1. Analysis of the differences in bitter and astringent substances in the pellicle of different walnut varieties
Journal of Fruit Science,2021,Vol 38,No. 02
[Objective] The pellicle is the key part that causes the bitter and astringent taste of walnut kernels. In order to find out the main bitter and astringent substances in walnut pellicle and find varieties with light bitter and astringent taste, we compared the differences in bitter and astringent substances in walnut pellicle among different walnut varieties. [Methods] Sensory evaluation was conducted on the taste quality of fresh walnut kernels and pellicle in the early stage, and the water extract of pellicle was tested using electronic tongue. In this study, fruits of five walnut varieties (‘Zhonglin 3’, ‘Jing 861’, ‘Xiangling’, ‘Bokexiang’ and ‘Nonghe 1’) were selected as the test materials at mature stage. The total tannin content was determined by the Folin colorimetric method, and the content of bitter and astringent substances such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and alkaloids were determined by HPLC. The obtained data were processed using SPSS 23.0 software for correlation analysis and principal component analysis was conducted using SAS 8.0 software. [Results] The total tannin content was highest in ‘Zhonglin 3’ and lowest in ‘Nonghe 1’. The tannin content in ‘Zhonglin 3’ was 2.62 times that in ‘Nonghe 1’. The content of different phenolic acids was in a descending order of gallic acid > caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > ferulic acid > vanillic acid > ellagic acid > p-coumaric acid > syringic acid, and total phenolic acid in ‘Zhonglin 3’ was significantly higher than the other varieties ( p < 0.05). The content of rutin in ‘Xiangling’, ‘Zhonglin 3’ and ‘Jing 861’ was significantly higher than in the other varieties ( p < 0.05); catechins from high to low were catechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate. ‘Zhonglin 3’ and ‘Jing861’ had a significantly higher content of catechins than the other varieties ( p < 0.05), and the total amount of catechins and ester catechins in ‘Nonghe 1’ was the lowest. As for alkaloids, theobromine was not detected in any varieties, and the content of caffeine was significantly higher than that of theophylline in all the varieties. The caffeine content in ‘Bokexiang’ was significantly higher than in the other varieties ( p < 0.05). The content of theophylline in ‘Zhonglin 3’ was significantly higher than that in the other varieties ( p < 0.05), and the content of caffeine and theophylline in ‘Nonghe 1’ was the lowest. Correlation analysis showed that all bitter and astringent substances were positively correlated with bitterness and astringency, and there was a significant positive correlation between gallocatechin and bitterness, and coumaric acid, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate were significantly positively correlated with bitterness. Total tannins, epicatechins and astringency are significantly positively correlated. These indicated that all the bitter and astringent substances tested in this study contributed to bitterness and astringency. Among them, gallocatechin, coumaric acid, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate contributed more to bitterness, while total tannin and epicatechin contributed more to astringency. The result of principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the two principal components was 83.08%, which contained 83.08% of the bitterness and astringency index. The first principal component could be interpreted as the “total bitterness” factor. All bitter and astringent substances contributed to the first principal component, among them, the contribution of epicatechin, total tannins, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate and theophylline were greater. The second principal component could be interpreted as a “bitter structure” factor, which included coumaric acid, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and caffeine. According to the score of the first principal component, the taste could be divided into two categories: lighter and heavier bitterness and astringency. ‘Nonghe 1’ and ‘Bokexiang’ had lighter bitterness, and ‘Zhonglin 3’, ‘Jing861’ and ‘Xiangling’ had heaver bitterness and astringency. According to the score of the second principal component, the varieties with astringent taste greater than bitter taste were ‘Nonghe 1’, ‘Xiangling’ and ‘Jing 861’, and the varieties with bitter taste greater than astringent taste were ‘Bokexiang’ and ‘Zhonglin 3’. From the results of the principal component analysis, it could be seen that the total tannin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine and other substances basically contain bitterness and astringency information of walnut pellicle. [Conclusion] Total tannin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine are the main substances that affect the bitter taste of walnut pellicle. In terms of taste intensity, ‘Zhonglin3’ is the highest, ‘Nonghe 1’ the lowest. This provides inspiration for future research on the taste quality of walnut pellicle and the selection of walnut varieties with lower bitterness and astringency. ‘Nonghe 1’ has the lightest bitterness and astringency, so it can be used as an important material for walnut breeding and can be promoted to meet the needs of consumers.
2. Expert consensus on the dose-effect relationship of physical exercise delaying cognitive decline in the elderly
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
With the increasing degree of aging, the cognitive decline of the elderly has become a global public health problem. A large number of clinical experiments and meta-analyses have confirmed that physical exercise can improve the cognitive function of the elderly. In December 2017, the American Academy of Neurology formally recommended physical exercise as an intervention for mild cognitive impairment. In 2018, physical exercise was written into the American physical activity guideline for the first time as an effective means to improve cognitive function. Although we have reached a consensus that physical exercise can improve cognitive function, the dose-effect relationship between physical exercise prescription (exercise type, duration, intensity, and frequency) and cognitive function is still not clear. There is an urgent need for clinicians and researchers to formulate a guideline for physical exercise to delay cognitive decline. Therefore, experts and scholars from universities and hospitals across the country jointly write the expert consensus on physical exercise to delay the cognitive decline of the elderly. We searched five electronic databases for randomized controlled trials of physical exercise interventions on cognitive function in the elderly. We graded the included literature according to evidence level and recommendations grades of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine and analyzed the effect of physical exercise on cognitive function. Finally, an expert consensus on the dose-effect relationship of physical exercise delaying cognitive decline was written. Aerobic exercise has a better effect on executive function. The recommended program is 3 times a week with moderate intensity, which lasts 30–60 minutes each time within 12–24 weeks. Resistance exercise has a better effect on executive function. The recommended program is 2 times a week with moderate and high intensity, which lasts 60 minutes each time within 24 weeks. Multi-component exercise has a better effect on the global cognitive function, memory function, and executive function. The recommended program is 3–4 times a week with moderate intensity, which lasts 30–60 minutes each time within 12–24 weeks. Traditional Chinese national sports have a better effect on global cognitive function. The recommended program is more than 3–5 times a week with moderate intensity, which lasts 30–60 minutes each time within 12–24 weeks.
3. Research development of mitochondrial-mediated skeletal muscle remodeling in exercise against cancer cachexia
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
Cancer cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome characterized by progressive weight loss and muscle loss, with energy depletion, inflammation and loss of muscle mass as the main features. Cancer cachexia is the most common of these and is responsible for 20% of deaths in cancer patients. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the prevention of cancer cachexia. In this paper, a literature review was conducted using the keywords including exercise, cachexia, mitochondria and myasthenia gravis, and a comprehensive analysis revealed that skeletal muscle energy depletion, inflammatory response and muscle mass loss in cancer cachexia were associated with mitochondrial abnormalities. Myasthenia was associated with reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, increased mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction in the cachectic state. Moreover, disorders of energy metabolism, secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and protein degradation interact with mitochondria as the center to form a tumor microenvironment, accelerating muscle cell apoptosis and muscle fiber damage, and aggravating the development of cachexia muscle atrophy. Therefore, it is important to repair the structure and function of mitochondria in cachectic state and reshape the mitochondrial normal network counteracting cancer cachexia. In turn, the key to repairing mitochondria in cachectic state is to rebuild mitochondrial quality control. The mechanism is that exercise increases the number and quality of mitochondria through PGC-1a, increases the aerobic oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, inhibits lactate production, and rebuilds a benign myogenic environment to counteract cachexia. Mitochondrial autophagy was regulated by PGC-1a to remove damaged mitochondria and repair damaged mitochondria in skeletal muscle in cachexia, thereby restoring muscle function. Exercise reverses the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by IL-6, desensitizes skeletal muscle to the cachexia inflammatory environment, so that skeletal muscle is not affected by tumor microenvironment, and then restores the normal function of myocyte components including mitochondria. Studies have shown that regular exercise significantly reduces ubiquitination activity, inhibits protein degradation of skeletal muscle and mediates atrophy. In conclusion, in the cachectic microenvironment, exercise maintains skeletal muscle metabolic homeostasis and reverses atrophy by remodeling mitochondria, but questions remain to be addressed: it is different for lactate from skeletal muscle or tumor in energy metabolism, and the relationship between them needs to be further clarified. Protein ubiquitination plays a key role in the development of cachectic muscle atrophy and in maintaining mitochondrial function. How exercise regulates mitochondrial ubiquitination and thus prevents the development of muscle atrophy in a cachectic state needs to be further investigated. Furthermore, exercise interventions as a therapeutic tool face enormous challenges. Therefore, it is important to provide personal and effective exercise prescription for patients with cancer cachexia at an early stage.
4. Query and clarification: the intensity correlation of school physical education health pursuit based on reflection of physical education curriculum teaching on specific exercise intensity
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
The suggestions or requirements regarding specific exercise intensity (the average exercise intensity of 140–160 beats/minutes per lesson) in the relevant documents and practices, which are widely used as the evaluation requirements and indicators of the physical education curriculum teaching (especially open class), have become important representations of school physical education in China. They are assumed to be moderate-to-high exercise intensity, and are largely based on health (including physical fitness and physical performance) assumption and effect. This study focuses on the problems and dilemmas associated with the pursuit of health and specific exercise intensity in school sports. Through literature examination, logical reflection, and value analysis, it clarifies the different logics and orientations of specific exercise intensity, health pursuit, and physical education, and provides theoretical and value resources for school sports to better implement the guiding ideology of “health first” and deepen related reforms. This paper has the following findings. (1) The given exercise intensity cannot meet the health pursuit of school physical education. First, the inappropriate introduction of fitness or physical activity intensity into school physical education (mainly physical education curriculum instruction) is a one-sided and misplaced health orientation. For example, the heart rate intensity cannot reveal the health value of different forms of exercise, which is mainly related to cardiopulmonary endurance but has no necessary relationship with other physical fitness. Many events of school physical education will exceed the limit of appropriate intensity, and the unified intensity requirements are in a lack of individual pertinence. Second, the implied defect may appear in average heart rate requirements, but its low and high intensity may not be the appropriate intensity for fitness or physical activity. Due to the existence of a large number of low-intensity teaching processes and content in physical education teaching, the practice of averaging the low and high intensity in order to meet the requirements of the average heart rate intensity of the whole class may violate the health assumption under the moderate-to-high intensity. Third, the heart rate intensity is not directly and necessarily related to physical fitness improvement. but more of a reference index for endurance development. (2) The given exercise intensity is not compatible with the essence and regulation of physical education teaching. Under the regulation of average (medium and high) intensity, the compensation of high intensity to low intensity is limited and unreasonable, which makes the low-intensity teaching process, specific situations, low-intensity events in a given period and moral education in physical education excluded or ignored. This paper provides the following suggestions. (1) Suggestions or requirements for specific exercise intensities in relevant documents and practices are a misinterpretation and misapplication of moderate-to-high intensity for fitness or physical activity, including a narrow and average interpretation of appropriate moderate-to-high intensities and limiting physical education classes to per-class requirements. (2) The specific exercise intensity is not necessary for the development of physical strength, technical ability, and sports morality, and thus it should not be regarded as the unified requirement of curriculum teaching in physical education. (3) The intensity requirements of curriculum teaching in physical education should keep tension with the health orientation, the internal regulation of physical education teaching and its multidimensional values, and even go beyond the assumption and limitation of health, including the re-examination and re-positioning of “health first.” In addition, the mistakes and problems in the relevant evidential literature of specific exercise intensity were examined in this paper, and the consideration factors of the specific application of exercise intensity in curriculum teaching in physical education were put forward. For example, it is not suitable to debase the low-intensity sports events and teaching process in physical education as the labeled and unqualified physical education teaching.
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
Objective: by analyzing the relationship between gut microbiota and neural function, this study explored the possible mechanism of exercise-mediated gut microecology and microbiota-gut-brain axis regulating neural function, so as to provide a new research perspective for exercise intervention to improve neural function. Background: recently, the research on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis and their neural related functions has received extensive attention. The role of gut microbiota and the gut microenvironment in health maintenance and disease development cannot be ignored. The imbalance of gut microenvironment is the key cause of many diseases, including nervous system diseases. Neurological dysfunction is an important cause of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases, but its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Importance and scope of topics involved: with the in-depth study of gut microbiota, it is found that gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of many diseases, and neurological dysfunction is no exception. The information pathways between the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the central nervous system (CNS) make the connection between the gut microbiota and the neural function establish between the gut-brain axis. The changes of the gut microbiota can affect neural function through the connection between the gut-brain axis. Methods: this study adopts the methods of literature review, system analysis, and induction. Through the English language databases such as Science Direct and Pub Med, and Chinese databases such as CNKI and VIP, using “exercise,” “gut microbiota” and “microbiota-gut-brain,” and Chinese key words “运动,” “肠道微生物,” and “微生物-肠-脑轴,” we collect the published literature in recent years (mainly in recent five years), screen, read, and analyze this literature, select the literature related to neural function for intensive reading, and then summarize the mechanism of exercise-mediated microbiota-gut-brain axis regulating neural function. Conclusion: we found that regular exercise has a good effect on gut microecology. Appropriate exercise may increase the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrition in the digestive system, stimulate gastrointestinal peristalsis, promote the secretion of gastrointestinal digestive juice, improve the species and ecological balance of gut microbiota, and optimize the intestinal microecology and nervous system. However, its internal regulatory mechanism is still unclear, which may be related to the fact that exercise regulates the diversity of gut microbiota, improves intestinal immunity, intestinal metabolism, intestinal endocrine and gut-brain nerve conduction, mediates neurogenesis, and regulates the gut-brain axis connection between ENS and CNS, thereby enhancing neural plasticity and inhibiting neurological dysfunction. Also, the mechanism of exercise-mediated gut microbiota regulating neural function is unclear. It is of great significance to explore the mechanism of exercise-mediated gut microbiota in regulating neural function for clarifying the mechanism of exercise intervention in neurodegenerative diseases.
6. Physical activity action and strategies on health promotion for rural women: the action research on women’s health promotion in J Village in Qingyuan, Guangdong Province
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
Physical exercise is an important way to promote health. However, rural women suffer from poor health, and their activity participation faces various predicaments. Although previous studies have explained the barriers of rural women’s sports participation, few studies have focused on the ways to eliminate the barriers of their sports participation in a real situation. In order to find out an effective way to promote rural women’s sports participation, we applied field research in J village, Qingyuan, Guangdong Province in China. Seven participants were carefully chosen to take part in the square dancing from March to October 2019. This study mainly includes three stages. The first is the preparation stage; the second stage is action implementation and reflection; and the third is the evaluation stage. In the preparation stage, we visited the villages and observed their living conditions and cultural activities. We also interviewed the women living in the village. Women in J village were found to have poor physical health, backward health concepts, low concern for self-health, lack of leisure activities, and small social networks. In response to these problems, the action plan has been designed and carried out: (1) teaching the fitness knowledge and skills of square dancing; (2) sharing the knowledge that sports promote health to spread health concepts and behaviors; (3) establishing social networks and breaking the ice of cultural and psychological isolation; and (4) creating a positive and healthy exercise atmosphere to improve their mobility. The effects are as follows. (1) After physical exercises, the health level of participants increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the body mass and BMI decreased significantly (P < 0.05). (2) During the process of sports participation, the participants improved their physical and mental health, and optimized health awareness, cognition and behavior. They also gained positive physical experience, and internalized healthy behavior as a lifestyle. (3) In the process of social interaction through physical exercises, rural women realized their self-identity, and obtained social capital through physical exercise. Conclusions are as follows. Sports participation is not only a means for rural women to obtain health, but also an important strategy for empowering their health. It helped to eliminate the traditional patriarchal control of women’s health, loosening the constraints of social culture and gender norms on rural women, which has made their bodies stretched, so that their subjectivity can be expressed and released. The suggestions are proposed as follows. A targeted and long-term physical health initiative in rural areas needs to be planned in four areas: self-care enhancement, acquisition of leisure time, body control, and network building. In this way, it can awaken rural women’s subjective consciousness, improve their subordinate status in daily life, and promote their control over their bodies and health empowerment, so as to achieve the overall health of rural women.
7. Impact of physical exercise on adolescents’ academic performance and its mechanisms: an empirical analysis based on China Education Panel Survey data
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
In the development of China’s test-oriented education, school teaching revolves around the target of entering higher education. Teachers, parents, and students are worried that students’ investment time or energy in music or physical education, or other leisure classes will affect their academic tests or academic performance, and thus teachers and parents both compress students’ physical exercise duration. However, this action makes students physical fitness declined, and rates of myopia and obesity increasingly serious. Different from the public’s negative views on physical exercises, there have been controversies in the academic communities about the relationship between physical exercises and adolescents’ academic performance, and have formed research conclusions such as positive effects, negative effects, and irrelevant effects between them. Therefore, in the context of China’s current development of the healthy China strategy and the education strategy, how does physical exercise affect the academic performance of young people? What kind of intermediary mechanism exists for these influences? This paper answers these two questions. By using the data from 2013 to 2015 of the China Education Panel Survey, this paper uses a hierarchical linear model with panel data to analyze whether physical exercise affects the academic performance of young people in different disciplines, and explores possible multiple intermediary mechanisms through structural equation model. The study found as follows. First, the time invested in adolescents’ daily physical exercise has an inverted U-shaped curve effect on their academic performance, and 45.6 minutes of physical exercise per day has the greatest effect on improving the average performance of students’ academic performance. The results of this paper support the view of the positive effect of physical exercise on the academic performance of adolescents. Adhering to an appropriate dose of exercise every day has the best promotion influence on the academic performance of adolescents rather than the largest or contracted time spent on daily exercise does. Second, the analysis of multiple mediating effects analysis shows that physical exercise can improve students’ academic performance through four mechanisms: reducing students’ negative emotions, enhancing interaction among classmates, promoting positive behaviors of students, and building students’ self-confidence. Specifically, adolescents’ mental health factors, classmates’ positive behaviors, the relationships of classmates, and confidence in students’ own future are important mediating mechanisms of physical exercise affecting their academic performance. The mediating mechanisms of physical health such as BMI and daily sleep time have not been statistically verified. Compared with previous studies, the innovations of this paper are as follows. (1) The data used in the past research were of small sample size and mostly the horizontal survey data, and thus may reduce estimation bias. In contrast, the China Education Panel Survey used in this paper has good national representativeness, and the panel data can reflect the changes in the information of students and their families and schools. Therefore, more reliable conclusions can be obtained, which will further supplement the study of the relationship of physical exercise and academic studies of Chinese students. (2) This paper uses a structural equation model to test the mediation path of physical exercise affecting adolescents’ academic performance from two levels of natural development attributes such as physiology and mental health, and social construction attributes such as classmate relationship and peer effect. This not only enriches the existing research on the relationship between physical exercise and academic performance and its influence mechanism, but also provides evidence support for improving the sports and education integration policy and promoting the implementation of the healthy China strategy.
Film Art,2021,No. 01
In recent years, the study of Chinese film history has become popular in the Chinese film academic circles. With various general history, special history and dynastic history emerging one after another, the pace of the study of Chinese film history has been greatly promoted. However, on the whole, the existing research on Chinese film history is still confined to the film itself, with returning to itself as its orientation and aim. The ideological history of Chinese films constructs the film history from problematiques and ideological pedigree, and also takes into account of film itself and relevant situation, exploring the source diachronically and the reason synchronically, which greatly deepens and expands the research pattern of Chinese film history. The purpose of this paper is to explain the ideological history writing of Chinese early films in a methodological way, highlight the humanistic concern, problematiques and genealogical principle of the ideological history writing, so as to distinguish the general writing of film history, and thus construct the interdisciplinary vision of Chinese film history research and the theoretical model of in-depth interpretation with thought as the core. This paper mainly explored the methodology of ideological history writing of Chinese early films from three aspects. First of all, concern and assumption are the methodological premises of the study of the ideological history. Only with humanistic concern can we understand people’s conscious world and collective mentality. This requires breaking the existing historical research conclusion, paying attention to the creators’ complex mind and experience under the wrestling of multiple factors such as subjectivity, objectiveness and historicity, and gaining insight into the solid cultural and ideological soil of collective mentality. Secondly, it summarized types of ideas and the origin of ideological pedigree. The concept type of early films comes from a presupposition in the ideological history, namely, extracting, stripping and separating from the latter. Studying ideas means studying the origin, socialization and evolution of ideas, and explaining the interactive relationship between ideological evolution and social changes. Thirdly, problematiques include the theoretical dimension of the problem itself and relevant factors, which requires the continuous discovery of the problem and the unity of diachronic exploration of the source and synchronic exploration of the reason. Compared with the previous literature, the expansion and breakthrough of this paper are as follows. First, it puts forward the ideological history writing which is different from the general research of film history, and discusses the theoretical dimension of its writing from the methodology. Second, it takes the concrete works, characters and phenomena in the early Chinese film history as the explanatory examples, and combines corresponding specific research methods, presenting a brand-new appearance of ideological history which is different from the film history writing, thus showing the vitality of ideological history writing in a more macroscopic and panoramic sense. Third, this research method and conception of the ideological history aims to connecting tradition and modernity, breaking the monopoly of Western theories to understand Chinese films from the endogenous traditions of Chinese thought, philosophy and culture, establish the in-depth interpretation mode of Chinese films, and practice the productive construction of local theories. And fourth, to a certain extent, this paper makes up for the lack of methodology research in the ideological history of Chinese films, and makes positive contribution to the expansion of vision, deepening of thought and enhancement of taste in the study of Chinese film history.
Film Art,2021,No. 01
“Brain” has increasingly replaced “spirit” and even “body” as the buzzword in film criticism. A large number of new and exciting terms such as “brain-damage,” “brain hole” and “brain-dead” have also become popular. However, instead of simply viewing this as a superficial pop-culture spectacle, we should ask a further philosophical question: for all the talk of the “brain,” do we really know what the brain can do? What opportunities does the connection between brain and film provide for the future development of film? It is, therefore, necessary to return to the highly revelatory concept—the brain cinema—Deleuze created in Cinema 2: L’image-temps (hereafter referred to as Cinema 2). Actually, the attention to the brain, for the late Deleuze, was not confined to the realm of cinema. For example, Deleuze and Guattari took “brain” as the key word of future philosophy in Qu’est-ce Que La Philosophie (namely, What is Philosophy?). Here, the brain breaks out of the traditional tree model and takes on the form of a “rhizomatic” open network, thus becoming the “plane of immanence” for the rebirth of the human mind. This new paradigm of brain philosophy can be summarized into three main points: thought (or thinking), subject, and “interval.” “Interval” is the micro dynamism of rhizomatic network, thinking is the ultimate goal of brain creation, and subject is the central issue of brain philosophy. With these three key points in mind, we get to understand the theory of brain cinema in Cinema 2. First of all, it is worth noting that Cinema 2 certainly surpasses the paradigm of brain philosophy in Qu’est-ce Que La Philosophie?. That is because the main argument in the former work has revolved around the two important categories of “memory” and “death,” and then led to the important clue of “negation.” It was here that the crucial chasm for breaking through Deleuze’s vitalism opened. At first glance, the dominant framework of Cinema 2 is nothing other than a kind of alternative re-reading of Bergson’s Matter and Memory, but in fact, the frequently appeared theme of death has pushed the theory of brain cinema to the extreme situation. In other words, via the radical fracture of negation, it has finally headed towards the most difficult task: the re-beginning of thinking and the rebirth of subjectivity. In Cinema 2, however, this thread of “negation” is still lurking, and it has not been and is not likely to be fully developed. Therefore, we would like to turn to the brain philosophy of Catherine Malabou, and introduce her key concept of “plasticity” in order to open up new possibilities. Although plasticity first comes from her interpretation of Hegel and Heidegger, it is only with the recent development of brain science and brain philosophy that she can fully demonstrate its revolutionary philosophical connotation. In What Should We Do with Our Brain?, she draws a clear distinction between “flexibility” and “plasticity,” treating the former as the severe symptom of capitalist society and the latter as the therapy and emancipation. Flexibility is the highly efficacious “capture apparatus” for liquid surveillance and micro-governance, while plasticity fights “variation” with fracture, replaces affirmation with negation, and challenges life with death. This is the fundamental reason why Malabou takes “cerebral suffering” as the starting point and key point of her philosophy of the brain. To sum up, Deleuze’s theory of brain cinema is still trapped into two dilemmas, namely, “brain disease” of flexibility and “philosophical disease” of affirmation. The former is typical of late Capitalism, and the latter is representative of the late 20th-century French philosophy. Thus, based on Malabou’s concept of plasticity, there may be a fresh opportunity to reconstruct the brain cinema. At the end of this paper, we try to take Antonioni’s film as an example to briefly analyze the possibility of the transition from flexibility to plasticity.
10. Back to basics and create a dream with love: an interview with Zhang Yimou, the director of One Second
Film Art,2021,No. 01
As one of the most influential directors in China, Zhang Yimou’s latest work One Second released in November 2020 has received continuous attention in the mass media and art review field since its creation. On the one hand, the reason for the attention is the market appeal of Zhang Yimou’s brand. On the other hand, the continuous development of the Chinese film box office since the 21st century is an important reason. Whether the artistic level and cultural character of Chinese films can complement the box office index and screen construction has become an important consideration for public opinions at home and abroad to judge the development of Chinese films. In this context, great expectations are often placed on Zhang Yimou’s works, which are good at highlighting the character of Chinese local culture. Zhang Yimou compares One Second to a love letter he wrote to the film. In the film, a story about a cine film that took place in the desert of Northwest China in the late 1970s is told. With a simple image tone and documentary narrative style, the inextricable relationship between man and film and the memory of the times in the age of scarcity of material and spiritual products are narrated. As an important art film in Zhang Yimou’s film creation pedigree, One Second is not only a continuation of Zhang Yimou’s creation style of extreme images, but also focuses on the emotional encounters of the small potatoes to move people with emotions. In an exclusive interview with the author of this article, Zhang Yimou said that he hopes to make One Second into a tender film. The content of this film is his unique life experience and youth memory, and also belongs to the collective memory of the Chinese people. The emotions between people and the spiritual yearning and pursuit that people place in watching the film are common across time and space. Zhang Yimou describes the aesthetic tone of the whole film by returning back to basics, which is simple rather than flashy. To a certain extent, it continues the documentary style of The Story of Qiu Ju and Not One Less. Zhang Yimou has witnessed the magnificent course of China’s reform and opening with his artistic creation. As the child of the times, the obvious brand of the times in his film works provides a historical path and destination for the study of Zhang Yimou. Telling China’s story to the world can not only be heard in Zhang Yimou’s public statements many times. Besides, it is also his creative consciousness and cultural character both on and off the screen. Zhang Yimou has rich sample value due to the diversity of creative themes and styles. As an art film with low- and medium-cost investment in the middle and later stages of his creative career, One Second has value in the study of the creative context of Zhang Yimou’s works and the reflection on the construction of Chinese film culture in the context of globalization, which provides an opportunity of fewer capital factors and becomes an effective supplement to the sample database of the study on Zhang Yimou’s works.