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Food Safety

Fragmented regulation or integrated regulation: organizational economics in food safety

LI Junlin;YAO Dongmin;LI Sanxi;WANG Qizhi

The Journal of World Economy,2014,Vol 37,No. 10

【Abstract】 Food safety is decided by manufacturers’ investment in a variety of dimensions like raw materials and sanitary conditions. Due to information asymmetry, governmental regulation becomes a substantial means to solve the problem of manufacturers’ moral hazard. Highly differentiated food manufacturing technology (such as technological requirements in terms of biology, chemistry and physics) requests the establishment of corresponding governmental regulatory agencies. Shall these regulatory agencies which are differentiated due to technological difference implement independent, fragmented regulation or integrated regulation with unified policy? Based on the Chinese realities and from the perspective of the effects of regulation, this study compares the strengths and weaknesses of fragmented regulation and integrated regulation under the framework of a static three-player game. In general, integrated regulation is superior to fragmented regulation in reducing the probability of food safety incidents and regulating manufacturers’ behavior. Moreover, based on the research on regulation transformation, this study holds the view that the negative effect of regulation transformation on aggregate social welfare could be lowered by two-step transformation and successive transformation in different sectors.

Empirical analysis on spatio-temporal evolution and driving forces of per capita grain possession in China

ZHANG Liguo;CHEN Su

Economic Geography,2015,Vol 35,No. 03

【Abstract】 This paper analyzed the spatio-temporal evolution and driving forces of per capita grain possession in China from 1990 to 2012 by variation coefficient and Theil index. The results are as follows: the change characteristics of per capita grain possession was rising with fluctuations at first, then declining with fluctuations, and then continuously rising; staged development of “slow to fast” was the characteristics of spatial difference change of per capita grain possession; the rising rate of per capita grain in Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Henan, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Gansu and Anhui were larger, while the declining rate in Zhejiang, Beijing, Guangdong, Shanghai and Fujian were larger; severe grain-shortage regions gathered in Beijing, Tianjin and the southeast coastal region,general grain-shortage regions scattered throughout China, regions of self-sufficiency in grain gathered in Western China, general grain-output regions gathered in Central China, and main grain-output regions gathered in Northeast China. The positive effect on per capita grain possession were the rural population per capita cultivated, the population of agricultural labor workers, the power of agricultural machinery per mu (1 hectare = 15 mu), the amount of fertilizer per mu, the degree of irrigation, preference to plant grain, multiple crop index and abolition of agricultural tax, while the negative effect were natural disaster degree and per capita Gross Domestic Production (GDP).

China’s food structure and safety: the perspective of grain circulation and trading

MAO Xuefeng;LIU Jing;ZHU Xinkai

Management World,2015,No. 03

【Abstract】 This article assessed China’s food safety status by food structure, grain circulation and trading. The study found that the “11th consecutive year” is accurately to be the realization of “11th consecutive year” in food total amount, and the reference point was the historical lowest grain yield at 2003. The main driver for the growth is from corn production increase, not the limited rations increase. Chinese food import undergoes substantial changes shifting from supply and demand regulation to large-scale imports. From the view of food structure, the trade of rations, especially the rice, may face great risks. Future food insecurity is more about the circulation and trade issues. Therefore, the government shall attach more importance to grain distribution and trade capacity when building grain comprehensive production capacity.

Appraisal and strategic thinking on food security status of China

ZHANG Yuanhong;LIU Changquan;GUO Lulai

China Rural Survey,2015,No. 01

【Abstract】 Based on internationally accepted concept of food security, this paper appraised the status, trends and problems of food security of China by constructing indices representing supply, distribution, consumption, utilization ratio, result, stability, sustainability and regulation ability, to appraise the status, trends and problems of food security of China. Result shows that food security of China is at high level and has kept rising during the past years. China has advantages in food security, which are manifested by the facts that many indices such as rate of self-sufficiency, per capita supply of energy and protein are higher than those of world average level, and even the average level of the developed nations. Main problems of food security of China are inappropriate composition of nutrition and unsustainability of environment. Further improvement of food security could be achieved by adjusting production structure, employing more environment-friendly way of production, emphasizing management of consumption, reducing overconsumption and losses, lowering rate of storage appropriately.

Development of an aptamer/fluorescence dye Pico Green-based method for detection of fumonisin B 1

Hailuan Gui;Qingri Jin;Yajun Zhang;Xiaodu Wang;Yongchun Yang;Chunyan Shao;Changyong Cheng;Fangfang Wei;Yang Yang;Menghua Yang;Houhui Song

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology,2015,Vol 31,No. 09

【Abstract】 Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin found in commodities such as corn and corn-originated products. An aptamer-based method for detection of FB1 was developed using the fluorescent dye Pico Green, which can recognize and bind double-stranded DNA. A peak fluorescence of Pico Green was obtained in 15 min in the presence of FB1 aptamer, which formed a double-stranded hybridizer DNA with its complementary strand. The excitation and emission wavelengths for Pico Green detection were 480 nm and 520 nm, respectively. The sensitivity of this aptamer/Pico Green-based method was 0.1 μg/L. This method showed a good linearity for FB1 concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1 μg/L. The entire detection procedure for FB1 could be completed within 40 min. No cross reactions were observed with any other mycotoxins against aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, citrinin and zearalenone, demonstrating high specificity towards FB1 aptamer. Agreement between commercial, antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and aptamer method was excellent with a kappa value of 0.857. Taken together, this aptamer/Pico Green-based method is more cost-effective, time-saving and useful than ELISA for detection of FB1.

Policy burden, regulatory capture and food safety

GONG Qiang;LEI Liheng;YUAN Yan

Economic Research Journal,2015,Vol 50,No. 08

【Abstract】 This paper shows that regulatory capture caused by the policy burdens is the key reason for the absence of food safety regulation.In the earlier time,because the regulatory technology is relatively low,strict supervision is short of effectiveness and conflict with local development objectives.Governments often improve local development at the price of food security.As regulation technology improves,implementing strict supervision can effectively ensure food security,promote the overall development of the food industry and achieve the governments' objectives.However,restricted to policy burdens caused by the regulatory capture,local governments are difficult to effectively implement strict supervision.Only through changing in the regulatory pattern,such as independent judiciary,vertical supervision and social supervision,and introducing regulatory bodies unaffected by policy burdens,can food safety regulation be actively promoted to the transition to the strict law governing.At this point the governments can not only achieve policy objectives,but effectively improve food safety standards.

Degradation of Urea and Ethyl Carbamate in Chinese Rice Wine by Recombinant Acid Urease

Jianli Zhou;Zhen Kang;Qingtao Liu;Guocheng Du;Jian Chen

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology,2016,Vol 32,No. 01

【Abstract】 Ethyl carbamate (EC) as a potential carcinogen commonly exists in traditional fermented foods. It is important to eliminate urea that is the precursor of EC in many fermented foods, including Chinese Rice wine. On the basis of achieving high-level overexpression of food-grade ethanol-resistant acid urease, we studied the hydrolysis of urea and EC with the recombinant acid urease. Recombinant acid urease showed great degradation of urea in both the simulated system with ethanol and Chinese Rice wine (60 mg/L of urea was completely degraded within 25 h), indicating that the recombinant enzyme is suitable for the elimination of urea in Chinese Rice wine. Although recombinant acid urease can also degrade catalytic activity of EC, no obvious degradation of EC was observed. Further investigation results showed that the Km value for urea and EC of the recombinant acid urease was 0.714 7 mmol/L and 41.32 mmol/L, respectively. The results provided theoretical foundation for realizing simultaneous degradation of urea and EC.

An empirical analysis on technical efficiency of grain production and its influencing factors from the perspective of poverty—based on the EBM-Goprobit model

GAO Ming;MA Ling

China Rural Survey,2015,No. 04

【Abstract】 This paper used the provincial panel data from 2000 to 2013, adopted the latest EBM and Goprobit models in the DEA method, classified 30 provinces (cities or regions) into five categories according to the occurrence of poverty, analyzed technical efficiency of grain production in all categories of poor areas, and further found out the influencing factors. The conclusions were as follows. First, technical efficiency of grain production in poor areas had been the main factor restricting the increase in China's grain production since 2000; second, in relatively poor areas, the contribution rate of science and technology to the process of grain production was lower than the national average; third, the improvement of human capital was beneficial to poor areas for promoting technical efficiency of grain production; agricultural subsidies could distort technical efficiency of grain production in both poor and non-poor areas, but had promoting effects on very poor areas.

Is the comparative efficiency of grain production low in China?

LI Shouhan;HE Xiurong;YANG Shuguo

Chinese Rural Economy,2015,No. 05

【Abstract】 This paper analyzes the comparative efficiency of Chinese grain production from the perspective of industrial benefits, benefits of agricultural production projects and workday earnings. The conclusion is that according to the official accounting, the cost-profit ratio of grain production is very high, but there is a serious phenomenon that it is virtual-high. If we calculate household labor input by the market labor price, the profit of grain production per mu (a unit of area (1 mu = 0.0667 hectares)) is low, and even negative. The cost-profit ratio, net income per mu and profit per mu of grain production are far lower than those of vegetable and fruit production. Before 2010, the workday earnings of grain production gradually improve, even a little higher than daily wages of local workers (employed in busy farming season). But after 2010, they are gradually lower than the workday earnings of local workers and migrant workers. This paper holds that the core issue of the lower efficiency of Chinese grain production is that the annual profit of grain agriculture is lower, and the main reason is the underemployment of grain agriculture in time and space. The fundamental way to improve annual profit of grain production is to expand the scale of operation, and to match the advantage of unit benefit of high-price crop with advantage of scale.

Cause analysis of the squeeze effect of China’s grain market

WENG Ming

Chinese Rural Economy,2015,No. 11

【Abstract】 The rigidly rising price of China’s grain and the constantly decreasing price of international grain led to the price of domestic grain significantly higher than that of international grain, also caused the squeeze effect of China’s grain market. This paper analyzed the mechanism of the squeeze effect of China’s grain market and the change in the wheat and corn production cost of China and America as well as the international shipping expense of grain. What the research results showed were as the follows. The squeeze effect mainly originated from the change in the grain production cost both at home and abroad. Especially, the proportion of domestic labor cost was great and the growth range was large, and the rising range of domestic land cost was significant while the decrease in the international shipping expense of grain prompted the further decrease in the CIF price of imported grain. Meanwhile, given the negative effect of the squeeze effect of the grain market, this paper calculated space for reducing the import tariff of grain when the prices of grain at home and abroad were in an inverted relation in 2015, and the result was that space for reducing the tariff of major grain varieties was very limited in China.

New and effective solutions to the problem of grain security: enhancing the development of the forage grass industry

WANG Mingli

Chinese Rural Economy,2015,No. 12

【Abstract】 During 2003–2014, China’s grain production had achieved the eleventh increase in a row. Meanwhile, China’s agriculture also faces the shortage of water and land resources, outstanding problems of quality and security of products, heavy pressure on the ecology, low production efficiency and other outstanding restraints. The traditional ideas must be reconsidered from a fresh and wide perspective for solving the problem of grain security. This paper suggests that grain security should be repositioned from the perspective of the entire food system. Currently, the problem of grain security in China is forage security in essence, namely, the sufficient supply, and quality and security of animal products. China’s agricultural structure has been adjusted basically every 20 years, namely, the monotonous structure of grain as the key link from the middle 1950s to the implementation of the reform and opening-up policy, the dual structure of grain crops + cash crops from 1978 to 1992, and the triple structure of grain crops, cash crops and forage crops from 1992 to the present. Now, China’s agricultural structure has entered another new period for adjustment. In the current planting structure of grain crops + cash crops + forage crops, the planting area of forage crops actually accounts for over 20%, but the planting area of forage grass keeps at around 1%, so the development of forage grass industry has long remained sluggish. The forage grass industry must be introduced to the agricultural production system to advance the quadruple planting structure of grain crops + cash crops + forage crops + forage grass, so as to increase grain production directly or indirectly, reduce consumption of grain directly or indirectly, and finally reach the goal of grain security by multiple solutions.

Influences of outflow of rural labor force on grain production: evidence from China

CHENG Mingwang;HUANG Tiantian;LIU Yajuan

China Rural Survey,2015,No. 06

【Abstract】 Grain security is a core problem of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers in China, and the outflow of rural labor force may have a significant influence on grain security. This paper used the panel data from 2001 to 2013, based on the extended C-D production function to make an empirical analysis of the outflow of rural labor force’s influences on grain production and its regional differences. The results showed that the outflow of rural labor force had a remarkable negative influence on grain production in the main sales areas of grain. However, it had no significant influences on grain production in major grain-producing areas and areas with the balance between production and sales. Fully considering the difference of resources endowments and regional characteristics in different areas, making different policies of labor mobility and grain security will be beneficial to ensure the safety of China’s food supply.

What are the main factors that determinate China ’s future grain yield increase? —an analysis based on China’s grain yield increase for ten consecutive year

TIAN Tian;LI Longling;HUANG Dong;WU Laping

Chinese Rural Economy,2015,No. 06

【Abstract】 Against the background of China’s grain yield increase for ten consecutive years from 2004 to 2013, this study, through the decomposition of the grain output equation, finds that grain yield increase is influenced by three factors: yield per unit area, sown area and adjustment of planting structure, and then it further calculates how the above three factors contribute to the “ten consecutive years’ growth.” The results show that the increase of crop yield per unit area contributes the most to grain yield increase. For that reason, the study further builds the Cobb-Douglas function model to analyze the effects of various inputs, policies, climate and farmer’s behavior on yield per unit area. The results show that financial support for agriculture, seed and machinery operation are important driving factors to increase yield per unit area; meanwhile, temperature and rainfall have significantly positive effects on yield per unit area of wheat and maize, and farmer’s expected returns have significantly positive effects on yield per unit area of rice and maize. Thus, it can be concluded that China’s future grain yield increase will more and more depend on improved excellent varieties and machinery investment, which must be supported by policies in terms of governmental agricultural research and popularization and mechanization of agriculture.

The opening of Chinese grain market and international grain price fluctuations: an analysis based on the overflow effect of grain price fluctuations

LI Guangsi;CAO Baoming;MA Xuelin

Chinese Rural Economy,2015,No. 08

【Abstract】 This article uses the co-integration test and vector auto-regression (VAR) model to analyze the relations between Chinese grain prices and international grain prices. With the Baba-Engle-Kraft-Kroner (BEKK) model, it analyzes the overflow effect of international grain price fluctuations on Chinese grain price fluctuations. The study shows that there is no obvious co-integration relation between Chinese grain prices and international grain prices. Nevertheless, when the grain market is becoming more open, the co-integration level between Chinese grain prices and international grain prices is increasing. International grain price fluctuations have big impacts on Chinese grain price fluctuations, but the impacts are different among different varieties of grain. International grain price fluctuations have significant overflow effects on Chinese grain price fluctuations, and the overflow effects are strengthened by the opening of China’s grain market.

Blue basic farmland: guaranteeing food security and designing the system

HAN Limin;LI Dahai;WANG Bo

Chinese Rural Economy,2015,No. 10

【Abstract】 The maricultural zone is the main production base of marine aquatic products, and has the important function of guaranteeing food security. This paper used experience of protecting basic farmland for reference earnestly, brought forth new ideas to the system of managing sea, put forward the idea of blue basic farmland firstly, and analyzed necessity of establishing the system of blue basic farmland from the industrial spatial layout and optimization of maricultural industry and other aspects. The research findings showed that protecting and expanding capacity of maricultural production could relieve pressure on food security brought by the growth in residents’ food consumption from animal source at this stage. It was necessary for China to strengthen the guidance for development and protection for maricultural zone through establishing the system of blue basic farmland. This paper suggested delimiting inshore and offshore blue basic farmland of 500 thousand hectares and one million hectares respectively in the near future, and to expand them to be one million hectares and 5 million hectares by 2030 respectively. If this system can be established and be made full use of, only blue basic farmland can achieve that the production of marine aquatic products increases by 22 million tons and can promote the production capacity of China’s marine animal food to increase by 30 million tons than that of now. It is equivalent to exploiting arable land of 160 million acres on the sea. The overall planning for land and sea will enhance China’s capacity for guaranteeing food security in the further.

The influence of climate change on grain production of China: based on the empirical analysis on the county-level panel data

CHEN Shuai;XU Jintao;ZHANG Haipeng

Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 05

【Abstract】 Based on the data on the crop yields, irrigation, meteorology and social economy on county-level in China between 1996 and 2009, and combining them with the growth cycles of crops in different areas, this paper investigated the effects of climate change on production of rice and wheat in China by using methods in economics. It was found that there was a nonlinear relationship between the influence of climatic variables including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, and the per-unit-area yields of rice and wheat in China with increases first followed by decreases and there was an optimal point. It was expected that by the middle of this century, climatic conditions would be beyond the optimal inflection point and have an obvious negative influence on production of rice and wheat in China. Moreover, due to the existence of the nonlinear relationship, long-term harm of climate change would increase dramatically in the future. By the end of this century, climate change would lead to a reduction of 2%–16% in the per-unit-area rice yield, and a reduction of 3%–19% in the per-unit-area wheat yield in China. This means that we need to make more active and effective climate policies in order to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change on grain production in China effectively.

Research on the sustainability of cultivated land use in China: based on grain productivity

SUN Ruomei

Ecological Economy,2016,Vol 32,No. 12

【Abstract】 This paper starts with definition of the sustainability of cultivated land use. We research on the evaluation of productive sustainability of cultivated land by the measure of comparable coefficient of grain productivity and the standardized score system, and also on the evaluation of ecological sustainability of cultivated land through adjusting the comparable coefficients and standardized score by using the excess fertilization of unit land as an ecological factor. We base our research on the data and achieve the measure of sustainability, with the time frame from base period and report period and the measure in space of provincial regions. We have two main findings. Firstly, country wide productive sustainability of cultivated land is increasing, as measured by the grain productivity of cultivated land, but after adjusting by using the excess fertilization of unit land as an ecological factor, the ecological sustainability is significantly lower than the productive sustainability. Secondly, there are substantial regional differences in ecological sustainability and productive sustainability, that is, the sustainability of cultivated land use is more stable and of higher growth for areas of major grain production than the average of the country, indicating that the diversity of cultivated land protection policy is helpful for the stability and improvement of sustainability of cultivated land use

?Changing mechanism of China’s grain production from the perspective of peasant’s decision-making

CHEN Yangfen;WANG Guogang;WANG Lijuan

Economic Geography,2016,Vol 36,No. 07

【Abstract】 Based on the theoretical analysis of the relationship between peasant’s decision-making and the cost-benefit of grain production, this paper analyzes the spatial-temporal change of China’s grain production by using panel data model with provincial data during 2004–2013. It shows that there is a relative increase of sown area of grain in the North and the central region, and a relative reduction in the eastern region, the western region, and the South. Therefore, there really exists the phenomenon of “northward and central shift” in China’s grain production. Among all the influencing factors, labor input is still an important factor in maintaining grain production, while large scale non-agricultural employment has a significantly negative effect especially for the eastern and central regions. Compared with net profit, cash income plays a stronger role in affecting planting decision. The increase of grain yield does not necessarily increase the sown area of grain crops, while the larger the existing planting scale, the more perfect the infrastructure, and the stronger will of peasants to plant grain. Due to difference in endowment, non-agricultural employment, planting structure, infrastructure and some other factors, there exist some differences in the influencing factors among regions.

New challenges of agricultural environment for profits of grain production—a case study on winter wheat planting affected by surface ozone pollution

YANG Yongbing;YI Fujin;HU Hao

Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 09

【Abstract】 This paper used the production data on winter wheat and data on the concentration of surface ozone pollution of 733 major winter wheat-producing counties in 13 provinces (cities) in China in 2006, 2008 and 2010, and employed the profit model of wheat planting in trans-log form to analyze the effects of ozone pollution on profits got from planting winter wheat in China. The results showed that the increase in the concentration of surface ozone had significantly adverse effects on both yields and profits of planting winter wheat. Every one unit increase in the mean concentration of ozone would reduce the winter wheat yield by 808.1 thousand tons in China, resulting in a loss of CNY 617 million for farmer households’ profits. With the increase in the concentration of surface ozone, farmer households would take actions such as reducing input of production factor in the short term so as to adapt to the adverse impacts of ozone pollution upon profits of planting grain, thereby aggravating losses to the crop yield caused by ozone pollution. On this basis, this paper puts forward the corresponding agricultural and environmental policies so as to mitigate the adverse effects of surface ozone pollution on grain production.

Impact of direct grain subsidies on wheat productivity for farmers operating farms of different sizes: based on data collected from farmers at national rural fixed observation points

GAO Ming;SONG Hongyuan;Michael Carter

Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 08

【Abstract】 By using the panel data collected from sample farmers at national rural observation points in Henan Province between 2003 and 2014, this paper used the EBM model and the GML index to analyze technical efficiency of wheat production and wheat total factor productivity (TFP) in Henan Province between 2009 and 2014. Then wheat TFP was decomposed to analyze the impact of direct grain subsidies (DGS) on wheat productivity for farmers operating farms of different sizes by using instrumental variables and the 2SLS method. What this paper found were as the follows. Between 2009 and 2014, wheat production had scale efficiency in Henan Province, and wheat TFP had increased, which was mainly caused by the increase in factor input. DGS had positive impacts on technical efficiency of farmers’ wheat production. However, DGS had small impacts on wheat TFP for farmers who had more than 6 mu of farmland. In terms of the impacts of DGS on different contributing factors of wheat TFP, DGS promoted the growth rate of human capital for farmers who had 0–6 mu of farmland, and promoted the growth rate of factor input for farmers who had more than 6 mu of farmland. However, these impacts were not sufficient to promote the increase in wheat TFP.

Is off-farm employment undermining grain production? An analysis of the farming household’s factor substitution, crop allocation adjustment, as well relevant constraints

ZHONG Funing;LU Wuyi;XU Zhigang

Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 07

【Abstract】 It has become a prominent issue in the discussion of agriculture economy whether and to what extent the massive migration of rural labor has impacted on grain production. This study is a theoretical and empirical examination of the factor substitution and crop allocation adjustment following off-farm employment among farming households, the resulting influences on grain production, as well as the influences of off-farm employment on grain production under different constraints. The results show that off-farm employment may cause adjustments in factor investment and crop allocation, and increase in the proportion of machine investment and grain seeded area. Therefore, the grain seeded area increases as a whole. In their attempts to reduce labor investment, it is considered as a sensible choice to increase grain cropping which is less labor-intensive and more machine-friendly. However, how much off-farm employment can influence grain production is determined by such constraints as the practicability of mechanization and the possibility for crop allocation adjustment. In hilly or mountainous areas where machine cultivation is inadaptable, the positive effect of off-farm employment on grain production will be undermined. Whereas in the city suburbs with large market capacity and great potential for crop allocation adjustment, the positive effect of off-farm employment on grain production will also be undermined.

Effects of agricultural machinery on the substitution intensity of labor force and food output

WANG Ou;TANG Ke;ZHENG Huamao

Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 12

【Abstract】 With the advancement of urbanization in China and the exodus of the rural labor force, the agricultural production in China is developing in the direction that relies more on machinery input. It is very important to recognize the influences of agricultural machinery on intensity of labor force substitution and grain output, as well as the differences of the influences between different grain varieties and different time and space. Based on the Chinese villages’ fixed observing point from 2003 to 2014 of the farmer households’ panel data, this paper calculated the elasticity of input-output of the machinery and the labor force and the elasticity of technological substitution between them through the tranlog production function. Research results showed that the development of agricultural machinery had effectively replaced the agricultural labor force, and promoted the increase of grain production. However, the substitution intensity of agricultural machinery for labor force showed differences in time and space between different varieties of grain. Specifically, from 2003 to 2014, wheat and rice’s values of elasticity of the machinery-labor technological substitution were constant, and formed the substitution of agricultural machinery for the labor force. Corn’s value of elasticity of the machinery-labor technological substitution increased from −0.744 to 0.101, and the relationship between machinery and labor force evolved from complementarity to substitution. As for comparing the substitution intensity of agricultural machinery for labor force, rice was higher than wheat, and wheat was higher than corn. As for comparing different areas, the substitution intensity of agricultural machinery for labor force in plain areas is higher than that in non-plain areas. Therefore, considering the differences of the development levels of agricultural machinery in different areas and food varieties, the emphasis on technological innovation and promotion of agricultural machinery should be inclined to corn and non-plain areas in future.

Analysis on the coordination degree of grain production pattern and income level in main grain producing areas of China

QI Heng;WU Ling

Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 06

【Abstract】 By using the analytical method of geographic concentration degree and historic data in main grain producing areas in 1978–2014, this article constructs CGR and CGI index to conduct analysis on coordination degree of grain production, local fiscal revenue and farmers’ income. Results indicate that in over three decades during 1978–2014, both coordination degrees of “grain production and fiscal revenue” and “grain production and farmers’ income” turn better. Measured from spatial distribution, CGR and CGI indicate that geographic distribution on coordination degree of “grain production and fiscal revenue” and “grain production and farmers’ income” in main grain producing areas shows big alterations. As an emerging grain producing area, Northeast China converts from extreme coordinated situation to incongruency, but eastern and southern provinces show a reverse trend. Measured from the time trend, the largest provinces on grain production are growing more incongruent, for both CGR and CGI indicate that largest grain producing provinces such as Heilongjiang and Henan fall into the most uncoordinated areas. Some littoral advanced provinces in the east and south show improvement on coordination degree.

The spillover effect of agricultural mechanization on grain output in China: from the perspective of cross-regional mechanization services

WU Junqian;FANG Shile;LI Gucheng ;XU Guangtong

Chinese Rural Economy,2017,No. 06

【Abstract】 This paper used the spatial Durbin model to explore the direct influence and spatial spillover effect of agricultural mechanization on the grain output with provincial-level panel data in China during 1978–2012. The main findings were as the follows. First, there was a spatial spillover effect of agricultural mechanization development on the grain output. The agricultural mechanization levels of other regions had a positive effect on the grain output of the local region. Second, from the perspective of the time dimension, the spatial spillover effect had become more significant since 1999, thus verifying the evolution history of cross-regional agricultural mechanization services in China. Third, from the perspective of the spatial dimension, the spatial spillover effect mainly occurred in regions with different latitudes, and this effect was insignificant within regions with the same latitude, which corresponded to the operational mechanism of cross-latitude agricultural machinery services in China.

Corporate governance, equity structure and food safety information disclosure

CHEN Suyun

Chinese Rural Economy,2017,No. 03

【Abstract】 Food safety information disclosure has become the hotspot of regulators, practitioners and researchers recently. Based on the data of 137 listed food corporations at the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges in 2011–2015, this paper examines the effect of corporate governance on food safety information disclosure by taking the food safety disclosure level as measurement index. It finds that the better the corporate governance practices, the higher the level of food safety information disclosure is. The empirical study indicates that the proportion of independent directors, executive shareholding ratio, executive remuneration ratio and ownership concentration have a significant positive effect on food safety information disclosure. Further analysis shows that with different equity structures, corporate governance also has different effects on food safety information disclosure. In state-owned enterprises, the combined title of board chair and general manager has a significant positive effect on food safety information disclosure, but this effect displays in a negative way in non-state-owned holding enterprises. Furthermore, the executive remuneration ratio in state-owned enterprises is found to play a more significant effect on food safety information disclosure than in non-state-owned enterprises, while the executive shareholding ratio in non-state-owned enterprises is found to play a more significant effect on food safety information disclosure than in state-owned enterprises.

Sino-Kazakhstan grain trade and cooperation: status quo and obstacles

ZHANG Qingping;ZHU Jing

Russian Central Asian & East European Market,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 China’s import of grain from Kazakhstan is characterized by small volumes, instability and the inefficient use of grain market resources in Kazakhstan despite the fact that the basis for grain trade and cooperation is favorable. Analyzing major obstacles to grain trade and cooperation, this paper was concluded with policy suggestions against the background of constructing the Belt and Road Initiative, based on a study on the status quo of Kazakhstan’s grain production, consumption, and trade as well as Sino-Kazakhstan grain trade and cooperation.

Food safety, regulatory boundedness and institutional arrangement

XIE Kang;LAI Jintian;XIAO Jinghua;WU Jiapei

Economic Research Journal,2016,Vol 51,No. 04

【Abstract】 Most of the research assumed that the food safety regulatory policy should be more stringent, which means that more institution supply would decrease the opportunity of food safety policy violation. This paper is based on the full rationality and bounded rationality of food safety decision making, using the method of simulation and finds that, strengthening the regulatory power would have dual impact on the food producers’ policy violation behavior. In some situation, with the strengthening of regulatory power, the food safety violation behavior would increase (the dilemma of regulation). In the meanwhile, the average revenue and the total revenue of the industry would also decrease (the dilemma of violation) . As a result, this paper comes up with the theory of “regulatory boundedness” in food safety governance. Based on this theory, we concluded that food safety regulatory institution should transform from strengthening regulatory power only, to optimizing the structural regulatory institution arrangement, which means that when regulatory resource was scarce, government should take the food producers, consumers and regulators into consideration. Government should adjust the regulatory power based on the producer revenue and consumers’ willingness to pay, in return the different levels of regulatory power would impact the producer revenue and consumers’ willingness to pay. Finally, the paper concludes that government should balance the regulatory power, producer revenue and consumers’ willingness to pay, instead of strengthening the regulatory power.

Potential impacts of reforming China’s floor price policies on grains *

CAO Hui;ZHANG Yumei;SUN Hao

Chinese Rural Economy,2017,No. 11

【Abstract】 The Chinese government has started to adjust floor price policies on grains in 2017. This paper discusses this policy reform and analyzes its potential impacts on grain markets and farmers’ income. It applies a Partial Equilibrium Agricultural Trade Simulation (PEATSim) model and simulates different policy scenarios under open market conditions, including the 2017 rice floor price decreases, a range of hypothetical floor price levels reflecting production costs and profit margins, and the elimination of all floor prices. The model makes it possible to evaluate the potential impacts of these various scenarios on grain production, consumption, prices, and farmers’ income. The results show that the 2017 decrease in the floor price on rice may have a relatively small impact on China’s grain markets. The impacts of a slightly decrease in floor price on wheat may also be limited. However, a sharp reduction (more than 10%) or even the elimination of floor prices would generate a substantial shock on grain markets, causing a decrease in both grain production and farmers’ income in the main production areas. Therefore, the study suggests implementing floor price policy reforms in a gradual way and exploring long-term mechanisms to protect farmers’ income positions.

Influence and constraints of the development of the farmland transfer market on grain production

XU Zhigang;TAN Xin;ZHENG Xuyuan;LU Wuyi

Chinese Rural Economy,2017,No. 09

【Abstract】 This paper analyzed the influence and mechanisms of the development of farmland transfer market on grain production, especially under three different constraints of endowment of cultivated land resources, agricultural market capacity and the degree of difficulty in factor substitution caused by topographic features. The results showed that the development of farmland transfer market has caused a decline both in the acreage of grain and its proportion in the crop acreage, which generates harmful effects on grain production. However, the negative effects are different under different constraints. The negative effects would be weakened in different degrees in remote areas and plain areas which are abundant in land resources and suitable for mechanization. Therefore, in further promoting China’s farmland transfer, in addition to food security, more attention needs to be paid to the constraints that farmers are facing in the adjustment of production structure, such as resources endowment, agricultural market capacity and the degree of difficulty in factor substitution.

Do subsidies make up for the loss of grain production efficiency?

GAO Ming;SONG Hongyuan;Michael CARTER

Management World,2017,No. 09

【Abstract】 This paper adopted the micro-data of National Rural Fixed Observation Point from 2003 to 2014 and used the latest technology epsilon based measure model of data envelopment analysis to dissect the loss of wheat production efficiency in Henan Province from 2009 to 2014 based on the dynamic asset poverty theory. Then, it estimated the impact of agricultural subsidies on the lost production efficiency with the Heckman sample selection model. Finally, it made robustness test on the research results through instrumental variables and multiple estimation methods. As revealed in research, Henan Province suffered severe loss of wheat production efficiency from 2009 to 2014 despite a year-by-year increase; agricultural subsidies motivated peasant households who were restrained by assets to choose mode of production with high productivity, thereby making up the loss in grain production efficiency; agricultural subsidies are critical for wheat production, especially the direct ones; subsidies for purchasing superior crop varieties reduce productivity loss of peasant households with the wheat sown area less than 6 mu, while general subsidies for agricultural supplies exert significant influence on peasant households with the wheat sown area greater than 6 mu. In light of that, this paper proposes relevant measures and suggestions.

Evaluation and analysis on the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural eco-efficiency of major grain production areas

YU Ting;HAO Xinbo

Ecological Economy,2018,Vol 34,No. 09

【Abstract】 This paper used SBM-undesirable model to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural eco-efficiency of 13 major grain production areas based on the data from 2003 to 2015. On this basis, we decomposed efficiency, analyzed the causes of efficiency change, and then put forward the path of efficiency improvement. Results show the following aspects. (1) Agricultural eco-efficiency in major grain production areas has a general trend of improvement and spatial heterogeneity. Agricultural pollution has a negative impact on the improvement of agricultural eco-efficiency. DEA efficient area shifts from northwest and southwest to northeast and north of China. (2) The efficiency decomposition shows that the change of agricultural eco-efficiency is mainly due to the scale efficiency from 2003 to 2011, and the combined effect of pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency from 2012 to 2015. (3) The main reason of the loss of agricultural eco-efficiency lies in excessive resource input and environmental pollutants emissions; and there are differences in efficiency improvement paths among the non-DEA efficient grain production areas. Optimizing resource allocation and reducing environmental negative effects are the effective ways to improve agricultural eco-efficiency and achieve sustainable development of agriculture.

Puzzle of China’s grain trade deficit: variety, price or volume

SUN Zhilu;LI Xiande

Journal of International Trade,2018,No. 09

【Abstract】 Based on the data from UN Comtrade Database from 1995 to 2016, this paper used the trade margins decomposition methodology developed by and Klenow (2005) to measure trade margins of China’s grain exports and imports, and then for deeper exploration of structural characteristics of China’s grain trade deficit, it conducted comparative analysis on the effect mechanism of trade variety, trade price and trade volume on the evolution of China’s grain trade before and after WTO accession. The results indicated that China’s grain trade showed variety deficit, price deficit and volume surplus before WTO accession, and variety surplus, price surplus and volume deficit after WTO accession. Before China joined WTO, its grain exports increased along extensive and intensive margins, and grain imports increased along intensive margin. After WTO accession, China’s grain exports have being declining along extensive and intensive margins, and grain imports have been increasing along extensive and intensive margins. On the whole, both of China’s grain exports and imports mainly change along the intensive margin, and the change in grain trade volume is the main cause for the change in grain exports and imports.

Effect of agricultural mechanization development on grain planting area in China

YANG Jin;WU Bi;JIN Songqing ;CHEN Zhigang

Chinese Rural Economy,2018,No. 03

【Abstract】 This paper examines the impact of the rapid development of agricultural mechanization in China on the sown area of grain. The study focuses on two questions, namely, whether the use of agricultural mechanization services affects the grain production structure, and whether the unit cost of mechanization services affects the grain production structure. It finds that the use of agricultural mechanization services has no significant impact on the grain production structure adjustment, but the rising unit cost of mechanization services has a positive impact on the structure adjustment. In addition, for households located in plain areas, the rising unit cost of mechanization services is found to weaken the negative impact of mechanization on the structure adjustment.

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