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Does preschool attendance matter for the urban-rural cognition gap of middle school students?


Sociological Studies,2019,Vol 34,No. 03

【Abstract】 Cognitive abilities have great impact on individuals’ socioeconomic status. However, evidence of the effect of preschool education on urban-rural cognition gap from large-scale sample is almost nonexistent. Based on a nationally representative dataset from China Education Panel Survey, this study filled this gap by presenting evidence of significant cognition gap between urban and rural middle school students. We found a consistent positive relationship between preschool attendance and cognitive ability in Grade 7 and Grade 9, based on ordinary least squares and propensity score matching estimation. Results based on Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition suggest that the differences in preschool education experience between urban and rural students account for 28% to 44% of such cognition gap between group. We also simulated the intervention effects of preschool education development policy on narrowing urban-rural cognition gap.

A study on the effects of higher education population on urbanization: empirical evidence from 287 cities at and above the prefecture level in China

ZHOU Qiliang;FAN Hongzhong

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2019,No. 03

【Abstract】 Based on the panel data of 287 cities at and above the prefecture level in China during 1999–2015, this paper examined the effects of higher education population on urbanization. The results show that, (1) because of the congestion effects, it is not a simple positive linear relationship between higher education and urbanization. The direct effect of higher education population on urbanization is positive in small and medium-sized cities, but it is significantly reduced or even turns into negative in large and ultra-large cities. The indirect effect of higher education population on urbanization is positive, but it decreases with the expansion of city scale. (2) From the view of regional disparity, compared with the cities in the central and western regions, the effects are more prominent in the eastern cities. The paper urges policy initiatives to improve the positioning of urban development, encourage college graduates to work in small and medium-sized cities, control the congestion effects of large and ultra-large cities strictly, and distribute higher education resources rationally, so as to give full play to the positive role of higher education population on urbanization.

Influence of female’s education level and marriage pattern on their willingness to have a second child in China

ZHAO Menghan

Population Journal,2019,Vol 41,No. 03

【Abstract】 In the process of demographic transition, the improvement of female’s education level is often considered as one of the factors that promote fertility rate decline, however, during post-demographic transition period, female’s education level is found to be positively associated with fertility in many developed countries. This paper uses three-wave data from China General Social Survey in 2010, 2012 and 2013 to analyze the distribution of the willingness to have a second child across female’s education levels and marriage pattern. The results suggest that, compared to those only finishing Senior high school, the fertility willingness is higher for female with bachelor credential or at most primary school education, the results are robust even after controlling for female’s position in the income distribution. The dyadic analysis also suggests that wives from the couples who are both least or most educated tend to have higher fertility willingness. The gender equity theory is used to explain this U-shaped change pattern in female’s education level and marriage pattern. Fertility behavior is not only related to economic level or relative economic strength between husband and wife, but also affected by gender concept. More equal gender concept and gender relationship are conducive to promoting the promotion of fertility willingness. The government should promote a universal childcare system to ensure female’s employment and gender equality, so that the fertility rate will be maintained at a stable level.

The effects of educational expansion and human capital on economic growth in ethnic minority areas

ZHANG Aiqin;GAO Chunlei

Ethno-National Studies,2019,No. 03

【Abstract】 In order to understand the factors affecting the development of ethnic minority areas and promote the economic growth of ethnic minority areas, this paper has constructed the regression model based on the endogenous economic growth theory, used the provincial panel data from 2001 to 2016, and analyzed the effects from the perspective of education expansion and human capital, and then found the following. (1) The government’s preferential policies in ethnic minority areas have increased the average years of education in ethnic minority areas over non-ethnic areas, and the regional gap has narrowed. (2) The expansion of education has resulted in a significant decline in the proportion of the population at the primary and lower levels of education and a significant increase in the proportion of the population at middle and high schools and above. Compared with the non-ethnic areas, the proportion of the population at primary and lower levels of education has fallen sharply in ethnic minority areas though, the proportion of the population at middle and high schools still laggs behind. (3) The human capital density has kept increasing in all regions. In ethnic minority areas, it has rosen from 4.94% to 16.05%, but it is still lower than that in non-ethnic areas, and the regional gap is expanding. (4) The average year of education has a significant role in promoting the growth of per capita GDP of the whole country. The human capital density has a significantly positive impact on per capita GDP of the whole country and non-ethnic areas, but the impact on ethnic minority areas is not significant. In view of this, the government’s policy focus can be to continue to increase investment in education development in ethnic minority areas, to improve the level of basic public services, to further reform and improve the labor market system, to accelerate the transformation and upgrading of industrial structure and to concentrate on key provincial-level regions or key groups.

Can family participation in financial market improve intergenerational mobility in education?

ZHANG Tongjin;WAN Guanghua

Economic Review,2019,No. 03

【Abstract】 As more families participated in financial market, can finance weaken the intergenerational transmission effect and improve intergenerational mobility in education? This article constructs a two-period overlapping generations (OLG) model and analyzes the impact of family participation in financial market on intergenerational mobility in education. Then, with the CHFS data, we have tested the predictions of the theoretical model. The results show that family participation in financial market is significantly positively correlated with intergenerational mobility in education. In addition, we have divided the family participation in the financial market into two dimensions, namely financial assets and financial liabilities. We have found that financial liabilities play a more important role in improving intergenerational mobility in education. The results are still robust after taking endogeneity, sub-sample regression and variable measurement methods into account. Based on these findings, this article suggests that we should actively promote the development of inclusive finance, continuously expand the coverage and availability of financial services, and popularize and publicize financial knowledge. At the same time, society should provide more educational opportunities for individuals.

Educational expectation of peer group in class and adolescents: the effects of social conformity and social comparison

CAO Rui;WU Yuxiao

Youth Studies,2019,No. 05

【Abstract】 Based on the data of the China Education Panel Study (CEPS) for the 2014–2015 academic year, this paper discusses the influence of class peers on the educational expectation of adolescents. The results show that, under the influence of the social conformity effect, the educational expectation of adolescents increases with the increase of the average educational expectation of the class; under the influence of the social comparison effect, the educational expectation of adolescents decreases with the increase of the average academic performance of the class; the heterogeneity level of the competence composition of peer group has a positive impact on the educational expectation of adolescents; adolescents’ own academic performance can moderate the intensity of related influencing factors; the better a student’s performance is, the greater the positive impact of the conformity effect will be; and the worse his or her performance is, the greater the negative impact of the comparison effect will be, and the greater the positive impact of the heterogeneity level will be.

The impact of adult children’s education on the health of middle-aged and elderly parents

YANG Kewen;ZANG Wenbin;LI Guangqin

Population Journal,2019,Vol 41,No. 05

【Abstract】 According to United Nations standards, China has entered aging society in 1999, and the aging is deepening gradually. Along with the deepening of China’s aging, people’s education level is also rising, especially among young people, which makes the education of children usually higher than that of their parents. Since Grossman (1972) put forward the theory that education will have a positive impact on health, a large amount of literature both at home and abroad has proved the relationship between them. However, the current research basically ignores the impact of adult children’s education on their parents’ health. By using 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) data and OLS and the instrumental variable methods, this article examines the impact of adult children’s education on the health of middle-aged and elderly parents. Considering that a family may have more than one child, this article takes the samples of the most educated children as the benchmark regression, and uses the samples of the least educated children to test the results to ensure the robustness of the results. The results showed that adult children’s education had a significant positive impact on the health of middle-aged and elderly parents. The samples with the least education were used for the test, and the results did not change. Heterogeneity analysis found that there was age heterogeneity in the impact of adult children’s education on parents’ health, that is, adult children’s education has a greater impact on parents’ health in the age group of 60 or above. Further analysis of the impact mechanism found that adult children’s education can improve their health by relaxing the budgetary constraints faced by parents and optimizing their healthy behavior. Based on the above analysis, we believe that at the present stage, in the areas where parents are less educated, especially in poor areas and rural areas, increasing investment in the education of the next generation can significantly improve parents’ health.

Parent-child interaction, school resources, and the students’ educational expectations

ZHANG Yunliang

Youth Studies,2018,No. 02

【Abstract】 Using the baseline data of China Education Panel Survey in 2013 and 2014, this paper explores the heterogeneity issue concerning the influencing factors of students’ educational expectations with hierarchical linear modeling. These students are in 7th grade and 9th grade on the basic education stage. This study is conducted from the perspective of the types in parent-child interaction and based on the sampling frames. According to the findings, the traditional type of parent-child interaction has significant impacts on students’ educational expectations in national sample, but has no significant impacts on students’ educational expectations in the sampling frame from Shanghai and the sampling frame from the country areas with higher proportion of floating population. However, the consumer parent-child interaction has no significant impacts on the students’ educational expectations in all sampling frames. Family cultural capital represented by family’s collection of books and the parents’ educational level has significant impacts on the students’ educational expectations, and there is no heterogeneity among different sampling frames. The variable of school resources represented by the proportion of teachers with bachelor degree has significant impacts on the students’ educational expectation, especially in the areas with great differences in educational resources. Regarding the allocation of basic educational resources and the improvement of policy in family parent-child relationship, the heterogeneity issue in different areas should be considered.

Where do the migrant children flow after graduating from middle school?

CHEN Xuanlin

Youth Studies,2018,No. 03

【Abstract】 To promote educational fairness, the state and local governments have launched the policy for high school entrance examination elsewhere. Based on the baseline data from The China Education Panel Survey, this paper tries to conduct the multinomial logistic regression. According to the findings, the policy for high school entrance examination elsewhere could significantly influence the willingness, location and type of the choice of high school education of migrant children. Under the higher admission requirements, the migrant children would choose not to attend high school, not to attend high school in migration region, or attend vocational high school in migration region. By lowering the admission requirements and opening the high school education completely, we could guarantee the opportunity fairness of high school education for migrant children. It is of great significance to build the strong human resources country and promote the new-type urbanization.

Cultural reproduction or cultural mobility?: a study on the inequality of college students’ educational achievements in China


Sociological Studies,2018,Vol 33,No. 01

【Abstract】 Using data from the Beijing College Students Panel Survey (BCSPS), this paper examined class differences in college students’ educational achievements in China. The results show that the elite families’ offspring are more likely to become student cadres and have better language ability. However, they attain lower academic scores. This is because the cultural reproduction mechanism is greatly weakened in the standardized system and students from the lower class are able to obtain good academic scores with their own efforts. Compared with academic achievement, standards for electing student cadres are more open and subjective, and social origin plays an important role. Furthermore, students from the elite class families benefit from their cultural capital much more than their counterparts from the lower class families. This result supports the cultural reproduction theory.

Migrating for education? The impact on the flow of migrant workers by the reform of education policy toward migrant children

LI Chao;WAN Haiyuan;TIAN Zhilei

Finance & Trade Economics,2018,Vol 39,No. 01

【Abstract】 This paper discussed the pattern and mechanism of “migrating for education” against the background of reform of education policy toward migrant children. The results demonstrate that education balance policies toward migrant children in provincial areas conducting the reform of education policy toward migrant children can attract more migrants. If more intensively conducting the reform, reducing school admission thresholds, and cutting down academic promotion constraints, a region will attract more and more migrant workers and their children. Compared with other education balance policy, the policy of allowing children of migrant workers to sit National Higher Education Entrance Examination locally has more significance influence on flow of migrant workers. After the implementation of the reform of education policy toward migrant children, the households of migrant workers will move to the regions farther away. To ensure that their children can be enrolled in local public schools, migrant parents try to find stable jobs with lower wage levels in the labor market. To some extent, the reform can significantly reduce the flows of migrant workers and their children. Therefore, the Chinese government must pay more attention to the new family migration pattern in the current new urbanization process and conduct proper and targeted adjustment of public service policies about education among others.

The influence of fiscal compulsory educational expenditure on intergenerational income mobility

SONG Xuguang ;HE Zongyue

Public Finance Research,2018,No. 02

【Abstract】 This paper took public educational expenditure as a policy variable of the empirical model, and analyzed the effect of fiscal educational expenditure on human capital formation and intergenerational mobility. The benchmark analysis showed that the expenditure on compulsory education can to a certain extent make up for the deficiency of family human capital investment, weaken the influence of the initial endowment inequality on the individual income, and then improve intergenerational mobility. Further analysis showed that relatively poor families can benefit more from fiscal expenditure on compulsory education, which means that an increase of fiscal expenditure on compulsory education helps to alleviate income inequality. In addition, this paper also found that only when the fiscal educational expenditure exceeds the threshold value can it promote the effective accumulation of human capital and reduce the degree of dependence on parents’ economic status, and then enhance social intergenerational mobility. Therefore, it is an important way and also an important means to ensure social mobility for the government to prevent the intergenerational transmission of poverty by increasing support for poverty stricken regions.

World citizenship education: research on the value of Olympic education in China in the new era

SUN Zhanning;HU Bo-ran

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 06

【Abstract】 During the cycle of 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, China’s Olympic education has made a huge legacy and continually explored the direction and value of Olympic education in the future. Facing the second Olympic cycle of 2022 Beijing Olympic Winter Games, China’s Olympic education needs to develop new educational ideas and values in accordance with the times and national conditions on the basis of inheriting the original Olympic educational heritage. Based on Xi Jinping’s “ a community with a shared future for mankind” in the new era and the socialist sports ideology with Chinese characteristics, this paper analyzes the era mission and the new direction of Chinese Olympic education in the Beijing Winter Olympics cycle. This study holds that the thought of “ a community with a shared future for mankind” has an inherent compatibility with the Olympic spirit, and should be the guiding ideology of Chinese Olympic education. That is to say, the new era of China’s Olympic education should cultivate global citizenship among a new generation of Chinese young people through the Olympic sports platform, let them set up correct Olympic value and sports value, form understanding and tolerance of the multiculture of the world, and become global citizens with global sense of responsibility.

Urbanization, education quality, and middle-income trap ① : an empirical analysis based on transnational panel data

ZHANG Huan;XU Kangning;SUN Wenyuan

The Journal of Quantitative & Technical Economics,2018,Vol 35,No. 05

【Abstract】 Research objectives: Empirically analyzing the relationship between urbanization, education quality, and middle-income trap. Research methods: Utilizing transnational panel data of 115 countries from 1960 to 2015, and quantile regression estimation technique. Research findings: Urbanization and education are not closely related to economic growth slowdown for high-income countries, while the interaction effect of the two factors impacts upper-middle-income countries the most and the impact range shows an increasing trend from low quantiles to high quantiles; higher education positively influences the sustained economic growth for lower-middle-income and low-income countries, but urbanization impacts the sustained economic growth in the opposite direction. For other influencing factors, government intervention and consumer price index have a significant and negative impact for all types of countries; openness, and capital formation rate are beneficial for long-term economic growth; the disappearance of demographic dividend is not the root cause for the middle-income trap. By addressing the endogeneity problem and regrouping the samples by OECD countries, non-OECD countries, and excluding African countries, consistent and robust conclusions are drawn by using the system GMM two-step estimation method. Research innovations: Verification on the improvement of education quality through urbanization is the key to avoid middle-income trap. Research value: Providing reference for economic policymakers.

Gender differences in rural education returns in poor areas: an econometric analysis based on a PSM model

ZHANG Yongli;LI Qingyuan;GUO Shihui

Chinese Rural Economy,2018,No. 09

【Abstract】 Based on survey data from 15 impoverished villages in Gansu Province in 2017, this paper adopted a propensity score matching method to examine the economic returns to education for rural male and female laborers in poor areas at different education stages with results shown below. Firstly, rural education in poor areas has a strong income effect and a certain intergenerational transmission effect. Particularly, women’s education achievements have significantly positive effects on their children to receive senior high and college education. Secondly, there is a clear gender difference in the rate of returns to education in impoverished rural areas. Compared with men, women have significantly higher economic returns to education in junior high school, senior high school and college but lower economic returns ton primary education. Both men and women receive the highest returns from senior high school. Thirdly, further counterfactual analysis showed that by comparing the average treatment effect on the treated and the average treatment effect on the untreated, some laborers with higher capacities have the potential to obtain higher income, but they fail to receive higher and better education. The phenomenon is mostly reflected among the female laborers. Therefore, measures such as promoting senior high school education in poor areas, discovering female potentials in poverty alleviation, and removing the barriers to education entry for poor students with high potentials, may lead education to play a role in fighting against poverty.

Enterprise employees’ education and mixed ownership reform

CHEN Lin;LI Hujia

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2018,No. 06

【Abstract】 To develop mixed-ownership economy and to improve employees’ education are the two important strategies for socioeconomic development in recent years. Whether these two strategies interact with each other? Will employees’ education of state-owned enterprises be affected by the mixed ownership reform? If so, which industries or fields will be more affected? This paper calculates the market power of each firm, and then examines the interaction of mixed ownership reform and market power on investment in employees’ education. The results show that, there is a significant “catfish effect” in employees’ education for mixed ownership enterprises. Only when the market power (monopoly) is relatively weak and the market competition is relatively fierce can the mixed ownership reform release certain policy dividends and enhance the enthusiasm of employees’ education. However, for the state-owned enterprises with stronger market power, the reform shows some policy uncertainties which weaken their investment in employees’ education. Hence, it is imperative to establish a top-level design that takes the interaction between the two policies into account.

History of women’s physical education in modern China from the perspective of feminism—from patriarchy to liberalism

LIU Hongchao;WU Guangyuan

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 10

【Abstract】 The history of women’s physical education in modern China is a microcosm of the modern Chinese history and women’s liberation history. Through literature and historical research, we draw the following conclusions. Liberal feminism, which emerged from the Western European Enlightenment in the 18th century, focuses on women’s capability to maintain their equality through their own actions and choices, and believes that unequal opportunities in education resulted in rational differences between men and women. Liberal feminists advocate the equality of men and women in sports training, facilities, service and competition. Since the Opium War in 1840, the ideas of democracy, freedom, human rights and equality between men and women have been gradually introduced to Chinese. After the Self-strengthening Movement, the Hundred Days’ Reform, the Revolution of 1911, and the May 4th Movement, China’s women physical education gradually developed. With the fact that the concept of liberalism and women’s liberation deeply rooted in people’s minds, the concept of physical education has changed from a simple “power breeding” to the equality between men and women, and women’s liberation has become a popular cultural form.

Research on the bias in estimating return to education of migrant workers

CHANG Jinxiong;LIU Jie;ZHU Fan

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2018,No. 05

【Abstract】 The paper proposes a theoretical framework on migrant workers’ choice of jobs and places of employment. It argues that because of urban-rural segmentation in the labor market and extremely high mobility costs, migrant workers’ choice-making is driven mainly by household utility maximization, rather than by salary maximization. As a result, there may be biases in estimating the return to education for migrant workers using the traditional Mincer wage equation, which relies on the efficient labor market assumption. The paper also points out that in case that effective labor market doesn’t exist, structural differences may arise in the return to education for migrant workers and workers with urban household registration. The institutional difference varies by migrants’ marital status, age and migration distance. The empirical findings support the theoretical propositions in this study. Our research is helpful to better understand and to estimate the return to education for migrant workers precisely. It also provides evidence that the labor market segmentation and high cost of labor mobility hinder an optimized allocation of labor resources.

Evaluation of peer effects in basic education

ZONG Qingqing;LI Xuesong

Journal of Finance and Economics,2018,Vol 44,No. 07

【Abstract】 The evaluation of the short-term and long-term bad peer effects in basic education stage has become a hot topic in labor economics. Based on the latest Chinese Education Panel Survey (CEPS) data in 2014, this paper empirically examines the impact of bad peers on students’ test scores. When studying the peer effects, there are two key problems to solve, reflection and self-selection. The socalled “reflection” refers to the problem of mutual influences between peers. It is essentially a reverse causality problem that is often encountered in the setting of econometric models, because it is difficult to tell whether the bad students have an impact on other students or some students have a bad influence on the surrounding students, which leads to a biased and inconsistent estimator if researchers use the surrounding students’ performance to explain other students’. Self-selection mainly refers to the fact that families do not choose schools and classes completely randomly. In order to overcome the estimation bias caused by the problem of reflection and self-selection, we define the class environment as the proportion of bad students in the class rather than the peer achievement used in the traditional literature, and we also control the cohort features. After controlling the individual and family factors, we find that students exposed to a disruptive environment have a significant lower education performance. This effect is more significant for the third grade students in junior high school. One percent increase of bad peers will result in about 0.2 decrease in the average standardized test scores. The result also shows that the academic performance of male students, students with poor family conditions and boarding students are more sensitive to class peers. The heterogeneity analysis of school types shows that peer effects are more obvious in schools with poor education and in town/rural schools. Furthermore, quantile regression results show that the negative effect of bad peers has a greater impact on poorly performing students. This paper is helpful to enrich the academic cognition of Education Production Function and provide a useful reference for future education policy. The underlying implication of our study is that if there are reasonable and feasible policies that can change students’ class environment or a more reasonable class division plan, it will effectively improve the educational achievements of students. In addition, the attention to students’ family environment should be strengthened, especially those students who perform poorly in school, and strengthening communication and psychological counseling will bring about significant spillovers.

John Dewey’s thought on the values of physical education, its limitations and practical values

WANG Huimin;NI Jun;ZHANG Yu;LIU Lihao;WANG Haiyan

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2018,Vol 41,No. 07

【Abstract】 As one of the greatest educationists in the United States and the world in the 20th Century, Dewey’s pragmatism education theory had a great influence on later generations. According to authoritative literature and on the basis of the construction of Dewey’s sports thought database, the paper studied Dewey’s physical education philosophy by means of literature, expert interview and logical analysis. The results showed that: (1) Dewey believed that games were “almost the only” educational methods in children’s period, which can promote physical and mental health, promote ability training, and help to study effectively and promote social cognition; free game attitude promoted children’s free growth. (2) In school physical education, Dewey pointed out that school physical education was the basis of intellectual education and was conducive to the cultivation of the collective spirit of college students. In the goal, the school should pursue the development of the strong talents for the development of social cause; in the method, the students’ sports consciousness should be strengthened and “constant sport” should be strengthened. (3) Outside of education, Dewey extended the value of sports education to the social level. He believed that public sports (place) was conducive to training the spirit of cooperation, to develop a“hero”attitude, to cultivate the spirit of “martial arts,” to promote moral education, to maintain intellectual education, to promote healthy personality and to improve social atmosphere. (4) On the basis of improving the social atmosphere, Dewey sublimed the value of sports education to the national level. He pointed out that the people’s physique was a great concern for the country’s prosperity and the public sports were conducive to the improvement of the country’s future. Finally, this study analyzed the role of Dewey’s thought too much attention to direct experience, neglected the leading role of teachers in education, and some of the educational theories had the limitations of the times. At the same time, this study also put forward realistic mirrors from three aspects, such as the value of the game education, the strengthening of the value of the school sports and the value of the moral education.

The impact of parental migration on school behaviors of left-behind older children in rural areas: evidence from China Education Panel Survey

SONG Yueping

Population Research,2018,Vol 42,No. 05

【Abstract】 The impact of parental migration on school behavior of their children is multidimensional and differentiated by age. Based on the data from China Education Panel Survey, this paper measures the school behavior of left-behind older children from three perspectives: integration into class, adaptation to school life and personal behavior control, and estimates the effect of parental migration on children’s school behavior by propensity score analysis. The results show that parental migration negatively affects school behavior of left-behind older children significantly, especially the class integration and personal behavior control. The parent-child separated migration not only affects the market competitive ability of the human resource in the near future, but also the ability to adapt to and be integrated into the society of the next generation, which needs to get more attention.

Research on the influence of bearing the second child on children’s education level

LI Xu;TAO Zhengyu

Population Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 06

【Abstract】 Since the second-child policy was fully liberalized, we have not seen the expected birth peak. The existing literature mainly analyzes the reasons for the decline of fertility willingness from the aspects of education, income, family, and demographic characteristics, but ignores the important concern that people would be likely to lower their children’s education level after giving birth to a second child. In order to empirically test the impact of the second birth of the child on the education level of the child, empirical research is conducted based on the CFPS baseline survey data by using instrumental variable estimation methods. The results show that there is no statistically significant effect on the level of education of the second child. This conclusion is validated through a series of robustness tests. In the empirical analysis, through data reorganization, not only the sample size is expanded, but also the limitations of the former study including sibling living together are overcome, and the structural effects of the siblings are controlled. Compared with existing instrumental variables such as twins and one-child policy, using the gender of the first child as an instrumental variable helped to find that the first child for women significantly increases the likelihood of the n-th birth (n>2) , and it is evident that the gender of the first child is not influenced by human intervention. The results are more reliable in terms of internal effectiveness and external effectiveness and the conclusions drawn by the paper may expand the traditional resource dilution hypothesis from two aspects.

The influence of educational attainment on the age of first marriage

YANG Kewen;LI Guangqin

Population Journal,2018,Vol 40,No. 06

【Abstract】 With the appearance of late marriage and non-marriage in most industrialized countries in the world, the concept of marriage and love held by the younger generation in China is also undergoing tremendous changes. Against the background of the increasingly serious aging problem in China, it is particularly necessary to investigate the phenomenon of late marriage of individual residents. To this end, the relationship between educational attainment and the age of first marriage was investigated using the data of China Labor-force Dynamic Survey in 2016. The results show that educational attainment has a significant positive effect on the age of first marriage, and for every 1-year increase in education, the age of first marriage is increased by 0.11 years. The conclusion is still valid through the robustness test after changing the measurement method of educational attainment. In consideration of the inaccurate measurement of educational attainment, the possible inverse causality between the age of first marriage and educational attainment, and the possible omission of variables, the two-stage least squares estimation using instrumental variables was conducted to validate the results. Gender-specific studies find that educational attainment has a positive impact on the age of first marriage for women, but not for men. The regression analyses of age-specific samples indicate that the higher the education level is, the younger the age of first marriage tends to be for those born before the 1950s; and for individuals born after the 1950s, the education level has a significant positive effect on the age of first marriage, and the coefficient is increasing. Further analyses of the impact mechanism find that the parents’ educational transmission has a positive impact on their children’s first marriage age through education, and the parents’ agricultural household registration and the number of siblings have a negative impact on their children’s first marriage age through education. In order to alleviate the degree of population aging and promote the healthy development of China’s economy, it is suggested that the state should introduce appropriate policies to reduce the age of first marriage.

Gender, education and the internet: political participation in Myanmar’s transition era

KONG Jianxun;XIAO Lian

South Asian Studies,2018,No. 03

【Abstract】 This article uses Myanmar’s national representative survey data to analyze how gender, education and the internet influence voting preferences, party selection and participation in a wide range of political activities. Binary logistic regression models illustrate that during the early phases of its democratic transition, Myanmar’s citizens have a strong desire to express their political preferences, and as such, participation in political processes such as elections seems to have little connection to factors such as gender, education level or use of the internet. The same goes for the National League for Democracy’s decisive victory: gender and education level have no statistically significant influence on party selection. Nonetheless, internet users are more likely to vote for the National League for Democracy than those who do not use the internet. In addition, males and those with high levels of education are more likely than females and those with low levels of education to participate in all types of political struggles. It is also more likely that internet users will participate in extra-institutional political activities, thereby illustrating that the internet empowers the public to participate in extra-institutional political action.

A study of influence factors on the quality of compulsory education in ethnic minority areas in China: empirical analysis based on the survey of Tibet Autonomous Region and Tibetan ethnic areas of four provinces

SUN Baicai;DENG Feng;ZHE Hui;WANG Yuanda

Ethno-National Studies,2018,No. 05

【Abstract】 The steady improvement of compulsory education quality in areas with concentrations of ethnic minorities is the main manifestation of education equity and an effective guarantee of promoting balanced development of education and targeted poverty alleviation by education. Based on the questionnaire survey of 37 schools and 3718 student families in 9 sample counties of Tibet Autonomous Region and Tibetan ethnic areas of four provinces, the educational production function method was used to analyze the influencing factors of compulsory education quality in Tibetan ethnic areas through the HLM. The study has found that the quality of compulsory education in ethnic minority areas has been steadily improved, but the level of development is still lower than that in the other areas, and the gap in the higher grades of compulsory education is more obvious. The scores of ethnic minority students are slightly higher than those of the Han students. But in higher grades, the improvement of the Han students’ learning advantages gradually appeared. In the junior high school, the Han students’ test scores exceeded that of the ethnic minority students. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis reached consistent conclusions. The school-level factors have a higher impact on the quality of compulsory education in ethnic minority areas. The proportion of undergraduate and above-mentioned undergraduate education and the ratio of students to teachers in the school are significant. The regional urbanization rate, the educational attainment of the fathers and the educational expectation of the parents have a significant impact on the students’ performance. In view of this, in terms of improving the quality of compulsory education in ethnic minority areas, it is necessary to continue to increase support for compulsory education in ethnic minority areas, to establish a “ethnic education priority development zone” in ethnic autonomous areas, to build a balanced and high-quality compulsory education school, to actively promote urbanization in ethnic minority areas, and to attach importance to the quality of learning of the ethnic minority students in the senior compulsory education.

Motherhood delay, polarized return of education and fertility supporting policies

LIU Feng;HU Chunlong

Journal of Finance and Economics,2018,Vol 44,No. 08

【Abstract】 The implementation of the universal two-child policy and the complete release of dividend policy reform need to actively improve all kinds of fertility supporting policies on the basis of the top-level design. From the perspective of motherhood delay, the paper provides empirical evidence on how to improve fertility supporting policies. Based on the revised Mincer wage function and using the CHIP2008 and CHIP2013 datasets, the impact and the mechanism of motherhood delay on the return of education are studied. The paper proposes a research hypothesis that motherhood delay will polarize the return of education. Theoretical analyses show that there are two reasons—active and passive delay—for women delaying childbearing age, which corresponds to the two results—increase and decrease of income. The difference comes from different jobs chosen due to education. The empirical results are consistent with theoretical analyses by econometric empirical studies about effects of motherhood delay on women’s income. Motherhood delay has polarized effects on the return of different education, which increases the return of high education and reduces the return of low education. In order to guarantee robustness of empirical results above, the paper performs deep analyses from four perspectives: extending the length of data, dealing with the ability variable omitted, changing the measure index of motherhood delay, and considering nonrandom behaviors of fertility. Specifically, CHIP2008 is added on the basis of CHIP2013, the problem of omitted abilities is solved using the instrumental variable method, motherhood delay is measured using continuous variables, and self-selection is solved using the framework of counterfactual analyses and the method of propensity score matching. The robust test shows that the empirical results still hold. Further studies show that polarized effects come from the difference in job stability and difficulty of professional title or leading roles. Specifically, women with high education mainly engage in jobs with more stable and easily obtaining professional titles or leading roles, while women with low education usually engage in jobs with the opposite. When choosing motherhood delay, the income of the former increases, while the latter decreases. Hence, the paper argues that different fertility supporting policies should be made among different education groups to improve the women childbearing willingness. Specifically, income compensation policies should be made for women with low education to overcome the “willing but unable to give birth” problem, and professional development compensation policies should be made for women with high education to settle the “able but unwilling to give birth” phenomenon.

The effect of education on rural-urban migration and its mechanisms


Journal of Finance and Economics,2018,Vol 44,No. 09

【Abstract】 Rural-urban migration is a key factor in shaping China’s long-term development. Recently, China has been facing the slowing down of growth of labor force from rural areas, so how to promote rural-urban migration is a new challenge for China. This paper discussed the external effect of rural local education on rural-urban migration and its mechanisms, and used the local average education as the proxy of the external effect of education. In fact, we believe that the external effect of rural local education has two opposite directions on rural-urban migration. On the one hand, entrepreneurship is more active in regions with high educational level. It implies that the community-level education can promote the development of local business, which will increase the availability of local non-agricultural jobs. Therefore, the local effect of education on rural-urban migration could be negative, especially in regions with vigorous local business. On the other hand, individuals with high educational level in a network usually have more resources, such as high incomes to provide temporary accommodations and lending or high abilities of collecting job information. Therefore, we can expect a positive effect of average educational level on the migration for regions with strong network of rural migrant workers. With the data from the China Household Income Project ( CHIP2002 and CHIP2013), the empirical findings support our hypothesis. We found that the local education endowment indeed has two opposite roles in the migration. Firstly, the increase of local education endowment can promote the development of local enterprises, which will hinder the rural-urban labor migration. However, the increase of local education can strengthen the positive effect of the network of rural migrant workers on the migration, so the aggregate effect of local community education on the migration will depend on the development of local development of enterprises and the network of rural migrant workers. Finally, our results are robust with the support of the instrumental variable (IV) method. The policy implications are apparent. For regions with potential to develop the local non-farm economy, local governments should input more investment by strengthening local education; while for other rural areas, cultivating social network for local rural migrant workers can enhance the role of local education in promoting the migration.

Neighborhood effect of adolescent development in Chinese cities and towns

SUN Lunxuan

Youth Studies,2018,No. 06

【Abstract】 The characteristics of residential areas could have important influences on adolescents' life attitude and social behavior. However, regarding whether these influences exist and their functioning mechanisms behind, there still lack examination and presentation from Chinese data. Based on the data from China Education Panel Survey (2013–2014) , this study has found the neighborhood effect of different types of community on adolescent development: the unit community has higher level of collective socialization than neighborhood community; the commercial residential community has higher level of social control than neighborhood community. These could lead to the differences in self-educational expectation and peers’ progress level among adolescents, and consequently influence the development of cognitive ability. These findings reveal the attribute of community situation in adolescent education. They have significant theoretical and realistic implications for understanding and promoting the comprehensive development of Chinese adolescents in the transformation period.

Regional intergenerational mobility and residents’ well-being: a study based on intergenerational education mobility

LIU Xiaoge;SI Haiping;PANG Jiawei

The Journal of World Economy,2018,Vol 41,No. 09

【Abstract】 This paper intends to illustrate the importance of intergenerational mobility from the perspective of residents’ well-being and discuss its functioning mechanism. By data from Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we build indicators of intergenerational mobility at provincial level. After matching the data at macro and individual levels respectively, we investigate the impacts of intergenerational mobility on residents’ well-being and verify the following: (1) intergenerational mobility does influence well-being with an inverted U-shaped relationship between the two. From the perspective of well-being improvement, intergenerational mobility is not “the higher, the better”; and (2) at present, intergenerational mobility in China, below its optimum level, should be improved to prevent hierarchical solidification and related problems. Further analysis reveals that regional intergenerational mobility may alleviate the negative impact of the social wealth gap and then influence the well-being of residents. Satisfaction with the existing life and confidence in future life are key channels for regional intergenerational mobility in alleviating the negative impact. After replacing the samples and indicators, it is observed that the results remain robust. Studying the relationship between intergenerational mobility and well-being may provide not only data support for objective evaluation of intergenerational mobility but new ideas for developing countries to avoid the middle-income trap.

Disciplinary identity of sport science in higher education and three possibilities for the development of sport science in China: based on the investigation of fifty universities in six countries


China Sport Science,2018,Vol 38,No. 06

【Abstract】 Disciplinary identity is the foundation of the sport science development and an important status in the research field of metatheory. By literature review and logical analysis, this paper analyzed the disciplinary identity of sport science in higher education nowadays. This paper focuses on the disciplinary catalogues in six countries of China, Germany, the United States, France, Britain and Japan, and fifty representative universities. The study suggests that sport science has gained preliminary recognition in higher education, and its achievements and challenges coexist. These are reflected as follows. First, major countries in the world, except for the United States, have generally set up independent sport science institution in the disciplinary catalogue and gave it a higher status. Second, sport science generally has independent colleges and departments in universities around the world, with a complete talent training system for bachelor, master and doctor in both professional and academic degrees. Third, sport science has established a unified name of the discipline in each country but not internationally. Fourth, the subjects of exercise and health have become the talent training focus of sport science in developed countries, and the attribution of sport colleges has not unified among different countries. Based on the international development trend of sport science, combined with the current reality in China, this paper put forward three possibilities for the future development of sport science in China. First, the talent training of sport science continues to center on P.E. teachers, and the connotation of sport science will expand to exercise and health. Second, the status of sport medicine continues to improve in the disciplinary system of sport science. Third, sport science will break through the domain of education science, practicing and highlighting its interdisciplinary characteristics.

The cohort variations of education-related health gradient in China: analysis based on growth curve model


Population & Economics,2018,No. 02

【Abstract】 This study examines how birth cohort structures the relationship between education and health through the life course in the context of China’s dramatically changing stratification system. Using longitudinal data from CHNS and growth curve models, we find strong cohort variation of educational disparity in average health and health trajectories. Unlike the nearly universal positive relationship between education and health in western societies, the effect of education on health is negative for earlier cohorts, zero for middle cohorts and positive for more recent cohorts. The age patterns in education-health relationship also vary across cohorts: for earlier cohorts, the negative association between education and health is stable across age; for cohorts born after the 1950s, the positive effect of education strengthens across age, and this pattern is becoming stronger across successive cohorts. We also find that the very cohort of the crossover-point is more recent among women than that among men.

Inequality of opportunity in the access to higher education: measurement and decomposition

JIN Zhenzhong;WANG Liang;YAN Binjian

Economic Review,2018,No. 04

【Abstract】 Based on the data of Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2013, this paper estimates the inequality of opportunity in access to higher education at different stages, calculating different contributions of different circumstances through Shapley decomposition. The results are as follows. Firstly, there is an inequality of opportunity in access to higher education, but the degree of inequality of opportunity is gradually decreasing. Secondly, compared with the recommendation system, the national college entrance examination system is less unfair. Thirdly, university enrollment expansion policy cannot effectively alleviate the inequality of opportunity in access to higher education, and it further increases the inequality between the urban and the rural areas. Fourthly, individual characteristics are not the main factors of inequality in access to higher education. Fifthly, family’s cultural factor, family’s economic and political factor, urban-rural disparities and regional disparities are important factors that result in inequality of opportunity in access to higher education, but recently, the impact of family’s economic and political factor on inequality of opportunity in access to higher education has decreased.

The impact of parental migration for work on the health and education of children left behind

DING Jihong;XU Ningyin

Population Research,2018,Vol 42,No. 01

【Abstract】 Using the six rounds of China Health and Nutrition Survey data 1997–2011,this paper explored the impacts of parental migration for work on the health and education of their children left behind. The endogenous treatment effect model was employed to address the selection bias. The paper found that parental migration for work significantly decreased the education level of their children, especially for rural children. It also decreases the height of their children but reduces the probability of children being overweight. The former effect is more significant for the urban children and the latter one has greater impact on the rural children. However, parental migration has no significant effect on whether or not children get sick in the past four weeks. These effects are different for children at different ages.

The relationship among higher education structure, industrial structure and employment structure

MA Li;ZHANG Liancheng

Population & Economics,2017,No. 02

【Abstract】 From the standpoint of endogenous economic growth, this paper explored the relationship among higher education structure, employment structure and industrial structure. Using the panel data regression and threshold regression method, we test the actual relationship among “the three structures.” The relationship changed in different economic growth periods. In the lower phase of economic growth, industrial structure adjustment is the most important one, while, the higher education structure is the most important one in the higher stage of economic growth. The empirical analysis on the effect of higher education structure on the industrial structure and employment structure shows: the higher education structure promotes the decline of industrial structure and employment structure in the agriculture sector, but it has weak negative association with the second industry and the tertiary industrial structure. The effect of the higher education on the tertiary industry will more obvious if it transfers from popularization to universalness. From 2001 to 2013, the transmission mechanism shows that there is an 8 years’ time lag from the industrial structure to the higher education structure, and a 6 years’ time lag from the higher education structure to the industrial structure.

The impacts of educational assortative mating on men’s equal participation in housework

NIU Jianlin

Population & Economics,2017,No. 02

【Abstract】 Using data from Surveys on the Status of Chinese Women conducted in 2000 and 2010, this paper examines the phenomenon of men’s participation in housework in China. The results show that China is witnessing an important, albeit slow trend of equalizing division of household work between husbands and wives. In 2010, twenty percent of the couples aged 18 to 64 shared their housework relatively equally. Educational assortative marriage is more favorable in promoting equal division of housework between husbands and wives, compared with the traditional hypergamous marriage. Moreover, the newly-emerging marital pattern of women marrying downward in educational gradient also promotes men’s equal participation in housework significantly. This study concludes that an equal division of housework signifies the direction for future development of domestic division of labor. Rapid advances of female education and evolving nature of assortative mating are the most effective forces driving the equalization process. Nevertheless, it is also important to equip society with more friendly social services as to facilitate the process.

An analysis on hukou difference in the rate of return to education for migrant workers: a comparison between rural temporary migrants and urban temporary migrants?

TAN Jing;YU Jingwen;LI Xiaolong

China Rural Survey,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 China is under the process of transition from a populous country to a powerful state with rich human resources. However, the structural difference in the rate of return to education can affect human capital accumulation and economic transition. This article analyzes the hukou difference in the rate of return to education for migrant workers, and verifies this phenomenon to be particularly prominent in mega-cities. In mega-cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the rate of return to education for rural temporary migrants is 3.12 percentage points lower than that for urban temporary migrants, which intensifies the polarization of urban labor market. The study also proves that migration helps to raise the relative rate of return to education for rural temporary migrants and reduce the hukou difference in the rate of return to education between rural and urban temporary migrants by 0.91 percentage points. Furthermore, the study finds the following factors to be important in understanding the lower rate of return to education for rural temporary migrants, namely, the lack of educational investment, poor quality of education in rural areas, and the lack of non-farm employment experiences. The study indicates the negative impacts of the dual hukou system on human capital accumulation in mega-cites as well as in China in medium and long term.

Rental accommodation and household economic conditions for rural primary school students: a new feature of inequality in primary education under the policy on consolidation of primary schools in rural China

PANG Xiaopeng;LONG Wenjin;DONG Xiaoyuan;ZENG Junxia

China Rural Survey,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 Based on random samples of 9179 primary school students in rural West China, this article describes the current situation of rental accommodation for primary school students, and explores the differences in the selection of rental accommodation among households under different economic conditions. The results show that one quarter of parents in this sample choose to rent accommodation for their children. Households with lower incomes are more likely to rent accommodation. Poor households need to take higher cost to get quality education for their children under the policy on consolidation of primary schools, which is a new feature of inequality in rural primary education. The study suggests that, besides continuing improving the facilities of boarding schools, the government should pay more attention to students of low income households to promote educational equality, and start to implement pilot projects like “Special Low-rent Housing for Education” and “Subsidies for Educational Rental Accommodation.”

Formal education or skill training: which investment in human capital is more beneficial to formal employment of migrant workers?


China Rural Survey,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 Human capital is important for promoting formal employment of migrant workers. However, previous research has not provided an in-depth exploration of what form of human capital plays a more significant role in this regard. Based on a survey of migrant workers in urban areas, this paper compared the effects of formal education and skill training on formal employment of migrant workers by calculating the sheaf coefficients based on the logit model. This study found that compared with formal education, skill training was more direct and effective in affecting formal employment of migrant workers, but in the meanwhile, intergenerational differences and occupational differentiation were observed. In the aspect of the intergenerational difference, for two generations of migrant workers, skill training was more effective than formal education, but this difference was more obvious for employment of the first-generation of migrant workers. In the aspect of occupational differentiation, skill training was still more effective than formal education, and this relative advantage tended to become more prominent in the process of migrant workers’ non-manual work.

An examination on American education reform: a case study of Save Our Neighborhood Schools campaign ①

CAI Hong

The Chinese Journal of American Studies,2017,Vol 31,No. 03

【Abstract】 From 2009 to 2010, due to the local school district’s budget problems, four elementary public schools were at the risk of closure in Lawrence, Kansas, in the Midwestern United States, and this triggered a “Save Our Neighborhood Schools” campaign. Benefitted from the sociability and open information of the US education system, people’s awareness and participation, effective communication among different ethnic groups, as well as campaign organizers’ competent conflict management strategies and capabilities, the four schools were saved. This case, however, shows that ample public fund plays a very important role in securing the sustainable development of the US public school education. So, the “scholarship tax credit” policy, promoted by the Trump administration, will probably meet with difficulties due to its innate weakness that overlooks the differences in US public districts and by nature has reduced the education fund for US public schools.

Estimation of over education in China: based on the standards of vocation entry-level education in the United States

LI Jianmin;CHEN Jie

Population & Economics,2017,No. 05

【Abstract】 The difficulty of getting a job for graduates arouses controversy over whether there is over education in China, but the cornerstone of over education research, namely the measurement of over education has its limitation, so this paper puts forward entry-level education of the occupation in the United States to measure China’s over education. It has been found that under education of primary level and over education of high level largely exist at the same time. Over education mainly exists in the staff and business services and under education is mainly demonstrated in executives and the production and transportation occupations. Then we use the data of The Third Survey on Chinese Women’s Social Status to analyze the influence of gender, age, marital status and other factors on the incidence of over education based on this measurement method. The instrument variable is used to solve the endogenous problems caused by ignoring individual heterogeneity. This study reveals that compared with women, men are more likely to become over education; younger people are more prone to become over education; married people are more prone to become over education; and people with higher education level are more prone to become over education. There is over supply of highly educated people in China, we should reserve human capital to support and promote the industry upgrading and rational transformation of occupational structure rather than denying and suppressing the development of higher education to solve this problem.

Foreign student education in China and China’s OFDI: empirical evidence from countries along the Belt and Road

GU Yuanyuan;QIU Bin

Journal of International Trade,2017,No. 04

【Abstract】 Foreign student education in China promotes China Outward Direct Investment (ODI) by reducing investment cost, investment risk and supplying talents. This paper is based on 2003–2014 investment panel data of 44countries along the Belt and Road to find out the relationship between foreign student education in China and China’s ODI. According to the research, we found that the scale of foreign student education in China has an obvious positive impact on China’s ODI to their home countries, but this positive effect is changing with the scale of students and the geographic distance between countries. Moreover, we found that China has made more direct investment in countries with low level of economic development; it can also be approved that using preferential policies such as scholarships to attract more foreign students lead to failure of the promotional effect of foreign student education in China on China’s ODI. Thus, this paper believes that the government should realize the promotional effect, initiate efficient policy about international talent and investment, and optimize Chinese immigration policy. In addition, the universities should improve their talent training modes to secure the steady and sustainable development of China’s ODI.

Treaty ports, modern education and economic development of modern China from the cliometric perspective


Researches in Chinese Economic History,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 Using unique prefectural-level cross-section data, this paper studies the improvement effect of treaty ports on economic development in modern China. It arrives at the results as follows. Firstly, treaty ports play an improvement role in modern China’s economy, namely, the decrease in distance to treaty ports leads to the increase in urban population, population density and labour productivity. Secondly, the treaty ports provide conditions for the emergence of modern education, including returned student, modern schools and missionary schools. These findings not only directly enrich cliometric literature on the influence of historical shock on the economic development, but also provide historical reference for how to depend on the construction of infrastructure to boost the economy and improve human capital.

An analysis of the paradox of “education-caused poverty” and the study on related targeted poverty alleviation strategies: a case study of 14 poverty-stricken villages in Gansu Province

ZHANG Yongli;LIU Weibing

Economic Geography,2017,Vol 37,No. 09

【Abstract】 Based on the field survey data of 14 poverty-stricken villages in Gansu Province, this paper used Logit model to analyze the impact of household labor’s different educational levels on poverty and the relationship between family education and poverty in the family, and responded to and analyzed the problem of “poverty caused by education.” The study found that the improvement in the educational level of farmer labor significantly reduces the probability of families falling into poverty. The enrollment of children from farmer household significantly increases the probability of families falling into poverty, especially when there are 2–3 children in the family. Poverty caused by education” is the consumption-caused poverty caused by the rigid expenditure of family education under the condition of established income, which belongs to temporary and consumption-caused poverty. Finally, in view of the actual situation of poverty-caused education in the western region of China, we put forward some suggestions on how to promote poverty alleviation, including strengthening the construction of teaching staff and developing rural pre-school education scientifically, optimizing the allocation of rural educational resources and promoting the balanced development of compulsory education in urban and rural areas. In addition, the development of high school and secondary vocational education should be encouraged to increase the opportunities for students to choose development; improving the poor students subsidy policy to reduce the burden of education for poor families; establishing integrated urban-rural labor and employment market so as to improve the rural children’s employment level.

The size, structure and trend of the Chinese college-age population

WANG Guangzhou

Population & Economics,2017,No. 06

【Abstract】 This paper based on the population census data from 1982 and used the indicators of the mean education years and mean expected years of education to observe the changes of college-age groups. Using the parity progression model, this paper has made a projection for the size, structure changes and trend of the college-age population under the two children policies. The result shows that the size of the college-age population will keep declining in the next 15 years. The large difference of population size between cohorts has reduced significantly. The total population will decline from 128.49 million in 2015 to 91.14 million. It will decline one third in 20 years. The student population will be in the range of 30–40 million before 2020.

Migration and children’s education: facts and explanations

LV Lidan;WANG Fei

Population Research,2017,Vol 41,No. 06

【Abstract】 Using the 2010 population census data of Chongqing, China, the paper examines the relationship between population migration and children’s education. Particularly this paper compares three types of rural children, namely the left-behind children, the children with parents at home, and the children migrating to cities, regarding to their enrollment rate, completion rate of a certain level of schooling, and the chance of progressing to the next level of education. Taking advantage of a large sample and a more accurate definition of children’s type, the paper provides a better understanding of the relations between population migration and children’s education. The left-behind children have the highest rates of enrollment and progression, whereas the migrant children have the lowest rates for these two indicators and the children with parents at home have the middle rates. In regard to the completion of junior middle school, the three types of children have a reverse order. The differences of children’s education vary by children’s gender, their parental education, and the economic development of their home regions. Income, parent-child separation, and the interference of urban institutions could be reasons for educational differences among the three types of children.

Effect of higher education expansion on economic growth: human capital improvement or signal interference?

SHAO Yihang;XU Jing

Finance & Trade Economics,2017,Vol 38,No. 11

【Abstract】 This paper discussed the effect of higher education expansion on modern economic growth. Based on the Schumpeter growth model, we built a theoretical model to analyze the effect of higher education expansion on economic growth through innovation. On the one hand, higher education expansion lifts human capital and may help enhance the overall innovation capacity and economic growth. On the other hand, because of asymmetric information, higher education expansion may deteriorate signal interference in R&D personnel selection and produce negative effect on growth. Therefore, the effect of higher education expansion may vary with the development stage. Furthermore, the empirical analysis of provincial panel data supports our theoretical conclusions. In general, the effect of higher education expansion on innovation and economic growth in China rises at first and then falls, presenting an inverted U-shape. Finally, this paper also gave a brief discussion on practical significance.

The influence of higher education on youth’s first marriage and its gender difference

SONG Jian;FAN Wenting

Youth Studies,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 Based on the data from the third survey on the Status of Chinese Women in 2010, this paper tries to study the effect of higher education on Chinese youth’s first marriage and its gender difference. According to the findings, the youth who received higher education are more likely to be unmarried; their age at first marriage would be late. Regarding the effect of higher education on young people’s marriage possibility, there is a significant gender difference, but there is no significant gender difference in its effect on the youth’s age at first marriage. For the young women over 30 years old, receiving higher education is not beneficial for them to enter into marriage. Hence, this verifies the hypothesis of the “older women’s marriage squeeze under the blended marriage pattern” put forward in this paper. We argue that the higher education can not only produce a direct influence on Chinese young women’s marriage possibility, but also produce an indirect influence through marriage market and social gender concept.

Nation, language and literature: institutionalization of literary education in the Qing Dynasty

LU Yin

Literary Review,2017,No. 05

【Abstract】 During the transformation of political and educational systems and the creation of the new educational system in the late Qing Dynasty, the literary education in the broad sense, including Chinese exegetics, poetry and prose, was incorporated into the “unified” institutional framework for the whole country as a subject in the national educational system. It enriched the cultural community of modern countries in both time and space. This paper intended to compare the historical data of education in China and Japan and place more emphasis on common education in primary and middle schools so as to examine how “Chinese language and literature” had been upgraded from a “useless learning” in critical times to an indispensable subject in the modern educational system and then explore the possibility of system design serving as a kind of “potential ideological force” based on the interaction between resources of government, people, outside of the capital, and China and abroad.

The state transition and educational factors of chronic multidimensional poverty in China ①

ZHOU Qiang;ZHANG Quanhong

The Journal of Quantitative & Technical Economics,2017,Vol 34,No. 04

【Abstract】 The research objective of this paper is to measure the impacts of education on chronic multidimensional poverty in China. Based on A-F dual cut-off approach and the duration approach of Foster (2009), this paper builds up an index of chronic multidimensional poverty, and explores the impacts of education on chronic multidimensional poverty using mixed effects regression model, the Mincer earnings function and its improved form. The research findings are as follows: Education makes the most contribution to chronic multidimensional poverty and the impact increases with the increase in duration of poverty. Educational level leads to the difference in the rate of return on education, which can affect the depth and duration of poverty. Moreover, the rate of return on high school or higher education shows a significant upward trend. The research innovations lie in that it extends the static measurement of multidimensional poverty to dynamic measurement, and analyzes the reasons of the differences in educational resources and levels of education causing poverty difference. The research value is that the model and findings can be used to measure chronic multidimensional poverty and provide targeted approach to alleviate poverty.

Rural public education expenditure and regional economic growth: a perspective based on labor mobility


Chinese Journal of Population Science,2017,No. 05

【Abstract】 Based on the panel data of 11 cities in Hubei Province from 2005 to 2015, this paper uses the tool variable method to analyze the effects of public education on local rural economy. The results show that the impact of public education on rural economy through labor mobility has a horizontal effect but no growth effect. Rural public education expenditure increases the wealth of individuals and families in rural areas, promotes the consumption and savings, and improves the economic level of rural areas to a certain extent. However, the rural public education expenditure has conveyed a large amount of human capital through the outflow of labor, transferred wealth creation process, and affected the rural areas of sustained economic growth momentum. Currently, the government should continue to increase investment in rural public education, encourage talents to return home, design policies attracting human capital to the countryside, and to enhance the poverty reduction efficiency of public education spending.

ZHANG Yiqiong;JIANG Yi;YAN Ertao

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 05

【Abstract】 Through the methods of documentary review and interview, this study considered the social transformation in modern society and the development of higher education and modern sports, and combined the systems, ideas and events that had a great effect on the higher physical education of modern China, and divided the higher physical education of modern China into four stages: the embryonic stage (1840–1912), the exploring stage (1912–1927), the mature stage (1927–1937), and the hard stage (1937–1949). By analyzing the background, overview and characteristics of the higher education of modern China in different stages, and analyzing the overview from education purpose, curriculum setting, teachers and students in each stage, this research got some enlightenments including that the development of higher physical education requires the interaction of internal and external powers, needs to give consideration to both society and personal development, has to keep relationship with the national government well and handle the relationship between the education quality and benefit. There would be important theoretical significance and practical significance in providing historical references for the development of contemporary Chinese higher physical education by carefully combing the historical trace of the development of higher physical education in modern China.

The effect of “province governing counties” reforms on public education supply: a difference-in-differences estimation

YU Jingwen;SUN Wenli;GONG Liutang

Economic Review,2017,No. 06

【Abstract】 The reform of “province governing counties” has been launched for several years. Its main forms include the “devolution of power to county government” reform and the “county administrated by provincial fiscal system” reform. By using county-level and prefecture-level data from 2000 to 2007 in China, this paper employs difference-in-differences (DID) estimation method to empirically explore the effects of these reforms on public education supply. The results suggest a significantly positive effect of the reform of “province governing counties” on the growth rate of per capita public education expenditure provided by county governments. The driving force behind is the “county administrated by provincial fiscal system” reform in the fiscal sector. On average, the “county administrated by provincial fiscal system” reform contributes about 3.6 percentage points to the growth rate of per capita public education expenditure. However, its effect only occurs in the short-term. In the long term, the “county administrated by provincial fiscal system” reform has a stronger promoting effect on public education supply of county governments. In addition, the “devolution of power to county government” reform can largely decrease the education inequality between counties and districts within a prefecture.

Thoughts about the postgraduate training of Professional Master’s Degree in physical education in China

HU Bin

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 08

【Abstract】 With more than ten years of development, the Professional Master’s Degree in physical education has cultivated a great deal of outstanding sports talents in our country, and accumulates a wealth of experience. However, there still exist problems in its development, which include the following aspects. Some training institutions have insufficient understanding of the Professional Master’s Degree in physical education, the training process is lack of practice, and recruitment methods, training objectives, curriculum setting, training mode and construction of supervisor team are inadequate. Based on these problems and taking the Professional Master’s Degree in physical education as the research object, this paper reviews relevant literature, and combined with author’s working practice, it describes existing problems in the development of postgraduate education concerning the Professional Master’s Degree in physical education. The problems are that the talent training system does not accord with the development demand of talent market in sports industry; the training idea still lags behind the increasing speed of the scale; training institutions urgently need to set up new degree standards and quality guarantee system. Besides, this study explores ways of development and reform for the postgraduate education concerning the Professional Master’s Degree in physical education, and provides some suggestions. The suggestions are correctly orientating the Professional Master’s Degree in physical education, strengthening the practicum component of the degree, actively changing ideas, reforming training mode, strengthening supervision and evaluation to ensure the quality of personnel training. Professional Master’s Degree in physical education should meet the demand of China’s economic and social development, and change the traditional concept of the development of education to realize the simultaneous development of personnel training and sports. This study provides references for training postgraduates of physical education of professional degree.

Historic evolution and reflection of physical education curriculum files in compulsory education stage since China’s reform and opening up

FAN Yefei;XIE Jun

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 03

【Abstract】 More than 30 years since reform and opening up has witnessed changes in the history of China’s education. Curriculum files mainly including curriculum standards and teaching program reflect the change. This paper analyzed the change history of physical education curriculum files in compulsory education stage since China’s reform and opening up by the methods of literature review, historical research and textual analysis. Its purpose was to explore the historical gene and facts of physical education curriculum reform to enlighten school physical education theory and practice. The results showed that the connotation of physical education curriculum files contained the nature, attribute and value; physical education curriculum files in compulsory education stage had experienced three change stages that were restoration, revision and exploration; respecting history was the solid foundation of modifying physical education curriculum files, searching history was an effective path of interpreting and debate of physical education curriculum files, taking history as a mirror was the inevitable choice of the good development of school physical education files. This study put forward a research road based on the combination of the historical viewpoints and ontology perspective for physical education curriculum files.

Zhu Guangqian’s view of physical education and its enlightenments

XUE Lan;JIN Saiying;JIANG Zheting;LI Qidi

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2017,Vol 40,No. 08

【Abstract】 Zhu Guangqian’s views on physical education are seen in studies on his educational concept, and these views are still of important reference and enlightenment value for reform and development of school physical education in China. This research systematically combs and summarizes Zhu’s views on physical education by the methods of literature review and historical analysis. The result suggests that Zhu’s views on physical education are mainly showed in six aspects: (1) emphasizing that physical education must be attached high importance in “holistic education”; (2) advocating social changes through sports; (3) preferring mass sports rather than elite sports; (4) advocating lifelong sports; (5) focusing on combination of physical education and hygiene, eugenics, as well as health care; and (6) paying attention to the important promotion effect of physical education on mental health. Zhu’s view provides the following enlightenment for reform and development of school physical education in China. It helps to highlight the unique value of school physical education to cultivation of students’ personality; it helps to popularize school physical education; it helps to develop students’ lifelong sports consciousness and behavior; and it helps to deal with relationship between school physical education and hygiene and health care. This study hopes to provide references for improvement of current school physical education in China.

Education, migration and urban-rural difference in returns to education

ZHAO Xiliang

Economic Research Journal,2017,Vol 52,No. 12

【Abstract】 Returns to education are closely related to a country’s economic system. Before 1978, the economy in China was governed by a planning system, and education was not rewarded. Earlier studies usually find low returns to education in urban China and even negative returns in rural China. Since the reform and opening-up, returns to education have risen, and returns to education in urban China are now approaching the world level. Many studies find that returns to education for rural people are much lower than those for urban people. However, their demand for education, especially higher education, is greater than that of urban people. It is puzzling that returns to education are lower while demand for education is higher for rural people. In this paper, we try to explain this phenomenon. There is a special arrangement in the hukou system (household registration system) in China. The hukou system divides China into two sectors, namely, urban and rural areas. Rural hukou holders could not move to urban China in the past. Now, restrictions are lighter: rural hukou holders can work in cities, but they cannot enjoy the same welfare benefits as local urban hukou holders. However, there are some ways to change hukou status. Education is one of the most important channels to obtain urban hukou. Usually, when a rural child goes to college, his or her hukou status will change to urban hukou. Joining the army is another way to change hukou status. With the rapid urbanization in recent years, land expropriation has become another important way for rural people to obtain urban hukou. We call such people “permanent migrants.” Permanent migrants are usually not included in investigations of rural people and the remaining rural people will be the selected sample. Their education levels are lower, as is their potential income. This is why earlier studies have obtained low estimates of returns to education for rural people. In this paper, we use a unique dataset, the China Household Income Project 2013 (CHIP2013), which consists of three samples: the rural sample, the urban sample and the migrant sample. CHIP2013 provides hukou transfer information, including whether, when, and why rural people transfer their hukou status to urban hukou. This information can help us identify permanent migrants so that we can include them in the rural sample to address the sample selection problems. After adjusting the rural sample, we obtain much higher returns to education for rural people than earlier estimates in the literature. In particular, we get similar magnitudes of returns to higher education for rural and urban people. This implies that education plays an equivalent role for rural people. We first estimate the classical Mincer equation with the original sample and the adjusted sample. Rural and urban returns to education are 3.8% and 8.5% respectively for the original sample: urban returns are much larger than rural returns. After adding permanent migrants to the rural sample, the estimates are 5.6% and 8.6% respectively. Because higher education enables rural people to transfer their hukou status, we estimate the returns to higher education with the same procedure. The rural and urban returns are 23.6% and 36.8% respectively for the original sample. After adjustment, the estimates are 33.7% and 36.1% respectively. The gap is decreased. The omitted variable problem is a concern when identifying the causal effect of education on income. We take advantage of the fact that the data contain admission scores (of college entrance examinations) for higher education and re-estimate the Mincer equation by controlling them. The estimates are smaller, which is consistent with the ability bias story in econometrics. As only controlling scores may not be sufficient, we also use the implementation of the Compulsory Education Law in 1986 as an instrumental variable (IV) to identify the causal effect of returns to education. The IV estimates provide similar results, and the rural and urban returns to higher education are 50.6% and 50.4% respectively. The empirical results suggest that the returns to education for rural people are not low and that the government should invest more in education in rural China, which will help smooth China’s ongoing process of structural transformation.

How does college enrollment expansion affect the college education premium?

MA Guangrong;JI Yang;XU Jianwei

Management World,2017,No. 08

【Abstract】 The college enrollment expansion in China starting from 1999 has rapidly and dramatically improved the supply of highly educated workforce. However, in terms of age group, the enrollment expansion has mainly increased the supply of high education population among youth workforce in the short term. Firstly, under the framework of double-layer nested age-education CES model, this paper analyzes the influencing mechanism of supply shock on the education premium of all age groups. Then, we used the survey data of urban households from 1997 to 2009 and instrumental variables to estimate that a 10% increase in the relative supply of highly educated workforce at a particular age group would result in a 4.1% decline in the college education premium for corresponding ages. During the sample study period, college enrollment expansion has significantly reduced the college education premium for the youth workforce, 42% decrease could be found among workforce aging from 26 to 30. However, with the time goes by, college enrollment expansion will influence the workforce of all age groups. We predicted that by 2035, the college education premium will be reduced by 42% due to college enrollment expansion.

Education expansion’s impact on increasing ethnic minorities’ educational attainment: an empirical analysis based on census data in 2000 and 2010

MENG Dahu;OUYANG Renfei;SUN Yongqiang

Ethno-National Studies,2017,No. 03

【Abstract】 Based on 2000 and 2010 Chinese census data, this paper investigated education expansion’s impact on increasing minorities’ educational attainment, finding that education expansion increased educational attainment of minorities significantly and more greatly than that of Han ethnic group. Adopting “contribution years analysis method” to investigate the impacts of education expansion at all levels on minorities’ educational attainment, we found that the popularization of compulsory education had a better effect on increasing minorities’ average years of education and narrowing the educational attainment gap between the Han ethnic group and ethnic minorities than other education levels, especially in western China, rural China and minority regions, because most Chinese people’s education levels were in this stage. According to the conclusions above, we think that in order to increase minorities’ educational attainment, on the one hand we should increase the minorities’ popularization rate of compulsory education and secondary education in western China, rural China and minority regions; and on the other hand we should solve the problem that higher education resource is allocated unevenly between the Han ethnic group and ethnic minorities in urban China, eastern China and western China.

Analysis and optimization strategy of educational resources allocation in ethnic minority areas of China


Ethno-National Studies,2017,No. 06

【Abstract】 The allocation of educational resources in ethnic minority areas has always been the focus of government and society. On the basis of establishing an evaluation index framework for the allocation of educational resources, this paper has highlighted structural issues. Using the provincial-level data analysis from 1996 to 2015, it has found that the education funds in ethnic minority areas have been growing at a high rate, but below the growth of fiscal revenue and expenditure. In terms of the structure, the source of education funding is mainly from the government. The hierarchical structure gap between primary education and higher education has been reduced, but there is a collapse in regular high schools. The usage of the structure reflects the idea of students first, and the student loan funds have been significantly improved. The spatial regional structure has achieved fair financial neutrality, but there are still huge resource differences within ethnic minority areas. In response to the above problems, this paper puts forward suggestions on rationally dividing government responsibilities, reforming the mode of funding supply, attaching importance to high school development, and improving local standards of precise poverty relief.

On contribution of education to economic growth in China: the influence of the public sector wage premium on the rate of return to education


Finance & Trade Economics,2017,Vol 38,No. 09

【Abstract】 Most empirical studies on the rate of return to education in China agreed that the improvement of education had no significant effect on economic growth in China. This paper argued that the existing studies did not take into account the impact of changes in the allocation structure of human capital between the public and private sectors on the rate of return to education. Due to the difference in the productive capacity of educational human capital between the public and private sectors, the change in the allocation structure of educational human capital has effects on the contribution of education to economic growth. Based on the cross-provincial panel data of China from 2000 to 2010, this paper used the public sector wage premium to describe the impact of the change of the allocation structure of human capital between the public and private sectors on the effect of education growth on economic growth. The contribution of the improvement of China’s education to economic growth was reassessed. This study shows that if the influence of the allocation structure of human capital between the public and private sectors is excluded, the improvement of education has significant promoting effects on economic growth in China, and the contribution of education to economic growth in China is not significantly different from that of other countries. This paper also compared the output effect of education in different provinces of China and found that there was little difference in the output elasticity of education among different regions of China, but there was a great difference in the marginal output of education.

Comparative study of the influence of evolution of three versions of American National Standards & Grade-Level Outcomes for K-12 Physical Education and implications for China

ZHANG Dachao;YANG Juan

China Sport Science,2017,Vol 37,No. 10

【Abstract】 Through using the method of literature review and comparison, mainly from two aspects of physical education and changes in the requirements of PE teaching staff, this paper made comparative analysis on the impact of evolution of the National Standards & Grade-Level Outcomes for K-12 Physical Education in 1995, 2005 and 2013 on school sports programs in American states, further compared the impact of changes in state school sports programs on students’ participation in physical activities, participation in physical education, and obesity and overweight. Implications of this paper include incorporating students’ usual physical education scores in their academic achievement, making effective measures to improve the quality of PE teaching staff’s professional development quality, implementing multi-channel physical education, organizing various sports activities, and establishing a personal archive of fitness for students.

Elites fail the country: a review of the education system of the Japanese Army in modern times

MA Xiaojuan

The Journal of Studies of China's Resistance War Against Japan,2017,No. 03

【Abstract】 After the Meiji Restoration, Japan started the process of military modernization and external expansion. During the process, Japan attached importance to military education and established a military education system, from the primary to the advanced level. They were the military preparatory school (primary), the Imperial Japanese Army Academy (intermediate) and the Military Staff College (advanced). Whether it be the elites involved in decision-making in the Army, the commanders at all levels who participated in the actual war, or the staff who formulated operational plans, most of them were graduates in this military education system. These people were front-line practitioners of Japan’s foreign aggression policies, and played a vital role in the process of launching and expanding wars, which ultimately led to Japan’s defeat.

Dynamic effect of education financing system on intergenerational mobility and inequality degree: analysis based on overlapping generation (OLG) model

XU Junwu;HUANG Shan

Journal of Finance and Economics,2016,Vol 42,No. 08

【Abstract】 Some related research of intergenerational mobility concludes that “higher level intergenerational mobility results in lower-degree inequality,” but this is not China’s reality. The possible reasons lie in that traditional intergenerational mobility research does not distinguish between long-term and short-term values effectively, and does not take the uncertainty of human capital formation into account. In view of these problems, this paper constructs an overlapping generations (OLG) model and makes a comparative analysis of intergenerational mobility in public education system and market-oriented education system. Accordingly, it comes to the conclusions as follows. Firstly, long-run inequality in public education system is always lower than that in market education system. Secondly, the increase in short-term intergenerational mobility is not always accompanied by inequality, and when the society is subject to some intensive shocks, the same increase or decrease in these two may occur. Thirdly, radical education system reform leads to a sharp rise in convergence rate of human capital and the increase in short-term and long-term inequality, and the intergenerational mobility constantly converges to new and lower steady-state value after the sudden drop. Fourthly, the parameter value of the uncertainty of human capital accumulation reflects unpredicable skills or individual endowment, and is an important factor affecting intergeneratonal mobility and inequality degree; the sudden rise in uncertainty leads to the sharp increase in short-term inequality degree and a new high level of long-term inequality degree. Despite of the rapid rise in short-run intergenerational mobility, its steady-state value remains constant. These conclusions are beneficial to the clarification of the complex relationship between intergenerational mobility and inequality degree, and also can provide reference for relevant empirical research.

Interaction between the allocation of educational resources and the trend of population development in Beijing

YIN Deting;HU Yuping;HAO Wuyang

Population & Economics,2016,No. 04

【Abstract】 Based on Beijing Education Statistics 2001–2015, using the conventional statistical analytical method, this paper found that the interaction between the allocation of educational resources and the trend of population development in Beijing showed the following characteristics. The scale of students in secondary education was relatively small. The proportion of non-Beijing students at the stage of compulsory education had a surge. Numbers of colleges and high schools were increasing, but numbers of others fell. The teacher-student ratio in primary schools and colleges decreased and the allocation of resources was slightly strained. The population at the stage of basic education gathered mainly in the urban function-expanding area, the proportion of which was still rising. The proportion of central training targets in higher education had fallen to less than 40 percent. In order to promote the positive interaction between education and the population, the government should be concerned about six issues in the future: the inflection point of the growth in the demand for education caused by inertia of population development, the obstruction in improving human capital caused by different directions of migrant children, the effective allocation of educational resources caused by optimized spatial distribution of population, the reduction of the scale of higher education from the perspective of easing population, the lack of support to innovation due to a shortage of professional personnel.

?The influences of parental migration on educational attainment of left-behind children in rural areas

YUAN Meng;ZHENG Xiaoting

China Rural Survey,2016,No. 03

【Abstract】 Numerous rural residents migrating to cities for work cannot take their children with them, causing the problem of left-behind children. Whether parental migration has adverse influences on educational attainment of rural left-behind children? This paper adopted a Probit model to analyze the influences of parental migration on educational attainment of rural children with data from CFPS2010. The results indicated that compared with rural children whose fathers and mothers both living at home, educational attainment of left-behind children with only fathers migrating to cities for work was significantly improved. While only maternal migration and parental migration had no significant influence on educational attainment of rural children. Paternal migration for work could improve educational attainment of rural children through improving the economic conditions for households. No direct evidence showed that maternal migration for work was favorable to educational attainment of rural children.

The factors determining rural laborers’ migrant work and levels of their wages: formal education or skills training?—an empirical analysis based on the micro data from farmers in Jinhu County of Jiangsu Province

ZHAN Jintao;HUANG Hongwei

China Rural Survey,2016,No. 02

【Abstract】 Based on the survey data from 922 farm households in Jinhu County of Jiangsu Province, through establishing the Logit model and ranking it, this paper discussed the effects of formal education and skills training on rural laborers’ migrant work and formal employment and levels of their wages. The results showed that formal education and long-term training together determined the opportunities for rural laborers to work outside, while skills training determined the level of wage when laborers worked outside. This showed a fact that skills training could compensate for the lack of formal education to a certain degree. Without formal education, farmers could obtain high incomes through skills training. To be more specific, skills training might increase the probability for the rural laborers to work outside and improve their incomes significantly. In addition, the effects of long-term training were more obvious than those of short-term training. However, the influences of different types of skills training on rural laborers’ formal employment differed significantly. In addition, if the laborers had high levels of technical titles and education, they were more likely to get formal employment with high wages when they worked outside.

Can higher education break solidification of social class? An empirical study based on ordered-probit semi-parametric estimation and Shapley value decomposition

ZHANG Ming;ZHANG Xuemin;TU Xianjin

Journal of Finance and Economics,2016,Vol 42,No. 08

【Abstract】 Based on China General Social Survey in 2013 (CGSS2013), this paper firstly employs semi-parametric estimation method of ordered-probit model to test the influence of higher education on social classes. Secondly, it measures the contribution rate of higher education to the formation of social stratification by using the newly developed Shapley value method based on R2, and look at the evolution of higher education affected by economic development and market-oriented transition from a regional perspective. The results are listed as follows. Firstly, the residents who have received higher education do have higher evaluation on their social class. However, if the gap in higher education opportunities brought by family background is eliminated, the role of higher education in promoting social class mobility will be obviously weakened. Furthermore, the results of Shapley value decomposition based on R2 show that the contribution rate of higher education variable is under 10%, and after eliminating intergenerational transmission of higher education, the net effect is even lower. Secondly, in eastern region of China, weak evidence shows that the role of higher education in improving social classes is emerging. For both total contribution rate and direct contribution rate after division, the contribution of education in eastern region is higher than that in the central and western region. This shows that as economic development and market-oriented reform advance, the effect of higher education on improving social stratification may strengthen. Thirdly, a family’s past social class is the most important factor affecting differences in social class, namely there is obvious intergenerational transmission in social class distribution. In addition, individual and economic characteristics are also critical factors affecting social class. The results show that in order to further advance the formation of an open social class system, it is necessary to establish fairer higher education competition mechanism and compensation mechanism in the framework of a new type of market-oriented social mobility system based on individuals’ competence.

??A study on higher education talents’ supply and allocation against the background of industrial structure adjustment

SU Lifeng ;CHEN Jianwei

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2016,No. 04

【Abstract】 The paper analyses higher education graduates’ supply structure and distributional features after revealing the labor market demand changes against the background of industrial structure adjustment. The results show that, compared with industrial structure adjustment, the employment structure deviation is obvious. The labor market demands for tertiary or higher education personnel and skilled technical personnel are increasing. Although the high-education-graduates structure’s upgrading shows a significant demand-pull feature, the speed of the graduates’ structure adjustment is faster than that of market demand. This leads to internal squeezing and structural employment problems in higher education labor market. Also slow adjustment in high education discipline proportion, and disproportion between professional structure and job skill demand cause the structural difficulty in employment. The education quality of private colleges and alike should be improved, although the graduates’ proportion from these colleges grows faster. The proportion of higher education graduates employed in industries still remains low, and there exists a big shortage of the graduates in the demand from new emergent industries. In recent years, the regional distribution of employment of university graduates is more dispersed, but with a higher concentration in employment status. Occupation concentration is greater than the industry concentration, especially for those with higher education.

Technological and educational factors in Russia’s soft power

XU Hua

Russian,East European & Central Asian Studies,2016,No. 03

【Abstract】 The level of technological and educational development is an important part of soft power of a state. Today, the R&D capability and scale of technology and education of Russia are no longer at the world leading level, even lagging behind those of some emerging countries. The decreasing attractiveness of Russian universities results from the declining level of science and technology, poor rankings of universities, shrinking scholarship, low social inclusiveness, high living cost and social security issues. Russia intends to establish an innovation system for modern scientific research and education and to integrate into the international educational and academic space through internationalization of higher education, regional integration of education as well as integration of scientific research and education. Currently, Russia’s soft power in scientific education is limited in the post-Soviet space and relatively backward countries and regions. The medium level of science technology and education is difficult to support Russia in achieving its superpower dream.

Analysis on farmers’ access to formal loans and loan channel preference: an explanation from the perspective of financial knowledge and educational level

WU Yu;SONG Quanyun;YIN Zhichao

Chinese Rural Economy,2016,No. 05

【Abstract】 In this study, micro data of households collected from the China Household Finance Survey in 2013 were used to analyze Chinese farmers’ loan behavior from two perspectives, namely, the structure of loan demand and preference for loan channels. The results showed that in the rural loan market in China, a relatively high proportion of farmers had loan demand. However, a low proportion of farmers had got formal loans. Meanwhile, a very high proportion of farmers had demand for informal loans. The reasons causing a low proportion of farmers having got formal loans when they had loan demand were as follows. Firstly, a high proportion of farmers who had demand for formal loans had not applied for loans. There was a lack of valid loan demand. Secondly, a high proportion of farmers who had loan demand preferred finance through informal channels. There was a lack of demand for formal loans. A further empirical analysis showed that improvement in farmers’ financial knowledge and educational level significantly reduced the possibility for farmers not to apply for loans when they had demand for formal loans, and also significantly reduced the possibility for farmers to have the preference for informal loans. Therefore, improvement in financial knowledge and the educational level helped farmers to get formal loans and reduce farmers’ preference for informal loans.

Migrant workers’ education-occupation matching and wage effect in China


Journal of Finance and Economics,2016,Vol 42,No. 11

【Abstract】 From the perspective of education-occupation matching and wage effect, this paper uses actual matching method to evaluate the situation of migrant workers’ education-occupation matching based on the 2013 CGSS data, and further employs D-H model and V-V model to estimate the wage effect of education accepted by migrant workers. Accordingly, it discusses education benefits and penalties. It reaches the conclusions as follows: firstly, migrant workers obtain the highest returns to education under education-occupation matching status; secondly, as for the group of migrant workers, there is a relatively high incidence of under-education, but there is still over-education; thirdly, male migrant workers have wage premium resulting from over-education and wage discount resulting from under-education, but female migrant workers do not have such characteristics; fourthly, in the short term, employers not only are willing to pay wage premium to over-educated migrant workers, but also discount wage to under-educated migrant workers.

A comparative study on differences in the rates of return to education between non-key four-year colleges and higher vocational schools in China

YANG Weiguo;YANG Weiguo

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2016,No. 04

【Abstract】 During the transition period of economic structure, it has become a hot topic that several four-year colleges have been transformed into occupation-and-application-oriented types. According to the matching data of employers and employees in Chinese firms conducted in 2013, the article conducts an empirical analysis to compare non-key four-year colleges and higher vocational schools, and the main focus is on the rates of return to education. The results indicate that the overall return rate to education grows with the increasing level of education. However, the difference between these two levels of schools is narrower than that between other adjacent levels. If employment and other factors are taken into consideration, the differences in the returns to education between non-key four-year colleges and higher vocational schools might vary accordingly. Therefore, it is important to consider the impacts of employment on the rates of return to education in terms of school choice. In addition, it is conducive for the government to solving the employment problem by promoting some colleges or departments to transform themselves into the application-oriented type.

A gap of Chinese education finance and the transfer payment mode based on education equalization

TU Jianzhou;MA Hongqi

Journal of Finance and Economics,2016,Vol 42,No. 02

【Abstract】 The majority of education expenditures are paid by local governments in China. On the one hand, owing to the performance evaluation system taking GDP as a standard, the education devotion of local governments is at a lower level; on the other hand, the differences in natural endowment and economic development among regions lead to the greater gap of education development level among regions. Firstly, this paper uses the 2012 data to estimate China’s provincial education fiscal gap on the basis of the determination of the proportion of education resources in regions. The results show that the gap of education finance concentrates in Central and West China, but China’s present education transfer payments funds cannot make up for the gap of education finance in these regions. On the basis of this situation, the paper designs a set of conditional grant modes of education transfer payments, and combines the constraints of local government fiscal decision-making behavior and the system of education special transfer payments together, in order to guarantee the education resources and make up for the local gap of education finance.

Imperial education, subscription system and official promotion: an empirical study based on history archives of officials in the Qing Dynasty

YAN Hongzhong;WEI Xin

Journal of Finance and Economics,2016,Vol 42,No. 11

【Abstract】 Social mobility is an important factor affecting changes in social structure and the direction of social changes, and is also the key link influencing political stability and economic development. In the traditional society, imperial education and subscription system are the main ways of talent selection and upward class mobility. Based on the micro data of the occupation archives of officials in the late Qing Dynasty, this paper examines the relationship between imperial education and subscription system. It shows that imperial education and subscription system are not entirely mutually exclusive as two approaches to official career, but intertwined to become an indispensable part of the official system of the Qing Dynasty. The difficulty in the entry to the official career is an important factor when candidate officials with different education backgrounds take whether and how to subscribe. The role of subscription in official promotion focuses on the selection of the middle-level officials, but as for the entry to the top of the bureaucratic hierarchy, personal abilities of officials, family political background, and political nepotism may play a more important role. Therefore, this paper provides a new perspective for the understanding of the mobility of social classes, and historical experience as well as empirical evidence for the reform of the examination system and the bureaucratic system.

An examination on the cultural inheritance of Chinese Wushu from the perspective of physical education

DUAN Limei;DAI Guobin

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 06

【Abstract】 The combination of physical education focusing on internal feelings in the 20th century and that focusing on external indices during the 16th–20th century is becoming the mainstream in the 21st school physical education teaching. The inheritance of traditional Wushu culture is a body education process based on body and has the target of combining outside indices and inside experience. Facing the problem that students “like Wushu but do not like Wushu course” which caused by long-term trend of evaluation by outside indices in modern Wushu teaching and in the perspective of body education of the combination of external indices and internal feelings, this paper attempts to analyze education practice of the inheritance of Chinese Wushu culture by the methods of literature review and dialectics logic analysis. Conclusions are as follows: inheritance process of traditional Wushu is not only an integration of external indices improvement and internal feelings deepening, but also enhances practitioners’ body cognition and forms four Wushu bodily views. The four bodily views are classification and system, being controlled and autonomy, beyond body and the unification of body and weapon, as well as will steeling and imagination. Combination of external indices and internal feelings, and legacy of historical practice make traditional Wushu cultural inheritance have health trait and spiritual element; it should become a reference for present reforms on school Wushu teaching.

Wushu education reform for international students in Chinese universities in the context of culture “going out” strategy

GONG Maofu

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 10

【Abstract】 For the purposes of exploring Wushu education reform for international students, transforming Chinese Wushu Culture resource, and innovating the way for Chinese culture going out, this paper analyzed Wushu education reform for international students in Chinese universities by the methods of literature review, expert interview, and field survey. The results showed that Wushu has many culture connotations, internationally popularity and massive number of international students, which is the brand resource and valuable strategical resource for Chinese culture going out. The reform of the Wushu education for international students in Chinese universities is an internal need for promoting Chinese culture going out and improving education quality of international students. At present, there are four ways to promote Wushu education reform for international students in Chinese universities. Namely, we should determine culture direction, put the Wushu education on a strategic level, enhance top design for standard construction for the Wushu education, keep the innovation to promote tradition and communicate with present, and innovate transmission to extend education to daily life. The four ways can make Wushu Culture resource realize creative transformation by international students’ education and bear the mission of China culture going out.

Study on exercise as punishment on basis of educational punishment theory

LUO Yongyi;QIU Jun

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2016,Vol 39,No. 02

【Abstract】 Exercise as punishment is an educational punishment method prevailing both at home and abroad. The overcorrection of school educational punishment in the contemporary society makes the moral education practice of school fall into predicament. To enrich the moral education theory of school, by literature review, logical analysis and other methods, we summarized the research on exercise as punishment both at home and abroad. It is found that despite a lack of relevant education law support, exercise as punishment is still one of the education or management means prevailing in the world today. Comparatively, the research on exercise as punishment in China has not developed special research field yet. On the basis of the human nature theory and moral standard theory about educational punishment, we discussed the legitimacy and operation principle of schools’ exercise as punishment. This research believed that school education cannot survive without reasonable punishment support. Against the background of crisis in the current school educational punishment, exercise as punishment is a relatively ideal educational punishment means. The application of exercise as punishment should follow such operation principles as punishment by agreement, subjective value and inter–subjective value, unity and difference of punishment standards, less punishment but more warning, no personal insult, and punishment against the “evil” but not the “slow.” We attempt to provide theoretical instruction to the practice related to school education and trigger more special and in–depth research on exercise as punishment.

Research on the substitution of education dividend for demographic dividend

ZHONG Shuiying;ZHAO Yu, Doctoral Candidate at Economics and Management School of Wuhan University;REN Jingru, Doctoral Candidate at Economics and Management School of Wuhan University

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2016,No. 02

【Abstract】 The change of population age structure is a key factor for economic growth, but it’s not a necessary and sufficient condition for that. As the aging population increases, the demographic dividend fades away gradually, which has negative effects on economic growth. But it can be compensated by the improvement of population education attainment. The improvement of population education attainment might be a positive factor for Chinese economy to keep growing at a high speed in the future. A dynamic panel model is built up according to the theoretical model of economic growth with population age structure variable and education attainment variable included. The model is fitted on the basis of the 2001–2012 panel data of each province. With population education attainment improving, it is found that when other conditions keep unchanged, the improvement of population education attainment will reduce or even offset the negative effects of demographic dividend on economic growth. Therefore, there is no need to worry about the negative effects of disappeared demographic dividend on economic growth. We should pay more attention to improve population education attainment.

Earmarked grants and local government spending behavior: evidence from China’s rural compulsory education aid program

YIN Zhendong;TANG Yugang

Economic Research Journal,2016,Vol 51,No. 04

【Abstract】 This paper argued that the effectiveness of earmarked grants depended on the allocation rule of assisting the weak or that of rewarding the good, and the stage of economic development. As the economy grew, the rule of rewarding the good would be superior to the rule of assisting the weak, resulting in a more balanced public expenditure structure. Taking the rural compulsory education spending guarantee mechanism reform in 2006 as the background, this paper tested the interrelationship between earmarked education grant and local education spending using nonrecursive structural equation models with a sample of 423 counties in the five provinces in Central China. The evidence indicates the prevalence of the rule of rewarding the good, which leads to more local spending on education. This finding is of importance to build an equitable and efficient earmarked grants system.

Layoffs, family resources and children’s education


Economic Research Journal,2016,Vol 51,No. 05

【Abstract】 The incomes of the layoffs shrink considerably due to the SOE reforms in China, thus leads to the change of family resources and exerts its influences on the human capital formation of their children, whose exact impacts have not been measured yet. This paper analyzes this kind of impacts after ruling out the potential drawbacks of identification problems of early retire workers, workers with no pay or voluntarily leave the job by considering the criteria of job change and income shift while utilizing the data from CHNS ranging from 1989 to 2011. The results show that the layoff from SOEs do negatively affect the years of receiving the education on their children for about −4.3%–−6.9%. The negative impacts peak for those who lose their job from SOEs during 1993 and 2000. The negative impacts of the layoff parents on the children’s education are primarily reflected in the postpone of education phases rather than termination of it. The potential mechanism for this relatively human capital deprecation is the direct reduction of family resources planned for the children, which is exemplified by the intergenerational transmission of risk attitudes and reforms in the education systems. Discovers from here provide the evidences on family resources on children’s education in China under the human capita framework initiated by Becker (1994), which implies the assurance of family resources are key to escape the intergenerational human capital depreciation.

Common resources and social trust: evidence from compulsory education experience in China

SHI Yupeng;LI Xinrong

Economic Research Journal,2016,Vol 51,No. 05

【Abstract】 Social trust is a significant component of social capital and crucial to the economic and social development of a country. Unfortunately, the level of social trust of Chinese residents has not been high enough over these years, which has aroused wide attention from the academia. Compared with previous studies, this study explained the phenomenon from the aspects of the insufficient supply of common resources and the competition for such resources for the first time. Taking compulsory education in China as an example, it gave a specific explanation on the issue with reference to the CGSS survey datad for 2003 and 2010. The results show that an insufficient supply of common resources will worsen the distrust among the residents, especially for the group in a disadvantaged position in the competition. This indicates that to improve the supply of common resources and to perfect the allocation rules for such resources are the effective ways to solve the livelihood issues in China like the difficulty in education so as to improve the level of social trust of Chinese residents.

Compulsory Education Law and economic return to education in urban China: based on regression discontinuity design

LIU Shenglong;ZHOU Shaojie;HU An’gang

Economic Research Journal,2016,Vol 51,No. 02

【Abstract】 Using Chinese Urban Household Survey (CUHS) data from 2007 to 2009, this paper adopts a regression discontinuity (RD) design to examine the effect of implementation of Compulsory Education Law (CEL) on individuals’ schooling years and estimate the economic return of education. The three main empirical findings of this paper includes: first, the local treatment effect of CEL is about 0.4 year; second, the RD estimation shows that the economic return to education is about 12.8% in urban China, higher than that of OLS estimation; and third, the economic return in high-income group is higher than that in low-income group, implying that education generates “Matthew Effect” in urban China to some degree. This paper confirms the positive role of CEL on China’s education development, presents new evidence on the estimation of economic return to education and enriches the existing literature on China’s education studies from a methodological perspective.

The influence of education on facial attractiveness


Youth Studies,2016,No. 04

【Abstract】 Based on the baseline data of the China Family Panel Studies in 2010, the study explores the influence of education years on facial attractiveness and its mechanism. The study finds that years of education have a positive effect on facial attractiveness through channel variables, such as income, occupation, leisure life, and bad habits. Education has a positive impact on income, occupation and leisure life, and a negative impact on bad habits. The study also shows that the most important channels for education to affect facial attractiveness are occupation and leisure life, and explains the theory of constrains and efficiency theory that explains the impact of education on facial attractiveness.

The past, present and future of Chinese language education in Southeast Asia: from the perspective of relations among nations

Cao Yunhua

Southeast Asian Studies,2015,No. 01

【Abstract】 The Chinese language education in Southeast Asia goes on with its own rules and patterns. Yet, we must admit that the relations among nations are the key pushing hands to the occurrence of Chinese education hot in Southeast Asia: the ascending Sino-ASEAN economic relations provide a solid material root for its blossom and the deepening cultural exchanges irrigate it incessantly. Looking forward into the future, we believe the Chinese education in Southeast Asia will embrace its brighter future.

Education level, outgoing condition of family members and family economic development in poverty-stricken rural area: based on the investigation in Yan Mountains-Taihang Mountains and Heilonggang Basin in Hebei Province

WANG Jinying;WEI Huijing

Population Journal,2015,Vol 37,No. 05

【Abstract】 The problem of poverty, especially in rural China, has been the focus of attention of Chinese government and society. With the economic development and deepening urbanization, the educational level of people in poverty-stricken rural areas has increased greatly, and a large number of working age population have gone out as migrant workers and business people in order to get rid of poverty and realize individual development. This article conducted qualitative analysis and study on the family members’ education level and the effect of going out as migrant workers on family economic development by using the data of survey conducted in the two poverty-stricken and contiguous areas of Yan Mountains-Taihang Mountains and Heilonggang Basin in Hebei Province. Empirical research found that education level of family members has a significant influence on family economic conditions but the endogenous problems exist. Going out as migrant workers also has an important influence on family economic conditions, however, it is only a means to increase family income rather than the fundamental way to get rid of poverty and become better off.

Influence of secondary vocational education on migrant workers' private returns: a survey of rural migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta

WEI Wanqing

China Rural Survey,2015,No. 02

【Abstract】 This paper based on the data from the survey of rural migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta examined the relationship between migrant workers' educational (and other) backgrounds and their income. There are five main findings. (1) Overall, the income returns to secondary vocational education is below the average rate of return on education. (2) The income of vocation high school graduates is higher than that of junior high school graduates but less than that of ordinary high school graduates. (3) The income of vocation high school graduates is higher than that of junior high school graduates but not statistically significant in the first job subsample. (4) However, in the present job subsample, secondary vocation high school graduates' income is significantly higher than junior high school graduates' income. (5) In the period of first job subsample or current occupation subsample, general education does lead to better performance than vocational education. In the end of this paper, it is believed that the quality of vocational education is more important than size; therefore, it should be committed to improving the quality of vocational education.

Central transfer payment or local public expenditure: which one is more efficient?——An empirical study based on the education and health care services

JIN Tao;MEI Ling-li

Business Management Journal,2015,Vol 37,No. 02

【Abstract】 By constructing an analysis framework including the central and local governments, involving the analysis of two public products: the public service and public investment, this paper carried out a concise theoretical analysis on the key factors that affect the level of public services and through the China’s provincial panel data from 1998 to 2011 to conduct the empirical test in different effects on the transfer payment and local public finance in the context of China’s unique fiscal decentralization. The result has proved that the overall contribution of the local finance towards the public service is higher than that of the transfer payment at the present stage. However, due to the imperfections of the arrangements to the incentive system and the government governance, the local finance has not fully played its positive effect.

Educational homogamy marriages and household income inequality

PAN Liqun;LI Jing;ZONG Jiafeng

China Industrial Economics,2015,No. 08

【Abstract】 How does modern mating pattern impact on the income inequality of Chinese households? Positive assortative mating pattern provides a new perspective to analyze this phenomenon. Since the reform and opening up, in the process of industrialization, the mating pattern changed from ascribed features of old days to achieved characteristics of modern society, such as from family status to education and human capital, and education has become the main criterion for positive assortative mating. With the popularization of primary education and the modernization of higher education, the educational positive assortative mating leads to the Matthew Effect by a higher return to China’s labor market, exacerbated the households income inequality. By using the data of Chinese Household Income Project (CHIP), this paper aims to study the mating pattern measured by the education level of the spouses. Research has shown that the educational homogamy presents an intensified trend from 1988 to 2008. Furthermore, the degree of household income inequality in positive assortative mating pattern is greater than that in random mating pattern, by building the accounting method of Gini coefficient in positive assortative mating and random mating. Additionally, the authors classify certain types in accordance with the education level of the spouses and set each type as certain stratum, by using the counterfactual method, it can be found that the households Gini coefficient in different education strata also reveals that educational homogamy intensify the household income inequality in different educational strata. The winning strategies to alleviate the household income inequality include strengthening social security, advocating diverse mating, carrying out the skill training for households in a low education level, and subsidizing the low-income households.

Analysis of the relations between education and social mobility in contemporary Egypt

BI Jiankang;CHEN Yong

West Asia and Africa,2015,No. 05

【Abstract】 The development of education leads to redistribution of educational opportunities, and impacts on educational equality and social mobility. The contemporary education in Egypt develops rapidly. Popularity and development of education promotes social mobility to a certain extent during Nasser’s age. However, development of education among all strata is quite uneven as well as between basic education and higher education, and it is particularly true in the age of Sadat and Mubarak since 1970. The development of Egyptian education is limited by political environment, and the main beneficiaries are from the middle class. In Egypt, a large number of children who are from the lower middle class and lower class can only choose the liberal arts majors in the university and vocational high school, which are indicative of less competitiveness in the labour market and high unemployment rate in the end. It not only consolidates the existing class and stratum structure, but also inhibits the social vigour and creativity.

What kind of education policy can reduce income inequality?

YANG Juan;LAI Desheng;QIU Muyuan

Economic Research Journal,2015,Vol 50,No. 09

【Abstract】 This study analyzes the impact of natural ability, compulsory education and non-compulsory education on income inequality and intergenerational income mobility through constructing a four-period overlapping generations model. We found besides natural ability compulsory education is the most important factor that influences income inequality and intergenerational income mobility. The differences in natural ability among different income groups are not very large, but the intragenerational gap in human capital and income is enlarged by households’ education choices and the public education policy, which also solidify intergenerational income correlation. The reason is that poor families make less investment in children’s early education and therefore the human capital stock acquired by their children during compulsory education and the corresponding rate of participation in higher education are low. This is the fundamental reason of the widening income gap. The simulation results regarding different educational expenditure models show that increasing public expenditure in the compulsory education period can relax the budget constraint faced by young parents in terms of children’s early education investment, reduce intragenerational income inequality and increase intergenerational income mobility.

“Secondary education trap”? Export expansion, employment growth and the individual decision of education investment

ZHANG Chuanchuan

Economic Research Journal,2015,Vol 50,No. 12

【Abstract】 This study examines the effects of non-agricultural employment growth on education investment decisions at the individual level. Empirical results show that employment opportunities due to export significantly decrease the enrollment rates of senior high schools and higher education institutions. A one percentage point increase in the share of non-agricultural workers in the total labor force could decrease the probability of junior high school graduates aged 16–18 entering senior high school by 0.17% and that of senior high school graduates aged 19–21 entering higher education institutions by 0.26%. With other factors constant, these estimates imply that the increase of non-agricultural employment due to export between 1990 and 2005 decreases the enrollment rates of senior high schools and higher education institutions by 5.4 and 8.6 percentage points respectively. There are also substantial differences in the effects of employment growth on education by gender and by hukou. Compared with women, the decline in education investment is larger for men. For rural youth, the enrolment rates of senior high schools and higher education institutions are both negatively affected by employment growth. For urban youth, the high education enrollment is negatively affected by employment growth, but the senior high school enrollment significantly increases.

The Confucian School education in the Dadu Route in the Yuan Dynasty

CAI Chunjuan

Journal of Chinese Historical Studies,2015,No. 03

【Abstract】 The Dadu Route was the national political center in the Yuan Dynasty, yet it did not have a well-developed system for Confucian School education. Most of the schools were not restored until the late Yuan Dynasty, and the funds for the constructions and repairs of the Confucian Temple Schools came mainly from the donations of local officials and the rich local people. Most schools did not have their own farms, and the principals and instructors were not paid regularly by the governments with unified salaries, and the student number was not large. The number of Academies and Township Schools was also quite small, and the private nature of the Academies and Township Schools gradually changed and they were eventually integrated into the local official school system.

Lose at the starting line: a reconsideration on educational inequality in China (1978–2008)

TANG Junchao

Sociological Studies,2015,Vol 30,No. 03

【Abstract】 The paper is aimed to explore the change of educational inequality at different stages of school transitions in China. It is expected that, due to the mechanism of differential selection, life course and differential early education, the impact of students’ socioeconomic status and cultural background on their educational opportunities is expected to decline in secondary and higher education, while the impact of school level is supposed to rise. A multinomial logistic regression has been carried out to test such hypothesis based on data collected in CGSS2008. Results show that the early stages see the most severe inequality of educational attainment and, as students move up to higher stages of education, the contribution of socioeconomic status and cultural background is largely replaced by the school level. Therefore, more emphasis should be put on the educational inequality of an early stage.

Life safety education: regression of physical education origin

LIU De;WANG Huazhuo

Journal of Beijing Sport University,2015,Vol 38,No. 07

【Abstract】 Life safety education embodies the core value of modern education which is people-oriented and is an important part in quality education. Use origin of sports as logical starting and research object, this paper analyzed generate procedure of sports and theories of its origin in the perspective of life safety education by the methods of literature review and logical analysis. The purpose of this paper was to explore value orientation and implicit function of primitive sports, then to analyze life safety education’ original status and function in physical education. Life safety education in physical education embodies safety need of individual life development. We want to find a way back to the authentic of physical education. The value of this research was to provide some theoretical reference for life safety education course design in school physical education. The conclusion is: origin, formation and development process of sports has obvious traits of survival skill and safety education; life safety education is original fact of sports; and life safety education has important value and function in the 21st century school physical education.

Reflection on the vocational education transformation under the new-type urbanization

GU Shengzu;LIU Lei;LI Rui

Chinese Journal of Population Science,2015,No. 05

【Abstract】 Based on the view of synchronization of the “Four Modernizations” (urbanization, industrialization, informatization, and agricul­tural modernization), this paper discusses the importance of vocational education in transforming China from a populous country to a country with huge human resources. In the aspect of vocational training, it is necessary to improve the professional skills of rural migrant workers to make them better integrated into cities. In the aspect of vocational school education, it is important to accelerate the education of high technical and skilled talents to promote the economic transformation and industrial upgrading. Vocational education services should also be more closely related to urbanization and informatization, in order to bring more information talents and skilled workers. Agricultural vocational education should be promoted to enhance the quality of the rural labor force and the agricultural scaled production level, so that more surplus labor can move into cities. It is also important to promote the international cooperation in vocational education for the construction of international metropolises.

Japanese education of Sono Aikoku in the perception of history: a case study of moral education in the Meiji Era and post-war history education

CHEN Jingyan;WANG Dan

Northeast Asia Forum,2014,Vol 23,No. 05

【Abstract】 Moral education was an important part of Japanese education in the Meiji Era (1868–1912), and its position in the whole of education was strengthened continuously by the Meiji government through making laws and regulations. With the proclamation and implementation of education laws such as the Kyogaku Taishi (General Observations on Education), nationalism, reverence for the emperor as well as loyalty to the throne and devotion to the country penetrated into the moral education. Especially, the deification of the emperor and the guarantee of the emperor's “divinity” by the Meiji Constitution turned the moral education into militaristic education centered on Sono Aikoku (Reverence for the Emperor, Love of the Country). At the end of World War II, due to the lack of an international environment for the eradication of Japan's militaristic education as well as the incomplete destruction of the old state apparatus, the thoughts advocating the emperor's sacredness and Reverence for the Emperor and Love of the Country continued and were upheld in Japanese history education, consequently resulting in the constant visits of Japanese prime ministers to the Yasukuni Shrine and Japan‟s denial of its military aggression.

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