Sponsor(s): Chinese Psychological Society; Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
12 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 12, 2016
Journal official website:http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/EN/0439-755X/home.shtml
Acta Psychologica Sinica is a scholarly journal sponsored by Chinese Psychological Society and Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, co-sponsored by Department of Psychology, Chinese University of HongKong, published monthly by the Science Press. It is to publish original empirical studies and theoretical papers in the broad field of psychology including cognitive and experimental psychology, developmental and educational psychology, physiological and medical psychology, management social psychology, psychological measure, psychological history and method et al.
ZHANG Kan, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
FUNG Helene Hoi Lam, Department of Psychology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
HAU Kit-Tai, Department of Educational Psychology, Chinese Univ
Cumulative ecological risk and adolescent Internet addiction: The mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction and positive outcome expectancy
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2016,Vol 48,No. 12
Adolescent Internet addiction has emerged as a significant social issue with the growing popularity of the Internet. Previous research has shown that ecological risk factors including family, school, and peer risk factors play important roles in adolescent Internet addiction. However, few studies have explored the accumulative impact of such risk factors on adolescent Internet addiction. In addition, little is known about the mediation mechanisms underlying the relationship between cumulative ecological risk factors and adolescent Internet addiction. Based on Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory and the cumulative risk (CR) model, the present study examined the extent to which CR is associated with adolescent Internet addiction. Specifically, we examined whether the effect of CR on Internet addiction is greater than that of individual risk factors, and whether the relation between CR and Internet addiction is linear or curvilinear. In addition, based on self-determination theory and cognitive-behavioral model, we examined whether basic psychological need satisfaction and positive outcome expectancy mediated the relationship between CR and adolescent Internet addition. Nine hundred and ninety-eight middle school students (mean age = 15.15 years, SD = 1.57) from Wuhan and Shanghai participated in this study. They filled out a series of questionnaires assessing demographic variables, ecological risk factors (including parental warmth, parental monitoring, parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, school connectedness, teacher–student relationship, student–student relationship, deviant peer affiliation, and peer victimization), basic psychological need satisfaction, positive outcome expectancy, and Internet addiction. Structural equation modeling revealed that (a) CR predicted adolescent Internet addiction in a curvilinear manner by which the most dramatic increase in Internet addiction was between zero and four risk factors, with a slight leveling off at greater levels of risk exposure; (b) CR was negatively and linearly associated with basic psychological need satisfaction, which in turn increased adolescent Internet addiction; (c) CR predicted positive outcome expectancy in a curvilinear manner (the most dramatic increase in positive outcome expectancy was between zero and three risk factors, with a slight leveling off at greater levels of risk exposure), which in turn increased adolescent Internet addiction; and (d) basic psychological need satisfaction and positive outcome expectancy were two parallel mediation paths linking CR and adolescent Internet addiction. Taken together, the present study is the first to demonstrate the detrimental impact of CR on adolescent Internet addiction, as well as the mediating roles of two motivational factors (basic psychological need satisfaction and positive outcome expectancy) underlying this relation. We tentatively propose a dual-process motivational model to explain how CR is related to adolescent Internet addiction. We also discuss the implications of our findings for the prevention and intervention of adolescent Internet addition.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2016,Vol 48,No. 12
Fear over-generalization has been put forward as a potential etiological factor of anxiety disorders. Previous studies have examined the phenomenon of fear generalization among individuals with anxiety disorders and high trait anxiety. However, state anxiety is more common in populations and its impact on fear generalization has not been paid attention to. Thus, in this study, we induced state anxiety in healthy individuals and tested the impact of state anxiety on fear generalization. Thirty-eight healthy participants participated in the experiment and were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The whole experiment consisted of four phases: habituation, acquisition, fear inducement, and generalization. In this experiment, 10 rings of gradually increasing size that were presented on a computer screen served as conditioned stimuli (CS)and generalization stimuli (GS). The rings in the two extreme sizes served as the conditioned danger cue (CS+) and conditioned safety cue (CS−), respectively. The eight intermediately sized rings served as four classes of generalization stimuli (i.e., GS1, GS2, GS3, and GS4), with GS4 being the most similar one to CS+ in size. CS+ was probably paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), while CS− and GS were unpaired with US. Six fear pictures from the international affective picture system (IAPS) were taken as US. During the experiment, subject online expectancy ratings and skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded. During the habituation phase, the CS+ and CS− were each presented three times, each without any pictures following the CS+. During the acquisition phase, the CS+ and the CS− were presented six times each, and the pictures were presented 5s before each CS+ offset. During the fear inducement phase, the experimental group passively viewed a 5-min fear video and the control group passively viewed a 5-min video clip of a train traveling. The subsequent generalization phase consisted of six blocks. In each block, eight GSs were presented once without a picture; CS+ and CS− were presented twice each. One CS+ was followed by a picture to avoid the participants forgetting. The results showed that exposure to the fear video significantly increased participants’state anxiety. The experimental group displayed stronger generalization than control group. Conditioned fear in the experimental group was generalized to rings with up to GS4, GS3, and GS2 in both SCR and online expectancy ratings, whereas generalization in control group was restricted to rings with only GS4 in SCR or GS4 and GS3 in online expectancy ratings. The duration of generalization for the experimental group was longer than the control group in both SCRand online expectancy ratings, indicating that state anxiety slowed generalization extinction. Additionally, state anxiety enhanced the identification of conditioned stimuli in SCR. The results of this study supported both the behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation theories. Regarding online expectancy ratings, the experimental group displayed stronger generalization than the control group, indicating the participants with state anxiety fail to inhibit fear responses in the presence of safety signals (i.e., GS). Regarding SCR, participants with state anxiety showed both the stronger behavioral inhibition to safety signals (i.e., GS) and behavioral activation to danger cues (CS+). Hence, the results indicated that the theories of behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation might occur in the different learning phases:the former one might occur in both explicit and implicit learning and the latter one might occur only in the implicit learning of fear. This study also has clinical implications. For individuals suffering from negative events, to decrease the state anxiety may be an effective method for reducing the fear over-generalization and improving the efficacy of exposure therapy.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2016,Vol 48,No. 12
The individuals can be divided into two categories in accordance with implicit theories of personality: the entity theorists, who believe that the personality and character are inherent, and the incremental theorists, who believe that the personality and character change gradually. As a significant individual difference, ITPs affect the mechanism of cognitive processing of social perception and impression formation of others. Although some studies on the individual difference about impression formation infer the existence of ITPs by the difference of behavioral outcome, there is no research to investigate the influence of impression formation to others by ITPs and it’s unclear whether exists the effect of impulsive-reflective system or not. In light of this, the aim of the research is to test whether different presentation forms can cause different processing strategies of impression formation to others and elucidate how ITPs affect the impression formation to others by observing entity theorists and incremental theorists. Three assumptions can be given in this research: (1) The ITPs of individuals can affect “top-down” and “down-top” on linkage effect as a kind of mental representation. So we can study the information judgment of person impression is instant or memory-based. (2) Entity theorists and incremental theorists perceive others in different ways that entity theorists adopt heuristic processing while incremental theorists analytic processing. (3) Through heuristic processing, entity theorists form impressions by real-time judgments while incremental theorists by memory-based judgments form through analytic processing. The experiment includes two stages. (1) Preliminary stage: 120 participants are selected as participants to be experimented with the adapted fairytale. As a result, 42 entity theory participants and 48 incremental theory participants are distinguished.(2) Experiment stage: 90 college students selected in the preliminary stage as participants who have different ITPs and directional situations to judge the information of behavior are designated to record the discrepant dates of free recall and frequency estimation through illusory correlation effect which includes mere exposure effect and co-occurrence memory judgment effect. The results of experiment lead to two conclusions. (1) Fairytale Test is capable to distinguish effectively the implicit theories of personality of participants which means the entity theory is opposite to incremental theory, and they are two extremes. Moreover, different personalities have the same implicit theory. (2) The ITPs can affect “top-down” and “down-top” on linkage effect as a kind of mental representation and then guide the social perception of people. Impression formation adopts real-time judgment under the influence of entity directional situations while memory-based judgments are adopted to form impressions through incremental directional situations. Comparing with entity theorists, the participants of incremental theorists use less initial information to built expression and there exist deviations of impression and consciousness when they are memorizing and judging. As a result, incremental theorists need more effort to form individual evaluative impression. In short, the individuals who have different implicit theories of personality adopt different information processing ways to perceive others. Entity theorists take heuristic processing and incremental theorists use analytic processing. When taking heuristic processing, entity theorists form impressions through real-time judgments while incremental theorists take memory-based judgments to form impressions through analytic processing, and finally person impression is formed by means of situational information. According to the research, the situational factors have effect in the intensity of the ITPs of individuals but don’t change inherent ITPs from research. And the information processing ways and ITPs have obvious interaction under the influence of different directional situations. So, the separation effect which is caused by processing methods of social cognition on the representation of ITPs, as a kind of important individual variables, has effect in individual emotion, attitude and behavior. As a result, combining the situations of real life, it has theoretical and applied values for us to discuss the basic issue that how the ITPs affect the processing strategy of impression formation. The ensuing research will enlarge the age range of samples and trace the physically and mentally changes of different types of object so that we can find the separation effect caused by processing methods of social cognition which includes automatic processing and controlling processing on the representation and brain mechanism of ITPs. Furthermore, whether Fairytale Test can test effectively the generality and difference of ITPs needs to be traced down by recording the real performance of participants in order to increase the repeatable verification and extrapolation efficacy.
A fMRI study on the mirror neuron activities of abstinent heroin users elicited by drug using action cues
Acta Psychologica Sinica,2016,Vol 48,No. 12
The cue-provoked craving is one of the main reasons for psychological dependence. The current study applied cue reactivity paradigm to find out the activation of the whole brain in the drug dependent individual’s brain when they exposed in the related cues. 15 abstinent heroin dependent individuals (AHD) and 12 no-drug use health participants (NDP) involved in the experiment. We conducted 2 (groups: abstinent drug dependent group, no-drug use group) × 2 (relatedcondition: related cue, unrelated cue) × 2 (cue types: static object, action) experiment design. They observed the cue-related stimuli and the counterpart cue stimuli while lying in a 3.0T Siemens MRI scanner. Images forheroin-related stimuli contained heroin injection, preparation, and paraphernalia. Neutral images (control) were composed of daily life objects and behavior. We explored and analysed the neuron activation of cue-induced reactivity between the two groups. Conjunction analysis of action related cue and unrelated cue, to explore the difference activity of mirror neuron system within the two conditions and between AHD and NDP. Multiple t-contrasts between related-cues and unrelated-cues were conducted to find out the cue neuronal reactivity which was accompanied with craving. The result showed that drug-related cues activated more brain regions than the corresponding cues which include the occipital-temporal cortex, superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule, orbit-frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate, hippocampus,thalamus and midbrain for the AHDs. The comparison between activated brain area under drug and “C-drug” cues showed more activation in right hippocampus, precuneus and the posterior cingulate activation for abstinent group. The hemodynamic response in temporal and parietal lobe correlated was consistent when we performed t-contrasts between “C-action” and “C-drug” condition for both of the two group subjects. Abstinent subjects evoked the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, the left superior parietallobule and the right inferior frontal gyrus when they watched drug taking pictures and usual manual motion. The conjunction analysis showed that conjoined action versus drug and “C-action” versus “C-drug” contrast was executed; hippocampus and midbrain were detected for abstinent group. The health control group only evoked occipital-temporal cortex when compared between under “C-action” and “C-drug” cues. In particular, neither hippocampus nor midbrain had an evident response after the same analysis at the health counterpart group.The result of the study indicated that abstinent drug dependent individuals still have craving for the drugs after a period of abstinent symptoms disappearing. The craving would be induced by the related cues which accompany with the activation of medium temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus and so on, which belong to mirror neuron system. The area was susceptible to different drug related cues and they might involve in the mental simulation of drug use activation which participates in quick automation processing to drug related cues. Anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulated cortex, hypothalamus, hypothalamus, mesocerebrum along with the limbic system play the important role in the cue-induced craving.