Publisher(s): China Academic Journals (CD Edition) Electronic Publishing House Co., Ltd.
ISBN: ISBN 978-7-499-00973-8 pdf
First Published: 2020.11.23
Discipline(s): Chemistry/ Metallurgy/ Environment/ Mine Industry
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Oil and Gas, as part of China’s S&T Progress Series, has 42 excellent articles. It introduces the important and latest research achievements of oil and gas exploration in China, including four chapters: (1) progress in oil and gas exploration and development in China, (2) geophysical exploration of oil and gas, (3) reservoir analysis and reservoir formation research, and (4) oil and gas drilling technology. Relevant studies are supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of China, National Key Basic Research Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China and research projects of China National Petroleum Corporation and China Petrochemical Corporation. The authors are affiliated with major petroleum enterprises such as CNPC and Sinopec Group, as well as key petroleum universities such as China University of Petroleum, China University of Geosciences, Southwest Petroleum University and Yangtze University. These articles represent the current research on the exploration and development of oil and gas in China.
After receiving the bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees all at Tongji University, Li Peiming was selected as a visiting scholar at Texas Tech University, the US, and now he has become a professor-level senior engineer. He is granted the special gove
Petroleum Drilling Techniques,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 46,No. 01
Aiming at the effective development of deep shale gas reservoirs and those with normal pressure shale gas, Sinopec has made breakthroughs in a series of techniques based on its continuous upgrading of engineering technology chain for middle-deep shale gas. Those techniques include geology and engineering integrated design based on the sweet spot evaluation, detailed formation evaluation while drilling, optimum and fast drilling, novel oil-based drilling fluid, novel elastic and tough cement slurry and foam cement slurry, new techniques for stimulated reservoir volume, new staged fracturing tools, high-efficiency fracturing fluid system, shale gas testing and productivity evaluation and manufacturing of large-scale fracturing unit, which have primarily established the engineering technology chain in the development of deep shale gas and those with normal pressure shale gas and provided powerful support in the productivity construction of Fuling Shale Gas Field and the development of deep shale gas and those with normal pressure shale gas. This paper summarizes the latest progresses in shale gas engineering technologies of Sinopec, and in combination with the exploration and development tendency of shale gas reservoirs in China, puts forward the development path in improving the engineering technology chain for middle-deep shale gas reservoirs, setting up the engineering technology chain for deep shale gas reservoirs, and developing the engineering technology chain for shale gas reservoirs with normal pressure shale gas.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 02
China is rich in shale gas geological resources. However, when compared with North America, it is characterized by old geologic age, large buried depth, a high degree of thermal evolution, complicated structure and surface condition. Therefore, it is very challenging to achieve the commercial development of shale gas in China. Since 2006, shale gas exploration and development of Sinopec have experienced three stages: investigation and favorable area selection and evaluation, exploration breakthrough, and rapid progress of exploration and development. In 2012, major breakthroughs were made in marine shale gas exploration, and the first shale gas field in China, the Fuling shale gas field, was efficiently established. The commercial development of deep shale gas in the Weirong block has been achieved, as well as other exploration areas continuously expanded. The proved reserves and production of shale gas have been increasing rapidly. After more than 10 years of scientific and technological research and development of major equipment, Sinopec has innovatively led the fine description and comprehensive evaluation technology system for shale gas reservoirs, developed the stereoscopic development adjustment technology and formed a series of supporting technologies of optimized fast drilling and long horizontal well staged fracturing in mountainous areas, as well as green development of the gas field. In the future, Sinopec will continue to strengthen geological evaluation and exploration, consolidate the resource base for sustainable development, adhere to the development idea of geology-engineering integration, and strengthen the upgrading of technical equipment. Besides, it will promote the cost decreasing and benefit increasing of oil and gas industry by using big data and artificial intelligence, emphasize the integration management of the whole process of the project, and improve the development efficiency of shale gas, so as to achieve the steady increase of shale gas proved reserves and production of Sinopec.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 03
In recent years, China National Petroleum Corporation (hereinafter referred to as CNPC) has made 13 major breakthroughs and new strategic discoveries by following the principle of efficient exploration in domestic and overseas markets and formed 10 large hydrocarbon provinces with reserves over 1 × 10 8 t. Based on the summary of important exploration progress since the “13 th Five-Year Plan” period and in view of the current situation and requirements around the world, comprehensive analyses of the oil and gas resources situation, the development potential of remaining resources and the challenges faced by the upstream business of oil blocks in China were made. The comprehensive analyses clarified the general train of thought and strategic targets of CNPC’s upstream business in the future. CNPC will adhere to the guideline of steady development and goals of high-quality development and implement resource strategies to find more oil and gas. China’s domestic upstream segment will reinforce exploration and development by focusing on the seven major oil basins, paying equal attention to oil and gas, and putting conventional and unconventional resources on an equal footing; the strategic target is to achieve the annual newly proven petroleum geological reserves of more than 11 × 10 8 t of oil equivalent from 2019 to 2025 and achieve oil and gas production of 2.2 × 10 8 t of oil equivalent by 2025. In overseas markets, CNPC will focus on conventional oil and gas recourses, optimize the development of five cooperation zones in Central Asia-Russia, Middle East, Africa, Americas, and Asia-Pacific, and expand the scale of the “Belt and Road Initiative” cooperation. Five measures include reinforcing China’s exploration and development, improving overseas high-quality and efficient development, promoting scientific and technological innovation, deepening reform and management innovation, and strengthening the construction of high-quality talent teams specialized in petroleum exploration and development.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 04
Since the 21 st century, the discoveries of global unconventional oil and gas have entered an active period. The production of tight oil/shale oil has increased rapidly. The shale gas has continued to grow, and the tight gas and coal bed methane (CBM) have been stable and breakthroughs have been obtained in the early production tests of natural gas hydrate (NGH). In recent years, significant progress has been made in the exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas in China. The production of shale gas, tight oil, and tight gas has been increasing rapidly, and the exploration and development of shale oil have risen to the national strategic level. The tight oil and shale oil resources in the mining-right blocks of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) are abundant. Recently, exploration discoveries and breakthroughs have been made in 11 blocks, and several large-scale productivity blocks have been preliminarily established. The pilot tests of in-situ conversion of shale oil with medium-low maturity have been carried out in the Ordos Basin, and the continental shale oil revolution is being actively promoted. Currently, the external dependence of oil and gas is high in China, and the demand is strong. However, due to the complicated geological conditions of continental sediments, large-scale benefit development of unconventional oil and gas is still facing a series of challenges in geological evaluation, sweet spot prediction, drilling and completion, oil and gas production technologies, as well as economic evaluation and management. In order to achieve the efficient exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas resources of CNPC, key issues should be focused and well treated, such as the management of the whole life cycle, integration operation, big data application, appropriate production and allocation strategy, technology and cost, and marketization, to promote the high-quality development of unconventional oil and gas industry and ensure the national energy security.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 05
With the scale application of Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data, and artificial intelligence (AI) technology, development of information technology has entered a new era of intelligence sharing. It has become urgent tasks for informatization of exploration and development to study and construct a unified digital intelligent platform, accelerate the transformation of digitalization and intelligence, and deal with to the change of business requirements efficiently and flexibly. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the related issues involved, analyze the background and significance of the research on Dream Cloud for exploration and development, introduce basic principles and overall design schemes of Dream Cloud, elaborate on key technical research such as Dream Cloud platform, data link lake, capability of data center, application store, and AI application. It also summarizes construction achievements and application scenario cases of Dream Cloud platform, data link lake, and a series of general applications.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 06
In the past two years, CNOOC made a great effort to realize the sustainable development of offshore oil and gas exploration by promoting domestic offshore exploration investment vigorously, exploring new areas and new domains actively. As a result, important exploration breakthroughs have been obtained in three domains. First, a significant breakthrough in gas exploration in a buried hill in the Bohai Bay Basin was realized by deepening the research on the accumulation conditions of large-scale gas fields and continuously tackling the key technologies of deep drilling and seismic acquisition and processing. Second, the first gas exploration breakthrough in deep buried hill in deep water of China was obtained based on the study of the resource potential and gas accumulation conditions of Songnan-Baodao sag in the Qiongdongnan Basin and changing of the exploration direction and formation. Third, an exploration breakthrough of the Yangjiang sag in the Pearl River Mouth Basin was realized by improving the data quality and deepening the basic research. In the coming future, CNOOC will continue to increase its exploration investment vigorously, tackle the exploration domains such as high-temperature, high-pressure, and deep-water areas persistently, explore the potential rich hydrocarbon generation sags, and expand the exploration domains and directions continuously.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 07
The shale oil and gas revolution in the United States has brought about the rapid development of unconventional oil and gas industry. China National Offshore Oil Corporation (hereinafter referred to as CNOOC) follows the trend and actively opens up the unconventional oil and gas business. After acquiring China United Coalbed Methane Company, CNOOC was faced with a series of challenges in unconventional gas development. For coalbed methane, resource grade is poor; reserve abundance is low; production scale is small; and capacity of productivity construction is poor. For tight gas, the reserves are present but the production is low. Combined with the characteristics of coalbed methane and tight gas reservoirs and the technical requirements of exploration and development, through the management innovation of exploration and development integration, CNOOC has explored the path to achieve commercial development of unconventional gas and achieved preliminary results. Through the innovation of management mode and system construction, the rhythm and effect of unconventional gas exploration and development have been obtained, which realizes the goal of exploration and drilling, pipeline construction, pilot production, and gas sales in the same year, and greatly shortens the production cycle. It not only improves the exploration quality and investment efficiency but also avoids the risk of direct large-scale development and accelerates the pace of increasing reserves and production. It is hoped that through the exploration and demonstration from a single project and its corresponding system reform and innovation, the healthy and orderly development of the unconventional gas industry will be promoted in China.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 08
It is of great practical and strategic significance to march deeper into the earth and explore deep oil and gas resources to build up a solid resource base for China energy security, which is also a practical field to strengthen the oil and gas exploration and development for China. Based on a systematic summary of the global deep oil and gas exploration and development situation and the progress in China, the development potential, key research fields and scientific and technological research directions of deep oil and gas in China were thoroughly analyzed. China is rich in deep oil and gas resources, but with low degree of exploration and development. There are a great number of promising exploration and development prospects with great resource potential, such as multiple source-reservoir-cap assemblages in the deep formations of superimposed basins in Central and Western China, deep lithological reservoirs and Pre-Mesozoic-Cenozoic buried-hill reservoirs in rifted basins in Eastern China and deep shale gas. These are the main directions for future exploration and development. It is necessary to strengthen the research on accumulation mechanism and distribution laws of deep oil and gas, as well as fluids flow mechanism in deep part, and carry out key technical research such as deep target identification and prediction based on geophysics, optimized fast drilling under complex formation conditions and stimulation technologies for complex reservoirs. At the same time, it is also necessary to vigorously promote management innovation, further enhance the cooperation between theory and technology, enterprises and departments, and strengthen the management and operation of exploration-development integration and geology-engineering integration, so as to provide a strong support for efficient exploration and development of deep oil and gas resources.
China Petroleum Exploration,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 25,No. 09
Shale gas exploration and development in China has entered a golden age of rapid progress. The increasing proportion of natural gas in the energy consumption structure of the nation, and the success of commercial shale gas development in the southern Sichuan Basin, indicate that shale gas will be the most reliable succession energy source for the future in China. This paper reviews achievements in theoretical understanding and technologies related to shale gas development over the last 10 years, summarizes the successful experience in commercial shale gas development, and clarifies the prospects for, and status of, shale gas in future natural gas development in China. China’s shale gas resources have enormous potential and provide a practical base for future growth in natural gas production. The conditions for obtaining industrial shale gas resources are described as “2 highs” (high gas content and high porosity), “2 larges” (large thickness of intervals with high TOC and large distribution areas), “2 moderates” (moderate thermal evolution and moderate burial depth), and “2 goods” (good preservation conditions and good fracability). Marine shale gas in China is of the highest potential, and at present is the major objective for natural gas production growth. The exploitation of the Ordovician Wufeng Formation and Silurian Longmaxi Formation shale gas in the Sichuan Basin and its surroundings has relied on developments in six technology areas: comprehensive geological evaluation; development optimization; fast drilling of horizontal wells; volume fracturing of horizontal wells; factory-like operation, and efficient and clean production. The successful achievement of commercial development of shale gas in China can be summarized as stemming from four key factors: ① optimized horizontal section targets; ② supporting technologies for effective and fast drilling and volume fracturing stimulation; ③ geological and engineering integration; ④ advanced organization and management. Three proposals for the future development of shale gas in China are ① to develop key technologies and equipment for low-cost development of non-marine and deep marine shale gas; ② to enhance block-scale shale gas recovery and achieve efficient development of the entire Sichuan basin; ③ to pay attention to the influence of non-resource factors on shale gas production.
Petroleum Geology & Experiment,Part 1: Progress in Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in China,Vol 41,No. 10
The ultra-deep oil and gas exploration technology is developing, and the thermal evolution of source rocks under high pressure in the Tarim Basin has become the focus of ultra-deep oil and gas resource evaluation and hydrocarbon generation theory research. According to the simulation of hydrocarbon generation from source rocks under high temperature and pressure, combined with the geological conditions of “deep burial and high pressure” of the Shuntuoguole Uplift in the Tarim Basin, a study was carried out on the hydrocarbon generation, evolution and retardation under high pressure of marine source rocks in the Tarim Basin. Ever since the Yanshan period, the Cambrian source rocks still have geological conditions for generating high-maturity liquid hydrocarbon in the Shuntuoguole Uplift. The boundary conditions for thermal evolution retardation include ① long-term stable closed system; ② source rocks deeper than 6 500 m with the fluid pressure above 60 MPa, and a low temperature (with a geothermal gradient less than 20 °C/km) in the later period; ③ marine source rocks with type I and type II 1 kerogen. The ultra-deep Cambrian marine source rocks in the Tarim Basin are mainly type I and type II 1 kerogen, and the degree of inhibition is more obvious under high pressure. The scope and potential of the oil generation window are much higher than the traditional theoretical values. Therefore, the prospect for ultra-deep oil and gas exploration is considerable.