers. In addition, we draw a conclusion through interaction item analyses that income, the time fathers spend in actively engaging in raising their children, educational expenditure and housing prices are the reasons why gender affects the fertility desire of only-child parents to bear a second child. Increase in resident income and the time fathers spend in raising children can significantly improve fertility desire of bearing a second child. However, educational expenditure and housing prices inhibit this wish. Besides, the inhibitory effect of educational expenditure increases with age and house prices has a significant impact on the group aged over 45 years old. Therefore, increasing resident income, increasing leisure time of population of childbearing age, stabilizing housing prices and reducing childcare costs (educational expenditure in particular) will significantly benefit the implementation of the two-child policy.
Population Journal,2016,Vol 38,No. 04
【Abstract】 The high and growing sex ratio at birth is one of the most significant structure changes in China's population over the past 30 years. There has been a lot of research and hot debates on whether family planning policy affects sex ratio at birth in China. Based on micro-data, this paper discusses the logical relationship among gender preference, family planning policy and sex selection techniques, and focuses on the fertility behavior of families under various family planning policies. Constructing probability model, we investigate sex ratio at birth of non-selective and selective fertility behaviors under different family planning policy, and analyze theoretically the effect of family planning policy on sex ratio at birth. Using household survey data, we evaluated the actual effect of family planning policy in rural China through econometric model. The conclusion is that family planning policy affects fertility behavior, and leads to high sex ratio at birth if gender preference and sex selection techniques exist. The more stringent family planning policy is, the higher sex ratio at birth will be. The higher probability of fertility sex selection is, the higher sex ratio at birth will be. Finally, we discussed the potential adjustment of family planning policy and other measures to balance the sex ratio at birth.
Youth Studies,2016,No. 01
【Abstract】 By using the data of 2010 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS 2010), this paper firstly examines the general status and basic features of the Chinese children and teenagers’ occupational aspirations and gender difference. According to this research, significant gender difference exists in the Chinese children and teenagers’ occupational aspirations: the girls’ occupational aspirations are quite concentrated, while the boys’ more diversified; the average socioeconomic status and prestige expected by the girls are higher than those of boys; relatively, the girls’ occupational aspirations tend to be feminine, while the boys’ more masculine; in terms of the occupational interest, girls value more how a job receives respect and serves others, while the boys pay more attention to the economic reward. The gender difference of occupational aspirations reflects traditional gender role norms and gender division of labor.
Population Journal,2015,Vol 37,No. 01
【Abstract】 The article, applying the Dynamic Monitoring and Survey over Migrating Population of China in 2013, explores the changing status of the sex ratio at birth of migrating population as well as those key factors which lead to a high ratio and key regions where people migrate in or out. The result shows that the sex ratio at birth of migrating population, rising at first and then dropping, is 119.43 from 2001 to 2013, which is slightly higher than that of the total population. It indicates that migrating population shall be given serious consideration. The control over the sex ratio at birth of migrating population shall focus on people with their second child, with rural hukou (China’s nationwide household registration system), or migrating across provinces, especially those moving from the central and western regions of China to the east region. Thus, we suggest that a cooperation mechanism of the family planning services and management shall be established among key regions where migrating population flow in or out, so as to promote a comprehensive control.
Population Journal,2015,Vol 37,No. 04
【Abstract】 If the family planning policy can lead to the increase of sex ratio at birth, then the fertility policy adjustment such as the selective two-child policy is bound to ease the momentum of the increase of sex ratio at birth. To test this assumption, this study employs the latest data on the sex ratio at birth from all the provinces to investigate the effects of the selective two-child policy on the sex ratio at birth. This paper concludes that the selective two-child policy will ease the sex ratio at birth of the first child but worsen the sex ratio at birth of the second child. Because for a couple having son preference the selective two-child policy actually means another chance to have a son, which will worsen the sex ratio at birth of the second child. Therefore, the key for easing the sex ratio at birth is to change fertility culture of son preference.
Economic Research Journal,2015,Vol 50,No. 07
【Abstract】 This paper studies the effects of regulations securing equal pay and equal employment in the labor market with gender discrimination. We show that neither of those regulations are Pareto-improving policies. The effect of the regulation securing both equal pay and equal employment is between that of free market and that of the regulation only securing equal pay. The simulation of the model with parameters calibrated to the CFPS data shows that the regulation only securing equal pay increases welfare of merely 38.7% of female labor, while the regulation securing both equal pay and equal employment causes limited negative effect. It follows that the latter regulation is needed to guarantee female rights in the labor market. In circumstances that the substitution elasticity of the mental labor and the physical labor is high or the interest rate is low, free market is better than the regulation only securing equal pay.
Sociological Studies,2015,Vol 30,No. 01
【Abstract】 This paper analyzed the China 2005 census data and prefecture-level statistics to investigate the gender earnings inequality and its driving forces in reform-era urban China. The authors paid special attention to the different impacts of marketization and socio-economic development on the inequality. Studies showed that the gender earnings gap is the smallest in government and public institutions and it rises with the increasing degree of marketization. At prefecture-level, the direction and intensity of the inequality appear differently. Multi-level analyses showed that the market force has exacerbated gender inequality, while economic development has reduced it. Overall, marketization appears to be the main driver of the increasing inequality in urban China. Our findings shed new light on understanding macro mechanism of gender inequality issue in China's labor market and making relevant policies.
Appealing for and going beyond gender equality: discussion on women’s participation in Modern Olympic Games
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2015,Vol 38,No. 10
【Abstract】 Feminism or feminist movement has played a positive role in modern women sports, especially in women’s participation in Olympic Games. However, it leads to a tendency of undue emphasis on equality with men. This tendency made that women’s participation in the Olympic Games has been given an implication that transcended the “sports” itself from the very beginning. This paper analyzes the breadth and depth of women’s participation in sports events and a symbol of progress of gender equality by literature review. The results show that gender issue in sports is a complicated question. Seeking equality with men unduly, especially taking women’s participation number and events in the Olympic Games as a measure of the gender progress in the field of sports is not conducive to the process of gender equality. Therefore, this paper presents that we should recognize the difference between men and women in sports and beyond narrow equality. We point out that some event rules should be amended to meet women’s physiological and psychological characteristics, and the core to change current situation is to have more women in leadership and decision-making process.
Gender responsive budgeting in South Asia and its implications for China: in respect of the cases of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
South Asian Studies,2014,No. 04
【Abstract】 Gender responsive budgeting is critical for promoting gender equality and enhancing the precision of fiscal management. Most gender responsive budgeting initiatives in South Asia are guided by government and have been advancing in mutual promotion with government plans. Meanwhile, the selected gender responsive budgeting tools are appropriate in specific national contexts. Nevertheless, there are also problems, including the lack of female decision makers, participants failing to fully play their roles and serious gender inequality. China is presently entering a period of rapid development in its gender responsive budgeting, and can draw inspirations from South Asian experience such as emphasizing the development of gender audit and fully leveraging the participation of relevant stakeholders．