Publisher(s): China Academic Journals (CD Edition) Electronic Publishing House Co., Ltd.
ISBN: ISBN 978-7-499-01003-1 pdf
First Published: 2021.01.20
Discipline(s): Economics & Management
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Poverty eradication is a worldwide problem. As pointed out by UN Secretary-General Jeffrey Feldman, “China is a model for the world and has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. Now it is seeking to contribute to the development of other countries.” Due to historical and natural reasons, China is confronted with inter-regional imbalance in economic development, particularly a relatively big gap between the eastern region and the central and western regions, which has prompted it to keep exploring and thinking about the alleviation of poverty. An important task proposed by the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China is to “win the battle against poverty,” as “seeing that poor people and poor areas will enter the moderately prosperous society together with the rest of the country is a solemn promise made by our Party.” In order to accomplish this task, the Communist Party of China has given a solemn undertaking to “mobilize the energies of our whole Party, our whole country, and our whole society, and continue to implement targeted poverty reduction and alleviation measures.” This book provides a rich collection of empirical analysis and an all-around interpretation of the history, experience, methods and future prospects of poverty alleviation in China, hoping to help the readers fully understand China’s efforts and thoughts as well as its contribution to global poverty reduction. In view of the global attention to the undertaking of poverty alleviation, this book expects that the introduction of the successful Chinese experience can promote the sharing of experience and the formation of consensus and thus contribute to the realization of the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the joint building of a community with no poverty, but a shared future for mankind.
World Economics and Politics,Part 1: Overview,No. 01
China’s economic reform over the past 40 years has eliminated institutional barriers deterring the flow of factors of production, and in particular facilitated the exit of abundant laborers from low-productivity fields, the migration between rural and urban areas, across regions, and among industries, and the entry to high-productivity fields. Such a resource reallocation has not only created necessary conditions for high speed growth but also increased income of rural households by enhancing their labor participation in non-agricultural sectors, thus combining development and sharing. Paralleling to that holistically shared development, the Chinese government launched the national strategy of rural poverty alleviation in the second half of 1980s, showing its determination to fight against absolute poverty. As the development stage and poverty nature have changed over time, the strategy has gradually shifted its target from regional development to individual households, along with large-scale government inputs. The overall shared development and governments’ special efforts in reducing poverty have simultaneously helped China break the diminishing effect of poverty alleviation often seen elsewhere and achieve the internationally recognized success in poverty reduction. By narrating the process of reform and development, this paper begins with revealing the unique sources of China’s economic growth in the past four decades and shows its nature of sharing. It then reviews the implementation of the national strategy of rural poverty alleviation under the guidance of people-centered development idea. It summarizes main lessons of the poverty alleviation experience of China and draws implications to other developing countries. In conclusion, it points out new challenges facing China’s poverty reduction after the country meets its goal of zero rural poverty by the current poverty standard by 2020, and provides policy suggestions.
2. Research progress and prospect of new-type urbanization and development-oriented poverty alleviation
Economic Geography,Part 1: Overview,Vol 36,No. 02
Against the background of new-type urbanization, development-oriented poverty alleviation is facing an important development opportunity. A study about the effects and corresponding countermeasures of new-type urbanization on development-oriented poverty alleviation has important significance. This paper reviews the effects of urbanization on the economic development, income gaps, employment structure and population flow, infrastructure and public services in the poverty-stricken areas, as well as the relationship between new-type urbanization and development-oriented poverty alleviation in the aspects of citizenization of rural migrants, integrated development of urban and rural areas, optimizing spatial pattern of cities, towns and counties and coordinated development of industrialization, informatization, urbanization and agricultural modernization. Then, the research progress of the above two aspects is briefly discussed. Accordingly, a research route based on “quantitative evaluation–problem study and judge–theory analysis–model establishing–model selection–optimizing regulation” is proposed to study the mutual feedback mechanism of new-type urbanization and development-oriented poverty alleviation. The major urgent research directions are put forward as follows: (1) strengthening the research on quantitative measurement and problem interpretation about the effects of new-type urbanization on the development of poverty-stricken areas; (2) building a core system and probing into the mutual feedback mechanism about new-type urbanization and development-oriented poverty alleviation; and (3) concluding typical regional models that the new-type urbanization promotes development-oriented poverty alleviation.
Journal of Public Management,Part 1: Overview,Vol 15,No. 03
This paper summarizes the achievements and policy characteristics of poverty alleviation in China since the reform and opening up and tries to answer the new question of where the poverty alleviation work will go in the new era. It also studies and analyzes the dynamic changes of China’s main poverty indicators, and shows the achievements of China’s rapid poverty alleviation since the reform and opening up. Through the analysis of the poverty alleviation policy text, the study also reveals the characteristics of China’s poverty alleviation policy system, that is, high coordination and promotion of the central government, a high priority of the policy agenda, promotion through pilot projects, and the combination of pressure transmission and political mobilization and pay attention to policy resilience and positive incentives. Based on combing the concept and theory of poverty, and combining with the actual situation of poverty alleviation in China, the researchers put forward that after getting rid of poverty completely in 2020, China still faces the new proposition of multi-dimensional poverty and the new challenge of changing the concept of poverty alleviation and realizing sustainable poverty alleviation. The eradication of absolute poverty is only the first step in poverty alleviation. To achieve the goal of sustainable poverty alleviation, we need to re-recognize the core issues of poverty in the future, integrate important concepts such as relative poverty and multidimensional poverty into the policy system and implementation plans of poverty alleviation, and promote the building of a well-off society in an all-round way and a powerful socialist modernization country.
Journal of Finance and Economics,Part 1: Overview,Vol 43,No. 04
How does inclusive finance affect poverty reduction and income growth exactly? Can different income groups benefit from the development of inclusive finance e-qually? This paper employs the 2SLS model and IVQR model, and on the basis of the data of 2018 counties in China, hierarchically compare the heterogeneous effects of inclusive finance development on poverty reduction and income growth of different income groups and the internal mechanism of inclusive finance promoting poverty reduction and income growth. The results show that the development of inclusive finance is beneficial to the increase in rural residents’ income. However, the effect of inclusive finance development in poverty reduction and income growth varies with income groups, and the effect of poverty reduction and income growth of rural residents in poor counties is significantly smaller than that in non-poor counties. The lack of economic opportunities in poor areas and for poor population endogenously determines the heterogeneity of the poverty reduction effect of inclusive finance. Further studies show that the economic growth is an important mechanism of the promotion role of inclusive finance in poverty reduction and income growth. As to poverty counties, the role of inclusive finance in poverty reduction and income growth is attributed to the mediating effect of economic growth to a large extent. Therefore, for the promotion of inclusive finance development, poor and non-poor counties should implement different targeting mechanisms to avoid the “targeting bias,” and the efficiency of financial resources allocation and the precision of poverty alleviation should be improved.
5. Post-2020 rural urban integrative poverty reduction strategy: development status, evolution, new vision and key areas
Chinese Rural Economy,Part 1: Overview,No. 05
This article aimed to describe the characteristics and trends of urban and rural poverty in China, to clarify the gaps faced by China’s poverty reduction, to present the changes and challenges of the poverty alleviation policy, and to identify the needs for a new vision of China’s post-2020 poverty reduction. A rural urban integrative poverty reduction strategy was then proposed with five key strategic issues being identified to support the development of such strategy. The factors such as social and economic transformation, rapid urbanization process, and the change in population structure are influencing and will continue to influence China’s poverty reduction dynamics. China’s population below the poverty line has continuously decreased, but multidimensional poverty incidence and consumption poverty incidence are much higher than those being measured by income poverty. Education and health are two most deprived dimensions in both rural and urban areas. Migrant workers from rural areas are likely to form the major part of urban poverty while women, children and the elderly groups are particularly vulnerable. China currently applies a binary governance mode for urban-rural poverty segmentation instead of a uniform national poverty governance system. The poverty reduction policies and expenditures vary significantly between rural and urban areas. With an anticipated rise of the urbanization, the aging population, migrant workers, and new poverty standard, a new poverty group is likely to emerge and requires special attention from policymakers. This article proposes a new vision for post-2020 rural urban integrative poverty alleviation in China. In particular, during 2020 and 2035, China will need to establish a rural urban integrative poverty governance structure, with the equalization of urban and rural public services as the strategic direction. To formulate the feasible poverty strategy, five key issues are suggested, including providing a more accurate prediction of socio-economic development conditions, establishing new poverty standards, unifying poverty governance system nation-wide, developing a pro-poor social protection system, as well as fiscal and financial reform and innovation to ensure the poverty reduction outcome.
6. Beyond structure and action: an empirical analysis on the road to development-oriented poverty alleviation with Chinese characteristics
Chinese Rural Economy,Part 1: Overview,No. 06
There are two kinds of cognitive and research paradigms in the study on the cause of poverty. One emphasizes that the structural factors beyond the individual level are the root cause of poverty, and the other proposes that poverty stems from the weakness of individual social action and a lack of subjective development motivation. In both paradigms, poverty reduction projects have been carried out in different ways. Based on the poverty alleviation history and practices in the past 40 years, China has followed a road to development-oriented poverty alleviation with Chinese characteristics, which is beyond the structure and action paradigms. It has not only eradicated the macro-, meso- and micro-level structure that causes poverty, but also established a pro-poor system and policy structure. It has not only improved the poverty management system, but also highlighted the main value and internal driving force for development in the poverty alleviation. In overcoming barriers at the structure and action levels of poverty, China has achieved remarkable achievements in poverty alleviation. China’s poverty alleviation program and wisdom can contribute to the international community.
7. A study of practice-oriented enhancement in Xi Jinping’s thoughts of targeted poverty alleviation
Chinese Rural Economy,Part 1: Overview,No. 07
The thoughts of targeted poverty alleviation are an action-oriented theory, which has practical and theoretical backgrounds, defined by the goal that by the year of 2020, all rural residents living below the current poverty line will have been lifted out of poverty. The thoughts of targeted poverty alleviation include targeted poverty alleviation and elimination, perseverance and meticulous work. A lot of innovative initiatives have been conducted, with the purpose of overcoming problems concerning identification, household approach, and inadequate mechanisms. After more than three years of explorations, the undertaking of targeted poverty alleviation has come to display obvious characteristics in eight aspects. Still, the poverty alleviation endeavor remains in development and the present paper summed up five lingering deficiencies. Toward the end of this paper, six aspects were proposed for deepening the thoughts of targeted poverty alleviation in practice. They included consistent criteria and identification, differentiation between poverty alleviation and the minimum living standard security system, cultivation of subject initiative, improvement of accountability systems at the grassroots level, authorization of more power to people who play a key role in poverty alleviation at the grassroots level, and the development of big data and cloud computing for poverty alleviation.
8. Where is the way for China to reduce poverty for a long time: prospects for poverty reduction strategies after the completion of poverty alleviation in 2020
Chinese Rural Economy,Part 1: Overview,No. 08
Poverty reduction is an eternal theme in the process of modernization in various countries. After 2020, the absolute poverty under China’s current standards will be basically eliminated, and the phased goal of poverty alleviation will be achieved. However, this does not mean the end of poverty. Sustainable poverty reduction still faces new difficulties and challenges. This article holds that there will be five changes in poverty reduction after 2020: the target of poverty reduction will be shifted to the establishment of a high-quality standard system; the direction of poverty reduction will be shifted to the consideration of rural poverty and urban poverty; the focus of poverty reduction will be shifted to the prevention of returning to poverty in such deep poverty-stricken areas as three regions and three prefectures; the driving force of poverty reduction will be shifted to paying equal attention to both external assistance and endogenous development; and fiscal shifts to poverty reduction will give more prominence to guaranteeing and targeting. In line with the new trend of poverty reduction, we should actively develop new poverty reduction strategies, establish new standards for poverty reduction calculation, optimize and adjust the scope of poverty reduction groups, cultivate new momentum for poverty reduction, improve the poverty reduction governance system, and constantly improve the use of financial and poverty reduction funds. Furthermore, this article puts forward four policy suggestions to promote long-term poverty reduction: first, to maintain the overall continuity and stability of current policies during the transition period; second, to establish a regular mechanism for coordinating urban and rural poverty reduction and assistance to vulnerable groups; third, to improve the mechanism for accurate identification and dynamic adjustment of vulnerable targets for poverty reduction; and fourth, to innovate new ways to reduce poverty through security and development.
Chinese Rural Economy,Part 1: Overview,No. 09
Eliminating poverty and achieving common prosperity are the essential requirements of socialism. From the perspective of China’s poverty alleviation process, the practices of poverty alleviation show that poverty alleviation targets are more and more accurate, poverty alleviation standards are getting higher and higher, the initial conditions of the poor people being the targets of poverty alleviation are getting worse and worse, and poverty alleviation costs are getting higher and higher. The targeted poverty alleviation strategy in the new era reflects a kind of methodology, which not only requires the targeted manner to be reflected in all aspects of poverty alleviation work such as poverty identification, measure management and assessment, but also sets clear requirements for the institutional arrangements of targeted poverty alleviation. Poverty elimination has entered a critical sprint. As long as China continues to adhere to the targeted strategy, the poverty alleviation goal in 2020 can be achieved. However, it must be noted that the foundation for targeted poverty elimination is not very solid and needs to be further consolidated and improved to achieve long-term stability and poverty elimination. In view of long-term stability and poverty elimination, the study puts forward the following suggestions. Poverty alleviation measures should be compatible with the degree of poverty, the characteristics of poverty alleviation targets and the local economic and social conditions. Poverty elimination measures should be organically linked up with and coordinated with current policies and measures such as rural revitalization, urbanization and comprehensive social security. Poverty elimination based on industrial development must be combined with the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Poverty elimination based on employment transfer and relocation must be combined with new urbanization. Poverty elimination based on education and medical assistance must be combined with measures to improve the public service level. Poverty elimination in severely impoverished areas must be paralleled with infrastructure construction. Poverty alleviation measures must be combined with policies of social security. Long-term stability and poverty elimination should be guaranteed by a continuous improvement of poverty alleviation system.
Chinese Journal of Population Science,Part 1: Overview,No. 10
Since its founding, the People’s Republic of China has gone through two stages of poverty alleviation in planned economy and socialist market economy, and made continuously strategic adjustments to the objective, target and measures of poverty alleviation according to the evolvement of the meaning of poverty and poverty alleviation practice, in order to solve the inherent deficiencies and acquired imbalance in the poverty alleviation process to gradually improve China’s poverty reduction governance system and ability in poverty control. At present, in order to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China needs to, in light of the five development concepts, keep creating new poverty alleviation governance mechanisms, hold onto the governance mode of targeted poverty alleviation and coordinate multiple poverty alleviation relations, to form synergies against poverty, carry out green poverty reduction, embark on green development path, improve opening and cooperation, and ultimately make joint efforts to achieve joint construction and sharing. To solve the problem of relative poverty in the future, combining poverty alleviation by relief and poverty alleviation by provision of services is an advisable governance method.