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Exploration of “cultural science” in Taiwan Academic Confucianism after the recovery of Taiwan: on the development of Qian Mu’s thought of “cultural science” and its systematic construction during Taiwan time

CHANG Qianfan;CAO Runqing

Taiwan Studies,2019,No. 01

【Abstract】 Qian Mu Was a famous historian of Chinese academic history in the 20th century. Scholars’ research on Qian Mu’s scholarship mostly focused on his historiography system, historical thought, and the achievements of his textual research. However, they paid little attention to his theory of “cultural science” in the late 1940 s and its maturity in Taiwan. But Qian Mu’s “cultural science” should be regarded as the landmark work of Taiwan Academic Confucianism after the recovery of Taiwan. This article tries to start with the development trajectory of Qian Mu’s “cultural science” system, and analyzes the “cultural science” research categories such as the three-tier, two-type, and seven-element given by Qian, and comments on the staging of Chinese cultural history, comparison of Chinese and Western cultures, and the future development of Chinese cultures further reveals the Confucianism spirit of Qian Mu’s “cultural science” system and its treatment to “Cultural Taiwan Independence.”

From Kant’s religious philosophy to free Confucianism

ZHAO Guangming

Studies in World Religions,2019,No. 01

【Abstract】 Through the confrontation between Kant’s and Schleiermacher’s religious philosophy, this paper reveals the basic philosophical question of how personality itself inherently, naturally and even inevitably generates universality, and thus demonstrates the essence of religion and possible paths for free Confucianism. The core logic of this paper is the elucidation and application of free emotions, which become the basis of religious philosophy and the understanding of free Confucianism.

Empirical study on the brand personality of culinary tourism destination and its impact in the context of Confucian culture

CHENG Li;LU Youhai;LI Dengli;JIANG Xiaoting

Tourism Tribune,2018,Vol 33,No. 01

【Abstract】 A tourism destination can convey its social and cultural characteristics to tourists, and thus forming the tourists’ perception of destination brand personality, which is conductive to understanding the emotional connection between the destination and tourists. In the context of experience economy, tourists’ preference turns from functional and material consumption patterns to symbolic and spiritual experience patterns gradually. Food, when bringing the most direct taste experience, naturally extends such experience to tourists’ experience and imagination of local cultures. Given the value of culinary tourism in social intercourse and cultural experience. Food will add to the attraction of destinations and increase the possibility of tourist visit. Diversified food cultures of different countries and regions generally have close relationship with their indigenous cultures. Endowing cultural meaning to the destination and expressing destination brand personality with food will become a new path for tourism destination competition and promotion. On the other hand, Confucian culture and philosophy have a heavy influence on the development of local cultures, characteristics, and cultural personalities. Chinese people believe that food is the primary necessity of mankind since ancient times, and social culture attaches great importance to food. For these reasons above, this study examined brand personality of culinary tourism destination perceived by tourists and its impact on travel intention in the context of Confucian culture. Taking the city of Chengdu as an example, the study extracted the brand personality words of culinary destination based on Five Constant Virtues of Confucian moral system (Benevolence, Righteousness, Courtesy, Wisdom, and Trust) and developed the brand personality of culinary tourism destination dimensions model by factor analysis. This paper also explored determinants of the brand personality for travel intention by regression analysis and tested the moderating effect of culinary experience. The results revealed that tourists have relatively high recognition for the five dimensions of destination brand personality. However, there are some differences in tourists’ recognition for the five dimensions. Specifically, Righteousness and Courtesy have a higher recognition than Benevolence, Wisdom andTrust. The results indicated that all the five dimensions have positive effect on travel intention significantly. Moreover, the study recognized the moderating role of culinary experience, which positively moderates the effect of Courtesy and negatively moderates the effect of Righteousness on travel intention. This study confirmed that differences in cultural context would lead to differences in destination brand personality. It contributed to the analysis of theoretical significance and applied value of the differentiated positioning of culinary tourism destination. Besides, this paper suggested that the destination brand personality could be considered as an important factor for attention in culinary destination brand marketing.

Confucian culture, social trust and inclusive finance

CHEN Yi

Finance & Trade Economics,2017,Vol 38,No. 04

【Abstract】 Will China’s Confucian culture and social trust have effect on the practice of inclusive financial system? Historical experience and theoretical study provide an affirmative answer. However, some difficulties in practice and unsolved issues in theory encourage us to reexamine this question at a micro level. Using the data from Chinese general social survey, we have found conclusions as follows. Social trust enhances inclusive financial system, while the Confucian culture weakens the popularity of inclusive financial system. The impact of social trust on inclusive financial system is on the promotion of social relationship rather than culture. Confucian culture has not penetrated into the social trust system. The influence of Confucian culture is not reflected in trust, but is embedded in family culture, the characteristic of which is filial piety, and weakens the positive effect of income on the inclusive financial system to a certain extent. Inclusive financial system should be designed as a mechanism tilting to social interests and cultivating the capability of social rights in terms of the improvement of trust system to take corresponding social responsibilities. We should exert Confucian culture in accordance with the requirements of society to promote the achievement of a balance between financial inclusion and security.

The interpretation of the basic form of “Taiwan Confucianism” after Taiwan’s retrocession

CHANG Qianfan;BI Kun

Taiwan Studies,2017,No. 03

【Abstract】 This paper explores the existence of “Taiwan Confucianism” from three dimensions to the definition of Confucianism, and probes into the scope of the interpretation of “Taiwan Confucianism” after Taiwan’s retrocession in 1945, and sketches the political, cultural and social background of “Taiwan Confucianism” since this period. Then, the paper combs through and further explains on the three basic forms, namely, “official Confucianism,” “folk Confucianism” and “Confucianism at social and living levels. Finally, it elucidates the contemporary construction and social values of “Taiwan Confucianism” in order to present the ideological and cultural significance and reveal its role in curbing “cultural independence of Taiwan” and in constructing the common cultural cognitive system across the strait.

On the cooperation and divergences between Confucianism reform movements in modern China and South Korea

PENG Chunling

Contemporary Korea,2017,No. 01

【Abstract】 In order to meet the challenges from Western modern civilization, the Confucianism reform movements between China and South Korea had cooperated with each other during the last ten years of the 19th century and the early 30 years in the 20th century. Kang Youwei was, unquestionably, the spirit leader of these movements. Based on theories of “three stages of human history,” “moderately high standard of living” and “Great Harmony” included in his books The Forged Classics of the Wang Mang Period, Confucius as a Reformer and The One-World Philosophy, Kang Youwei reevaluated Confucian traditions and depicted a new future for Confucian societies. To spread Confucianism in an institutional way, Kang asked one of his disciples Chen Huanzhang to establish the Confucian Association in 1912, which made the reformed Confucianism modern and cosmopolitan. Kang’s reform theories and practices received active feedback from South Korean Confucians such as Lee Byeong-heon, Park Eun-sik and Lee Seung-hui. Travelling to China for many times, Lee Byeong-heon studied from Kang Youwei directly. At last, Lee wrote several books representing Kang’s thought of New Texts Confucianism, and established Pei Shan Confucian Association in his hometown, which made him much appreciated by Kang. This paper tries to reveal the divergences of these transnational Confucianism reform movements by analyzing the historic and realistic dynamics such as the different Confucian histories, the attitudes of Confucian scholars treating each other because of traditional suzerain-vassal relationship between these two countries, and different survival dilemmas in these two societies with the rising of modern nationalism.

The relationship between family and state in political thought: take Aristotle and Confucian before Qin Dynasty as examples

TAN Huosheng

Cass Journal of Political Science,2017,No. 06

【Abstract】 The relationship between family and state is an important issue in the history of political thoughts. This paper takes Aristotle and Confucian before Qin Dynasty as examples to demonstrate how political thoughts were influenced by the idea of the relationship between family and state. In Politics, Aristotle told us family and state were different in nature, on which he developed a refined theory on the regime and took perfect friendship as a standard to exalt civic friendship. By contrast, pre-Ain Confucians thought that family and state are the same in their nature and in their structures. Based on such an assumption, they took monarchy as the only regime choice. Under the premise of the separation of family and state, Aristotle did not turn family ethics into political ethics, but he reflected on the relationship between citizens by taking the friendship between friends as the prototype. However, under the premise of the isomorphism between family and state, Confucians expanded family ethics to political and social fields and used filial piety which existed in a family as a model to regulate the relationship between the emperor and officials. Only when we rationally evaluate the functions of the family in politics can we expect that politics can develop in a sound way. To avoid the peril of integrating state with family, they should be placed in their respective places. Moreover, to exert its function of political socialization, the family should play a suitable role in the political sphere.

The sanctification of Confucius and the canonization of Confucian classics

LEI Yongqiang

History of Chinese Philosophy,2017,No. 02

【Abstract】 The sanctification of Confucius started with his self-expectation to be the sage “wherein the cause of truth is lodged.” Under efforts of disciples and generations of followers, Confucius approached and secured himself onto the dreamed altar where he was sublimed to such a height—being either compared to the “sun or moon,” or ranked with legendary kings like Yao and Shun—that disciples mourned collectively in three consecutive years after the death of the master. Sorting out notes and giving frequent lectures at the intervals of sacrificial ceremonies, they passed down the torch of Confucian orthodoxy, transformed the six arts into the six classics and helped canonize classical Confucian documents.

Three turns of the “introversion” of Confucian ritualism in the pre-Qin period

WU Xinying

History of Chinese Philosophy,2017,No. 03

【Abstract】 The pre-Qin Confucianism is known as the philosophy of music and ritual.” In the so called “propriety disintegration” age of the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the institutional layer of rites and music was destroyed, while the ideological layer of rites and music is constantly reflected and inherited in this great turbulence. Ritual studies has realized the shift from an emphasis on external ethical norms to inner life beliefs, that is, the rituals originally focused on the human world and the human heart from the natural destiny of God and the sacrifices of ghosts. And then on the ideological layer of ritual studies, it excavated “ ren (仁, benevolence)– qing (情, affection)- xin (心, heart)” as an internal source and power, showing a profound sense of life and strong moral pursuit. This change can be called as the “introversion” of Confucian ritual and propriety learning. With the publication of new documents such as Guodian bamboo slips and the bamboo slips in the Shanghai Museum, Confucius (“to subdue one’s self and return to propriety”), Zisi (“propriety generated from heart”), and Mencius (“the heart of making concession”) have proven to be three milestone figures who made great contributions to the development of the“introversion” of Confucian ritual and propriety learning.

Discourses of Max Scheler and Confucianists in the Song and Ming dynasties on the sense of unity: a phenomenological and comparative religious study

ZHANG Renzhi

Studies in World Religions,2017,No. 04

【Abstract】 Max Scheler attempted to build a bridge for communication between the phenomenological descriptions of the nature of the sense of unity and the comparative religious studies of the phenomena of the sense of unity in different cultural circles, but he hardly noticed the thoughts in the ideological traditional of ancient China about the sense of unity with the cosmos, especially the thought of “oneness of all things” in the Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming dynasties. The doctrines on “oneness of all things” developed by the Confucianists of the Song and Ming dynasties contain multiple dimensions of metaphysics, the study of tizhi (realizing the innate knowing) and self-cultivation, social political connotations, etc., and are of profound significance to the comparative religious study of the “sense of unity.” Fundamentally, Max Scheler’s “sense of unity” and the Confucian doctrines of “oneness of all things” both have to face the social and political reality, and they share the same spirit and ambition of “benefiting society and mankind,” as well as the critical task of awakening or realizing the “sense of unity” or the sense of “oneness of all things.” Compared with the slightly mysterious approach of Max Scheler, the Confucian tradition can not only enrich the ideal type of “the sense of unity with the cosmos” (in the formal aspect), but can also provide new and practical techniques for “re-cultivating the sense of unity with the cosmos” at the levels of ethics and the theory of self-cultivation.

Kingcraft ideal of Confucianism, the Tianxia doctrine, and the future of the modern international order

WANG Qingxin

Foreign Affairs Review,2016,Vol 33,No. 03

【Abstract】 The pattern of “one superpower and multi-great powers” after the Cold War and the rise of China in recent years have brought new and important opportunities and challenges to China’s diplomacy, calling for new diplomatic thinking and theory to guide China’s diplomatic practices and the construction of a more reasonable international order. Some Confucian scholars in China start to resort to Chinese history and cultural traditions, and they find revelations and answers in the Chinese Tianxia order of the Spring and Autumn Period and the subsequent tributary system. They argue that there are fundamental and irreparable flaws in the modern international order centered on the equality of state sovereignty, while the kingcraft ideal of Confucianism and the Tianxia order clearly show an international order with more rationality and more justice. Therefore, the ideal international order in the future should be the Tianxia order based on the kingcraft ideal of Confucianism. Although these Confucian scholars have a lot of reasonable criticisms on the modern international order and the Tianxia order they propose is full of insight, the idea of rebuilding the Confucian world order is questionable. In fact, there are fundamental contradictions and conflicts between the Confucian Tianxia-tributary order and the international order based on the principle of national equality. Nonetheless, Confucian moral principles and Confucian principles of international justice derived from Confucian ethics are still useful and can guide today's practices regarding international relations. Chinese scholars need to carefully study and compare Chinese and Western civilization, promote the dialogue between Confucian civilization and Western civilization, find compatible points between Confucianism and international ethical principles and international law, so as to integrate Confucianism into the mainstream international mainstream values and improve the modern international order.

The emergence of modern Confucianism: from the monopoly over political authority to competing for cultural resources

REN Jiantao

Cass Journal of Political Science,2016,No. 01

【Abstract】 Modern politics promotes a pluralistic society, which triggers the fusion of Chinese traditional Confucianism and ends the state of Confucian's monopoly of mind resources in state ruling. These changes combined with each other, have turned traditional Confucianism from a dominant school to one of all the particular schools. Thus, the combined structure of the political and the civilized, the embedded relationship between political theory and political practice, has been broken down accordingly. Some people who attempt to rebuild Confucianism in modern times always have the aspiration to restore the dominant position of Confucianism, which is actually an imagination inconsistent with modern circumstance. However, to them, the probably proper approach to recover Confucianism is to face up the momentum of modern transition, guard the social domain, and impel modern development in China, as well as to gather social cultural resources and have Confucianism become an intelligent particular school so as to help promote the modern quality of Chinese culture.

A study of the original meaning of “give up ru (儒) to engage in gu (贾)”: reflection on businessmen’s social status and the relationship between intellectuals and businessmen in the Ming and Qing dynasties

LIANG Renzhi

Journal of Chinese Historical Studies,2016,No. 02

【Abstract】 "Give up ru (儒) to engage in gu (贾)” was an important topic in the discussion of the relationship between businessmen and intellectuals in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Some scholars regarded those who “give up ru (儒)” as Confucian intellectuals, regarding the practice of “give up ru (儒) to engage in gu (贾)” as the starting point of or the basis for the improvement of the social status of businessmen and the argument of the fusion of intellectuals and businessmen in the Ming and Qing dynasties, and then put forth the so-called “new four-graded people theory” and "the theory of the fusion of intellectuals and businessmen.” After a research on the original meaning of “give up ru (儒) to engage in gu (贾),” this paper arrives at conclusions below: First, “ru (儒)”refers to intellectuals’ imperial civil examination rather than “intellectuals” among “four grades.” Second, the occurrence of the behavior of “give up ru (儒)” is not necessarily linked with the level of Confucians, that is, those that “gave up ru (儒)” were not necessarily Confucians or intellectuals. Third, “give up ru (儒)” did not necessarily mean “engage in business.” Therefore, there was not a necessarily causal relationship between the trend of “give up ru (儒) to engage in gu (贾)” with the improvement of the social status of businessmen, and the fusion of intellectuals and businessmen in the Ming and Qing dynasties. In this sense, it seems necessary to make a further summary and discussion of the “new four-graded people theory” and the theory of “the fusion of intellectuals and businessmen.”

Confucians Sun Fu and Shi Jie’s anti-Buddhism theory in the early Song dynasty

YANG Zengwen

Studies in World Religions,2016,No. 02

【Abstract】 This paper examined and commented on the thoughts of Sun Fu and Shi Jie, pioneers of Neo-Confucianism in the early Song dynasty who held the idea of “benevolence and righteousness” to exclude Buddhism.

Confucian ethics and agency cost in the context of globalization

GU Zhihui

Management World,2015,No. 03

【Abstract】 Confucian ethics are important components of Chinese traditional culture. In today’s context of globalization, whether Confucian ethics are efficient in lowering agency cost or not is a question without a scholarly answer. This article uses the 2002–2012 data about companies listed in the Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange to study the relationship between Confucian ethics, globalization and companies’ agency cost. The results of this study show that Confucian ethics can lower agency cost and improve agent efficiency. However, companies’ participation in international market competition lowers the marginal contribution of Confucian ethics. This article not only provides evidence for the economic value and legality of Confucian ethics, but also corrects the prejudices that certain scholars have against China’s Confucianism.

A brief account of the aesthetic view of “moderation and harmony” of Confucian music education in pre-Qin Dynasty

LEI Yongqiang

History of Chinese Philosophy,2015,No. 02

【Abstract】 The aesthetic view of “moderation and harmony” of Confucian music education in pre-Qin Dynasty was gradually formed in a long period of music education practice. Inheriting the aesthetic taste of the classical court music of Western Zhou Dynasty, which advocates moderation and harmony, Confucius advocated the rule of “golden mean” in terms of music aesthetic standard, and put forward the aesthetic view of “fair and harmony” which, in details, emphasized the moderation of form and content in music and a proper extent in expressing emotions. In this way, the moral purpose of “accomplishment in music” was realized. Zisi, based on this idea and regarding the “Achievement of moderation and harmony” as the ultimate concern, explored the foundation of the world, and constructed a metaphysical philosophical basis for Confucian music education. After that, Gongsun Nizi, Mencius, Xunzi and other philosophers have expounded the theory producing sizable literature, promoting the systematization of the Pre-Qin Confucian aesthetic view of music education, and laying the foundation of the musical aestheticism of the Chinese nation.

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