Sponsor(s): Chinese Psychological Society; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
12 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 07, 2020
Journal official website:http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/0439-755X/home.shtml
Acta Psychologica Sinica is a scholarly journal sponsored by Chinese Psychological Society and Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, co-sponsored by Department of Psychology, Chinese University of HongKong, published monthly by the Science Press. It is to publish original empirical studies and theoretical papers in the broad field of psychology including cognitive and experimental psychology, developmental and educational psychology, physiological and medical psychology, management social psychology, psychological measure, psychological history and method et al.
ZHANG Kan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
FUNG Helene Hoi Lam, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
HAU Kit-Tai, Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese Univ
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 07
Previous studies found attention bias towards an infant’s face among parents and non-parents. Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed the concept of “baby schema,” indicating that rapid reaction towards an infant’s information is an innate releasing mechanism. The follow-up research found that the attention bias effect was affected by individual differences, such as gender, characteristics, and hormones. However, little is known about an infant’s facial features and the impact of those features on attention bias. This study investigates the influence of cuteness and familiarity on the attention bias effect towards an infant’s face. A 2 (cuteness: high cuteness, low cuteness) × 2 (familiarity: high familiarity, low familiarity) within subject design was used in this study. Before the formal experiment, according to 31 participants’ rating of cuteness after pictures of infants’ faces with high and low cuteness were shown, the familiarity of faces was manipulated by infants’ face learning. There were 35 participants in our formal experiment and each participant completed three parts: infant facial images learning and recognition task, dot probe task, and rating task. This study used eye-tracking and subjective ratings to investigate the influence of cuteness and familiarity of infant’s faces on the preference/attention bias effect towards an infant’s face by comparing the attention bias indexes under four conditions in the dot probe task. The dot-probe task indicated that compared to the adult’s faces, participants reacted quicker when the target was presented at the same location of an infant’s face. The reaction time bias towards high-cuteness infants’ faces was stronger than low-cuteness infants’ faces. The eye-tracking results showed that participants preferred looking at infants’ faces with high cuteness, indicating first fixation duration bias and the total gaze duration bias. However, there was no significant difference in the direction of eye movement and the first fixation latency bias. These results implied an attention maintenance pattern for high-cuteness infants’ faces. Furthermore, this pattern only existed under the low-familiarity condition. The attention bias effect between high- and low-cuteness infants’ faces was not significantly different under the high-familiarity condition. For the rating of cuteness, infants’ faces with high familiarity were rated as cuter than the low-familiarity infants’ faces, regardless of their cuteness. In conclusion, our experiment identified that the cuteness of infants’ faces influences the effect of attention bias towards an infant’s face under the low-familiarity condition. Regarding the preferences, there may be a dissociative situation between subjective rating and gazing behavior.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 07
Long-term rigorous musical training changes the brain structure and function, which impacts speech processing. Many studies have demonstrated that subcortical and cortical neuroplasticity interact to give musicians linguistic advantages, allowing them to construct more elaborate perceptions of speech signals than non-musicians. There is ample empirical support for integrative processing at the end of a sentence. Studies have found that participants completed integrative processing of syntactic or semantic information at the end of a sentence containing an earlier syntactic or semantic violation. As speech rhythms play an important role in establishing the lexical, syntactic, and semantic representation of sentences, is it necessary for listeners to integrate rhythm at the end of sentence containing an earlier rhythm violation? Further, it remains unknown whether and (if yes) how musical training contributes to this process. The present ERP study adopted the rhyming judgment task to explore these questions using Chinese poems. We used 160 unfamiliar, seven-character quatrains as experimental materials, with the last syllable (that is, targets) in the second line of the quatrain either appropriate or deviating from the appropriate syllable in tone, vowel, or both. Fifty undergraduates participated in this experiment. A total of 25 were musicians (9 males, mean age 20.56) with more than 10 years of formal music training who started at 7 years old or younger. The other 25 were non-musicians (9 males, mean age 20.84) who had never received any formal music training. Both were told to listen carefully and complete a “yes” or “no” judgment task on the appropriateness of the metrical feet. The EEG was recorded using 64 electrodes placed according to the international extended 10–20 system. The continuous EEG data were segmented into epochs of −200 to 1,000 ms relative to the onset of the last syllable of each quatrain. The ERPs were analyzed and compared between conditions at time windows of 100–300 ms and 300–750 ms after the onset of the last syllable. The behavioral results indicated that average accuracy rate in rhyming judgment task for musicians (83.24%, SE = 6.64%) was not significantly different from non-musicians (82.64%, SE = 9.15%), t (48) = 0.27, p = 0.791. However, musicians responded faster when the tone was inappropriate compared to the appropriate condition, F (1, 48) = 16.88, p < 0.001, η p2 = 0.26. ERP results indicated that during 100–300 ms the interaction between participant, vowel and tone was significant in the midline, F (1, 48) = 7.59, p = 0.008, η p2 = 0.14, and lateral areas, F (1, 48) = 7.54, p = 0.008, η p2 = 0.14. Simple effect analysis indicated that for musicians, the inappropriate vowel elicited larger positivities than the appropriate vowel when the tone was appropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 9.84, p = 0.003, η p2 = 0.17; lateral: F (1, 48) = 15.41, p < 0.001, η p2 = 0.24]; the inappropriate tone elicited larger positivities than the appropriate tone when the vowel was appropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 3.80, p = 0.057, η p2 = 0.07; lateral: F (1, 48) = 7.27, p = 0.010, η p2 = 0.13]. Besides, the inappropriate tone elicited smaller positivities than the appropriate tone when the vowel was inappropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 10.68, p = 0.002, η p2 = 0.18; lateral: F (1, 48) = 7.37, p = 0.009, η p2 = 0.13]. However, for non-musicians, no significant difference was found in this time window ( ps > 0.1). During 300–750 ms, we found that the interaction between participant, vowel and tone was significant in the midline, F (1, 48) = 6.66, p = 0.013, η p2 = 0.12, and lateral areas, F (1, 48) = 5.60, p = 0.022, η p2 = 0.10. Simple effect analysis indicated that for musicians, the inappropriate vowel elicited larger negativities than the appropriate vowel when the tone was inappropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 5.14, p = 0.028, η p2 = 0.10; lateral: F (1, 48) = 2.92, p = 0.094, η p2 = 0.06], and the inappropriate tone elicited larger negativities than the appropriate tone when the vowel was inappropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 12.94, p = 0.001, η p2 = 0.21; lateral: F (1, 48) = 9.65, p = 0.003, η p2 = 0.17]. However, for non-musicians, the inappropriate vowel elicited larger negativities than the appropriate vowel when the tone was appropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 15.07, p < 0.001, η p2 = 0.24; lateral: F (1, 48) = 12.04, p = 0.001, η p2 = 0.20], while the inappropriate tone elicited larger negativities than the appropriate tone when the vowel was appropriate [midline: F (1, 48) = 10.88, p = 0.002, η p2 = 0.19; lateral: F (1, 48) = 8.27, p = 0.006, η p2 = 0.15]. In summary, the current study found that both musicians and non-musicians completed rhythm integrative processing at the end of sentence containing an earlier rhythm violation that was reflected by a late negative effect (during 300750 ms). More importantly, through years of musical training, the musicians were more sensitive and faster at the integrative processing of rhythm information as reflected by an early positive component during 100–300 ms. In line with the behavioral data, the musicians developed increased sensitivity to tone variations during both early and late time windows. In a word, both musicians and non-musicians completed the integrative processing of rhythm information at the end of quatrains, whereas the musicians were more sensitive and faster.
Sound-induced flash illusion in elderly adults: Evidence from low-frequency fluctuation amplitudes in resting-state fMRI
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 07
Auditory dominance refers to the auditory information in multisensory integration; more priority is given to auditory information, and it is processed in a dominant position. Sound-induced flash illusion (SiFI) is a typical auditory dominance phenomenon, namely, the visual perception of a stimulus for briefly heard voices, qualitatively changing at the same time, resulting in a fission illusion (F1B2) and a fusion illusion (F2B1). Previous studies have shown that elderly adults experience illusions more often than young adults. However, there is not yet a consensus regarding the mechanism when it is investigated using resting fMRI, though resting-state neural activity can reveal the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain (Fox & Raichle, 2007). Therefore, the present study aims to investigate how resting-state neural activity (ALFF) is related to SiFIs in elderly adults and will provide important novel insights into the differences in SiFIs between elderly and young adults. We selected 50 elderly adults (ages: 50–69 year, M = 61.78, SD = 4.17) and 50 young adults (ages: 17–27 year, M = 20.86, SD = 2.17). The present study was a 2 (participants: elderly vs. young adults) × 2 (flash number: 1 vs. 2) × 3 (sound number: 0 vs. 1 vs 2) mixed design. RS-fMRI data were collected by a magnetic resonance scanner in the participants’ natural state of wakefulness and relaxation. The RS-fMRI data were obtained by a Philips 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner, and the images of all participants’ resting states were obtained by gradient echoplanar imaging (EPI) and scan parameters were as follows: the TR = 2 000 ms, TE = 30 ms, field of view (FOV) = 220 mm × 220 mm, flip angle = 90°, matrix = 64 × 64, layer number = 36, layer thickness = 4 mm, scanning time = 400 s. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the resting state of the brain to investigate the correlation between SiFI and spontaneous brain region activity in elderly and young adults to reveal SiFI differences. ALFF results were calculated using DPABI, a RS-fMRI data processing software (Yan et al., 2016). From the perspective of the accuracy results, elderly and young adults both experienced fission and fusion illusions. However, regardless of experiencing a fission illusion or a fusion illusion, the amount of illusion experienced by elderly adults was greater than that experienced by young adults. From the correlation analysis results of ALFF and illusions, there was a significant positive correlation between the F1B2 illusion and spontaneous medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) activity in elderly adults, and there was a significant negative correlation between the F1B2 illusion and spontaneous activity in the right superior occipital gyrus (SOG) and the left lingual gyrus in young adults. For the F2B1 illusion, there was a significant negative correlation between the F2B1 illusion and spontaneous activity in the right SOG, the left lingual gyrus and the right cerebellum and a significant positive correlation between the F2B1 illusion and the spontaneous activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG) and the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) in elderly adults. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the F2B1 illusion and spontaneous activity in the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in young adults. The present study showed that the increased illusions experienced by elderly adults were related to spontaneous activity during resting states in multiple brain regions.
Reduction of anxiety by self-affirmation during the COVID-19 epidemic: a randomized controlled study
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 07
In December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 is characterized by fever and severe acute respiratory symptoms in early stages, which can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome that is associated with high mortality. As of February 9, 2020, 40,171 cases have been confirmed cumulatively, and 23,589 suspected cases were collected in China. The wide and rapid spread of COVID-19 has intensely captured public attention, leading to increased mental health stress. Timely mental health care and intervention during the outbreak of COVID-19 is urgently needed not only for confirmed or suspected patients and frontline medical workers, but also for the general public. Previous studies showed that affirmation of personal values could buffer psychological stress responses in various threat situations. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether an intervention involving reflection on personal values was capable of buffering psychological stress responses during the outbreak. We recruited 220 participants who completed a questionnaire on their personal values. Those in the self-affirmation group were asked to choose and write their thoughts and feelings of a personal value that made them feel important to themselves, while those in the control condition were asked to do the same for a personal value that they thought was important to others. Both groups completed a self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) prior to and seven days after intervention. We used two-way repeated measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to evaluate the buffer effect of value affirmation on stress responses with time of assessment as a within-subject factor and intervention group as a between-subject factor for anxiety and depression. Our results revealed a significant relationship between time and intervention for the reduction of anxiety. Further simple effect analysis demonstrated that the control group showed heightened levels of anxiety seven days after intervention compared with before, whereas participants who affirmed their values did not show any increase. This effect remained significant after controlling for sex, age, educational level, and annual family income. However, no significant differences were found for depression. The present study demonstrates for the first time that an experimental intervention involving the affirmation of personal values can buffer psychological stress response during the COVID-19 epidemic. Specifically, participants who affirmed their values did not show increased levels of anxiety compared with control participants. Self-affirmation is easy to accomplish since it does not require professional guidance or a distinct environment and occupies little time, it would be a convenient strategy for the public to cope with psychological stress during the outbreak.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2020,Vol 52,No. 07
Previous studies usually used the instruction to control the attention of the participants to different spatial locations to investigate the influence of endogenous spatial attention on the audiovisual integration, and found that endogenous spatial attention enhanced audiovisual integration. However, in reality, it is difficult to assign attention in an all-or-none manner. In this study, we used endogenous spatial cue-target paradigm to investigate the effect of endogenous spatial cue validity on audiovisual integration. This study was a 2 (cue validities: valid, invalid) × 3 (target modalities: visual, auditory, audiovisual) factorial design. A total of 62 undergraduate students were recruited as paid volunteers. Experiment 1 recruited 35 participants (5 males; age range: 18–26 years old; mean age: 21. 26 ± 1. 77 years old). Experiment 2 recruited 27 participants (6 males; age range: 19–25 years old; mean age: 22. 19 ± 1. 75 years old). The visual (V) target was a white pentagonal asterisk block (2° × 2°). The auditory (A) target was a 1600 Hz sinusoidal tone presented by speakers. The audiovisual (AV) target was composed by the simultaneous presentation of both the visual and the auditory stimuli. At the beginning of each trial, the fixation stimulus was presented for 600–800 ms in the center of the monitor. Following the fixation stimulus, the cue was presented for 200 ms, which could predict (50% or 80%) the location of the target. Before the target that appeared for 100 ms, the inter stimulus interval (ISI) lasted for 700 ms. The target (A, V, or AV) randomly appeared for 100 ms in the left or right locations. At last, the fixation stimuli appeared for 600 ms to wait for the correspondence responses to targets. During the experiment, the participants were asked to locate targets by pressing buttons (F/J) as quickly and accurately as possible. The results showed that the responses to AV targets were faster than V or A targets, indicating the appearance of the bimodal advancement effect in both experiments. Each target modality showed significant cueing effect. And the cueing effect in Experiment 2 was significantly larger than the cueing effect in Experiment 1. In addition, in Experiment 1, relative multisensory response enhancement (rMRE), race model (probability difference) showed no significant difference at valid compared to invalid locations. However, in Experiment 2, rMRE and race model (probability difference) increased at valid compared to invalid locations. The results suggested that endogenous spatial attention enhanced audiovisual integration in high spatial validity condition. In summary, endogenous spatial attention had different effects on the audiovisual integration under different spatial cue validity. High spatial cue validity enhanced audiovisual integration. The current study provides direct behavioral evidence for endogenous spatial attention to enhance audiovisual integration.