Effects of Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic Training Inhibits Hippocampal Inflammation by Activating the Hippocampus TLR4/miR-223/NLRP3 Signaling Pathway Axis in Mice with CUMS-induced Depression
China Sport Science,2019,Vol 39,No. 02
【Abstract】 Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aerobic training on the hippocampal inflammation by activating the hippocampal TLR4/miR-223/NLRP3 signal pathway in mice with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. Methods: Sixty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into control group (CG), CUMS model group (MG), CUMS model plus exercise group (ME), TLR4 inhibitor group (TG), and TLR4 inhibitor plus exercise group (TE) ( n = 12). Except CG, the CUMS was molded for mice of the other four groups with chronic stress for 28 days. The mice in both ME group and TE group were trained using a treadmill at a moderate intensity for 8 weeks. The mice in TG group and TE group were received intraperitoneal injection of TAK-242, an inhibitor of TLR4, for 4 weeks. The neurobehavioral scores were tested after the 8-week training for all the mice. The samples were collected the day after their last training. The levels of blood IL-1β and IL-10 were measured using ELISA kit; the morphology of Nissl body in hippocampus was detected by Nissl staining; the positive expression areas of TLR4, IL-1β, IL-10, and NF-κB proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry; the mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, TLR4, IL-1β, IL-10, NF-κB, and miR-223 in hippocampus were examined by RT-PCR; the protein expression levels of TLR4, IL-1β, and IL-10 in hippocampus were tested by Western blot. Results: The mice with CUMS showed significantly decreased neurobehavioral function, significantly increased inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β in blood, and the appearance of Nissl body pyknosis. The 8-week aerobic training significantly improved the hippocampus function in the mice with CUMS, reduced the level of IL-1β in blood, Nissl body pyknosis, and the desperate behaviors, and increased the mouse desire to survive. High-throughput sequencing and correlation analysis of miRNA and mRNA showed that there was a targeting regulatory relationship between miR-223 and NLRP3, which was influenced by exercise intervention. The expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as NLRP3, TLR4, IL-1β, and NF-κB were down-regulated while that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was up-regulated in ME mice. The expressions of NF-κB and NLRP3 were down-regulated and that of miR-223 was up-regulated, and the anti-inflammatory effect was increased in TG mice. The consistent anti-inflammatory effect was also found in TE mice. Conclusion: Aerobic training significantly reduced the expression of TLR4 in the hippocampus of mice with CUMS-induced depression while activated the TLR4/miR-223/NLRP3 pathway axis, thus improving the hippocampus function to inhibit inflammation and enhance the repair of hippocampal inflammatory injury.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 11
【Abstract】 Objective: To observe the effect of aerobic exercise on adrenal G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2), α2-adrenergic receptor ( α2-AR) and plasma catecholamine in rats with heart failure and to investigate the possible mechanism of exercise-induced inhibition on excessive activation of sympathetic nerve. Methods: Thirty six healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operation sedentary group (SF-sed group), heartfailure sedentary control group (HF-sed group), and heart-failure exercise group (HF-ex group). Rats in HF-ex group finished 10-week treadmill training while rats of SH-sed and HF-sed groups kept resting state. After the experiment, cardiac structure and function were detected by ultrechocardiograph; collagen volume fraction (CVF) was tested by Masson staining; plasma epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NEP) were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography; mRNA of cardiac collagen type I (Col-1), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was tested by real-time quantitative PCR and the protein level of adrenal GRK2 and α2-AR was explored by Western blotting. Results: 1) Compared with SH-sed group, fractional shortening (FS) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in HF-sed group were decreased ( P < 0.05) and plasma EP and NEPwas increased ( P < 0.05); mRNA expression of heart Col-1, ANF and TGF-β1 (remodeling genes) and protein of adrenal GRK2 were upregulated ( P < 0.05),while adrenal α2-AR protein was downregulated ( P < 0.05).
Mechanism of Aerobic Exercise Intervention on Insulin Resistance in Rats Based on Pancreatic Metabonomics
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 06
【Abstract】 Objective: This study aimed at exploring the mechanism of aerobic exercise intervention on insulin resistance (IR) by 1H-NMR metabolomics. Methods: Forty 2-month-old rats were randomly divided into normal diet group and high-fat diet group for 5 weeks. IR Rats were evaluated by hyperinsulinemic-glucose improved clamp and then divided into control group (N), model group (IR) and model exercise group (IRe). The rats of IRe group finished 6 weeks aerobics. After the experiment, all IR rats were examined by clamp, serum FINS was tested by FINS, pancreatic tissue metabolites were explored by 1H-NMR and analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis, metabolic pathways were detected by Metabo Analyst, and potential biomarkers were screened by the ROC. Results: 1) Compared with N group, FINS in IR group increased significantly and GIR decreased significantly. Compared with IR group, the body weight and FINS of IRe group decreased significantly and GIR increased significantly. 2) Compared with N group, 11 metabolites in the pancreas tissue of the IR group were different and were closely related to the six metabolic pathways, and 5 IR pancreatic biomarkers were found by ROC analysis. 3) Compared with IR group, 5 biomarkers, such as citric acid, glutamic acid and glutamine, were changed to different degrees in IRe group. Conclusions: This 6-week aerobic exercise can significantly improve the IR induced by high-fat diet, and its mechanism may be related the fact that aerobic exercise can alter the pancreatic biomarkers in different degrees in IR rats and then improve their metabolic pathways.
Effects of Aerobic Exercise on the Expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and TGF-β1 and Cardiac Function in Myocardial Infarction Rats
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 02
【Abstract】 Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of aerobic exercise on the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and TGF-β1 and cardiac function in myocardial infarction (MI) rats. Methods: Thirty-four Sprague Dawley male rats weighting 180–220 g were selected. Ten of them were randomly selected for sham operation control group (group A), the other 24 rats were established as MI model by ligaturing left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), 20 of them were survival and divided into myocardial infarction group (group B) and myocardial infarction + aerobic exercise group (group C). The group C rats were participated in eight weeks of aerobic exercise. After training, the cardiac function was measured, and the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and TGF-β1 were tested by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with those of rats in group A, the heart coefficient, LVSP, and ±dp/dtmax of rats in group B significantly decreased ( P < 0.01), and the LVEDP and MOD of Bax, p53, and TGF-β1 in group B significantly increased ( P < 0.01). Compared with those in group B, the heart coefficient, LVSP, ± dp/dtmax, and MOD of Bcl-2 in group C significantly increased, but the LVEDP and MOD of Bax, p53, and TGF-β1 decreased ( P < 0.01). Conclusions: In MI rats, the expressions of Bax, p53, and TGF-β1 increased, the expression of Bcl-2 decreased, and myocardial cell apoptosis increased. Eight weeks aerobic exercise could reduce the expressions of Bax, p53, and TGF-β1 in MI rats, increase rats’ Bcl-2, inhibit myocardial cell apoptosis. TGF-β1 may participate in the myocardial cell apoptosis by affecting the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Aerobic exercise may improve cardiac function by inhibiting apoptosis to reduce myocardial cell loss in MI rats.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 01
【Abstract】 Purpose The present study aimed to observe the effect of 3-month 50%–60% aerobic exercise on cardiovascular risks of people aged between 50 and 59 during exercise so as to provide effective and safe exercise programs for them. Methods: 66 people aged between 50 and 59 were recruited as subjects through a questionnaire survey, and were divided into normal group (Group C), abnormal group (Group Y) and transient abnormal group (Group YH) based on whether they were found to have abnormal changes in electrocardiogram or blood pressure during Bruce graded exercise test. All subjects participated in 3-month 50%–60%aerobic exercise lasting for 300 minutes per week. Anthropometric indices, physiological and biochemical indices, ultrasonic examination and other indices in the exercise test were measured and analyzed. Results: After the intervention, the incidence of the abnormal changes of electrocardiogram and blood pressure of male and female subjects in Group Y decreased to 69.2% and 58.3% respectively, and those of male and female subjects in Group YH decreased to 25% and 75% respectively. Myocardial enzyme in both Group Y and Group YH decreased after the intervention. The completed exercise load increased after the intervention, and anthropometric indices, cardiovascular function, blood lipids and autonomic nervous function improved. Conclusion: Some cardiovascular risks were found among subjects aged between 50 and 59 in the graded exercise test. Three-month 50%–60% running can reduce cardiovascular risks and improve exercise safety for people vulnerable to cardiovascular risks.
Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 04
【Abstract】 Objective: To investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway of hippocampus in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: control group (CG) and acute exercise group (EG). The rats of EG underwent 1 h treadmill running at a speed of 25 m/min (75% VO2max). Then the hippocampus was isolated at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h after exercise. The mRNA and protein and phosphorylation levels of PI3K catalytic subunit p110, Akt, GSK3β and tau were analyzed by quantitative PCR or Western blot. Results: After acute aerobic exercise, the mRNA and protein levels of PI3K p110 in the EG increased firstly and then declined. The PI3K p110 mRNA level in EG reached the maximum at 12 h after exercise which was 2.2-fold higher than that in CG (P < 0.01), and its protein level was 1.45-fold higher than that in CG at 24 h after exercise (P < 0.05). At 48 h after exercise, there were no differences in mRNA and protein levels of PI3K p110 between EG and CGs. Compared with CG, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Akt and GSK3β didn’t change at 48 h after exercise, but the phosphorylation levels of Akt Ser473 and GSK3βSer9 were the highest at 24 h after exercise, they were 5.98-fold and 2.4-fold higher than those in the CG respectively (P < 0.01), and they decreased to the level of CG at 48 h after exercise.The phosphorylation levels of tau Ser202 decreased at first and then increased, and it was the lowest at 24 h after exercise, it was about 60% of that in CG (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Acute aerobic exercise can improve the mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K p110 and its kinase activity of rats’ hippocampus in a short time, and enhance the phosphorylation levels of Akt Ser473 and active the Akt. The actived Akt can improve the phosphorylation of GSK3βSer9 while inhibit GSK3β kinase activity, which results in the decline of phosphorylation levels of tau Ser202. Therefore the acute aerobic exercise can increase the activity of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway of hippocampus in rats in the short term.