Sponsor(s): Chinese Psychological Society; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
12 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 09, 2020
Journal official website:http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/0439-755X/home.shtml
Acta Psychologica Sinica is a scholarly journal sponsored by Chinese Psychological Society and Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, co-sponsored by Department of Psychology, Chinese University of HongKong, published monthly by the Science Press. It is to publish original empirical studies and theoretical papers in the broad field of psychology including cognitive and experimental psychology, developmental and educational psychology, physiological and medical psychology, management social psychology, psychological measure, psychological history and method et al.
ZHANG Kan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
FUNG Helene Hoi Lam, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
HAU Kit-Tai, Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese Univ
Predictability impacts word and character processing in Chinese reading: evidence from eye movements
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 09
It has been extensively documented that the predictability of a word in context is closely related with how easily it can be processed. Although there is evidence that the precise time course of predictability effects facilitates the parafoveal processing of alphabetic words, namely, the extraction of their visual, orthographic, phonological, and semantic features, the issue of how context impacts the early stages of word processing in Chinese reading remains a matter of debate. In particular, does it affect early word and character processing when identifying multi-character words? This issue was explored in the present study by manipulating the predictability of the target words and the frequency of words or characters. The hypothesis that predictability facilitates the early stage of word processing, namely, word/character processing, predicts reliable interaction effects of predictability with word/character frequency. Three experiments were conducted to check this prediction. Eye movements of participants were tracked as they read Chinese text. The sentences that contained target words were displayed in Song font, with each Chinese character subtending approximately 1.32 degrees of visual angle. The target words embedded in the sentences in the experiments were composed of two Chinese characters. All three experiments manipulated target words’ predictability, in addition to which we also varied the target words’ frequencies in Experiment 1, the frequencies of the initial characters of the target words in Experiment 2, and the frequencies of the end characters of the target words in Experiment 3. The movements of the participants’ right eyes were recorded with an EyeLink 1000 device manufactured by SR Research Ltd. Pervasive predictability effects were observed in the eye movement measures in all three experiments, which shows that high-predictability words were fixated for longer times than low-predictability words (i.e., first fixation duration, gaze duration, and total reading time), and were re-fixated and regressed less often and skipped more often than low-predictability words. Except for skipping probability, a similar pattern was observed for the effects of word frequency, where frequency had a significant impact on first fixation duration, gaze duration, total reading time, and re-fixation and regression probability in Experiment 1. Reliable frequency effects of the initial character on probability measures were observed in Experiment 2, with higher probability of skipping and regression, and less re-fixation on words with high initial-character frequency than those with low initial-character frequency. Reliable or marginally reliable frequency effects of the end character were also observed in Experiment 3. Although no reliable interaction effects of predictability with frequency factors were observed in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, pronounced interaction effects of predictability with end character frequency were observed on fixation time and re-fixation probability in Experiment 3. The particular concerns of the present study were the interactions between context predictability and frequency variables. Bayes factor analyses of the linear mixed models in relation to first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration were conducted for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 whose results favored the null hypothesis. The lack of interaction effects in the first two experiments suggests independent impacts of context predictability and word or initial character frequency on Chinese word processing, while reliable interaction effects between context predictability and end character frequency in Experiment 3 suggest that context predictability affects prelexical processing, namely, character processing in Chinese reading, thus suggesting that context directly impacts character processing in Chinese reading. Finally, the theoretical implications of the data were discussed.
The role of left orbitofrontal cortex in selective attention during automatic emotion regulation: evidence from transcranial direct current stimulation
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 09
Emotion regulation plays an important role in maintaining mental balance. Automatic emotion regulation is an important aspect of emotion regulation. Previous studies have found that automatic emotion regulation can influence emotional attention bias, and the activation of the left orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) was related to attention allocation to negative emotional stimuli. Although previous studies have provided evidence to the involvement of LOFC in the influence mechanism of automatic emotion regulation on attention, few studies provided evidence to this hypothesis by manipulating the activation of LOFC. In order to examine the role of LOFC in attention allocation under automatic emotion regulation, this paper manipulated the cortical excitability by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We hypothesized that under the cathodal stimulation condition, the effect of subliminal emotional control words on attention avoidance of fear stimulation was diminished. Thirty-nine healthy right-handed college students participated in this study. Each participant was settled into cathodal and sham tDCS sessions in random order. After entering the laboratory, the participants completed a state-trait anxiety questionnaire. Then they completed the pre-task, in which emotional control goal was subliminally presented in the beginning of each trial. And fear related dot probe task was adopted in the pre-task. After the task was completed, the participants received tDCS stimulation. A relatively weak current (±1.5 mA) was constantly delivered over the LOFC for 20 minutes. For the sham tDCS, the stimulation only lasted for 15 seconds. After stimulation participants immediately completed the post-task, in which the same task with the pre-task was used. This paper analyzed accuracy and reaction time by a 2 (pre-task and post-task) × 2 (tDCS: cathodal, sham) × 2 (left-right location consistency of snake picture and target) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the main effect of location consistency was significant (F(1, 37) = 5.11, p < 0. 05, η p2 = 0.12)), and the reaction time under the consistent condition was significantly greater than that under the inconsistent condition. The interaction between the location consistency and stimulus conditions was significant (F(1, 37) = 9.78, p < 0. 01, η p2 = 0.21). The simple effect analysis revealed that under the condition of sham stimulation, the reaction time under the consistent condition was greater than that under the inconsistent condition (ps < 0. 05). For the cathodal stimulation, there was no significant difference between the reaction time under the consistent condition and the inconsistent condition (p > 0. 05). The interaction between the consistency of pre- and post-task, stimulation condition and location consistency was significant (F(1, 37) = 11.41, p < 0. 01, η p2 = 0.24). Simple effect analysis showed that under the condition of sham stimulus, the reaction time under the consistent condition was greater than that under the inconsistent condition (ps < 0. 05). Under the cathodal stimulation condition, the reaction time under the consistent condition was greater than that under the inconsistent condition (p < 0. 05), while the reaction time under the consistent condition was significantly less than that under the inconsistent condition (p < 0.05). This paper examined the role of LOFC in attention allocation under automatic emotion regulation using subliminal goal priming and dot-probe task. Our findings reveal that after cathodal stimulation, attention avoidance of fear stimuli induced by subliminal control goal priming will be diminished, suggesting that the activation of LOFC influences emotional attention allocation in automatic emotion regulation.
Congruence of leaders’ and followers’ emotional appraisal ability and employee voice: the roles of perceived insider status and gender similarity
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 09
Based on the theories of person-environment fit and resource conservation, this study proposes a moderating-mediating model and investigates the boundary and path of the influence of the leader-follower emotional appraisal ability congruence on employee voice. Through the paired questionnaire survey of 43 leaders and 182 followers, the following results are revealed. First, compared with the congruence of low leaders’ and low followers’ emotional appraisal ability, that of high leaders’ and high followers’ emotional appraisal ability brings stronger employees’ perceived insider status. Second, compared with the incongruence of high leaders’ and low followers’ emotional appraisal ability, that of low leaders’ and high followers’ emotional appraisal ability brings stronger employees’ perceived insider status. Third, the perceived insider status plays a mediating role among emotional appraisal ability congruence, promotive voice, and prohibitive voice. Fourth, when the gender of leaders and followers is different, the mediating effect of the perceived insider status is stronger than that when gender is the same. This study investigates the antecedents of employee voice from the perspectives of emotional appraisal ability and gender similarity and provides more interpretation paths for the interactions between leaders and followers.
The influence of multilingualism and multiculturalism on individual and social switching: evidence from the Xibe
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 09
Humans are quintessentially social, yet much of cognitive psychology has focused on the individual, in individual settings. The literature on joint action is one of the most prominent exceptions. Joint-action research studies the sociality of our mental representations by examining how the tasks of other people around us affect our own task performance. Executive functions are a family of general-purpose cognitive processes that allow us to regulate cognition. The main executive functions are inhibition, shifting, and updating of working memory. Growing evidence suggests that executive functions can be automatically activated in non-social contexts as well as social ones. It is necessary to test whether people automatically engage in doing the tasks their partners do even when it requires executive functions. The Xibe is one of the ethnic groups in China, and mainly inhabits Liaoning, Jilin, and Xinjiang. The westward migration separated the Xibe in Xinjiang and Northeast China and embarked on different development paths. Xibe living in Xinjiang is in a multilingual culture, which not only retains the Xibe language (part of the Tungus-Manchu group of the Altaic phylum), but also absorbs the language and culture of the surrounding ethnic groups, such as the Uygur and Kazak. However, the Northeast Xibe merges with the Han ethnic groupand gradually loses their own ethnic culture and language. The present study investigates the influence of multi-language and multi-culture on social cognitive function, using a task-switching paradigm to examine one of the core executive functions, that is, switching. In Experiment 1, the classical cognitive switching task was conducted to compare cognitive flexibility between the Xingjiang Xibe and the Northeast Xibe. Participants performed either a parity task (odd or even) or a magnitude task (bigger or smaller than 5), according to the frame around the number (diamond or square). The results showed that Xingjiang Xibe had smaller switch costs in the RT measure and greater accuracy. Experiment 2 employed socially relevant stimuli (faces) to tap into the switching flexibility between two types of categories (age and gender) and replicated the cognitive benefits of Xingjiang Xibe. These results showed that Xingjiang Xibe has the switching flexibility advantage in individual setting. Experiment 3 compared the switching flexibility of Xingjiang and Northeast Xibe using task-switching paradigm. A switching task was distributed between two participants. Each participant performed only one of the tasks, and did nothing on the trials of the other. In the social condition, two participants shared a computer. Each performed his task on his trials, and did nothing on the trials of the other participant. In the solo (control) condition, there was only one participant, who passively viewed the stimuli when it was not his turn. There were evident switch costs in the social condition and Xingjiang Xibe showed bigger switch costs compared with the Northeast Xibe, which meant they were more automatically engaged in this joint-action situation. It might be argued that in the social condition, participants were distracted by the presence of a partner, or that they were sometimes uncertain about whose turn it was, and these factors lowered their efficiency. These costs are referred as turn-taking costs. In order to address this issue, Experiment 4 isolated turn-taking costs from task-switching costs by adding a condition in which two participants took turns, but they performed an identical task. This condition did not result in switch costs, indicating that costs in Experiment 3 should be interpreted as switch costs. Experiment 5 applied the eyes test to further prove that Xingjiang Xibe had strong individual tendency to understand the others’ intentions. In summary, the results showed that multilingualism and multiculturalism had different effects on cognitive switching function, a positive effect in individual setting and a negative effect in social context. The results of this study provide important inspiration for the construction of a multi-ethnic country.
The development of creativity of senior students in elementary school: gender differences and the role of school support
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 09
Creativity has been emphasized as key competence for adolescents to achieve success in the rapidly changing world. Although developmental psychologists have put tremendous efforts into identifying the developmental trajectory of creativity, no consensus has yet been reached. Researchers have found many factors that potentially affect the development of creativity, including individual differences (such as gender differences) and the influence of the classroom environment. Besides, previous studies have not examined the creativity trajectory taking both the initial level and the growth speed into consideration. To address these flaws, this study adopted a longitudinal design to explore the creativity development of senior students in elementary school through the between-person comparisons of different gender groups and school support (support from teachers and peers) as well as the within-person changes in response to the changing support from schools. Two hundred and three Grade-4 elementary school students (109 boys and 94 girls, mean age = 10.43 years old, SD = 0.62 years, during the first phase of the test, T1) from three elementary schools participated in the three years’ longitudinal study and were assessed for three times (T1, T2, T3). Runco Creativity Assessment Battery (figural divergent thinking tests from rCAB) and Perceived School Climate Scale were used to measure creativity and school support respectively. The study project was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shandong Normal University and obtained the informed consent of parents of the participants. The data were managed and analyzed by using SPSS 22.0 and HLM 6.08 software. A series of analyses, including descriptive, correlation, and multilevel analyses, were conducted to explore the developmental trajectory of creativity and the potential relationship between school support and creativity. The results of the study were as follows. (1) The fluency of creativity of senior students in elementary school from Grade 4 to 6 showed a linear growth trend, while the flexibility and originality of creativity showed a non-linear growth trend. In addition, the initial level of creativity was positively correlated with its growth speed. (2) Individual differences existed not only in the initial levels of fluency, flexibility, and originality but also in the growth speed of fluency and originality. (3) Senior girls in elementary school performed significantly higher at initial levels of flexibility and originality than their male counterparts. (4) On the between-person level, the interaction between teacher support and gender significantly predicted the initial level of flexibility; teacher support significantly positively predicted the initial level of fluency; and teacher support significantly positively predicted the growth speed of originality. (5) On the within-person level, time-varying teacher support significantly positively predicted time-varying fluency. The current study is, to our knowledge, the first exploration to describe the developmental trajectory of creativity of senior students in elementary school in China’s mainland with a longitudinal design. These findings will deepen the understanding of developmental rules of creativity and provide implications for the cultivation of creativity among senior students in elementary school.