Publisher(s):China Academic Journals (CD Edition) Electronic Publishing House Co., Ltd.
ISBN:ISBN 978-7-499-00968-4 pdf
First Published: 2020.11.23
Discipline(s): Chemistry/ Metallurgy/ Environment/ Mine Industry
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Water Pollution and Control, as part of China’s S&T Progress Series, has 76 excellent articles which involve the latest findings in water pollution in China. This book includes two chapters. Chapter 1 includes the articles focusing on the distribution characteristics, sources and ecological risks of heavy metals, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, antibiotics and nutrients in key basins such as the Yangtze River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, and the Taihu Lake Basin in China. Chapter 2 mainly involves the techniques and measures used to control water pollution in China. The book fully demonstrates the achievements of water pollution prevention and control in China and offers a reference for water pollution management all over the world, which has important academic value and practical significance. The original articles were published in Chinese and this book is a compilation of English version of the selected articles.
LI Yongmei obtained a doctoral degree in environmental engineering awarded by Tongji University in 1999. She is currently serving as the associate editor-in-chief of Chemosphere and an editorial board member of Environmental Technology Review. In addition
1. Ecological risk assessment and water quality standard evaluation of 10 typical metals in eight basins in China
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 39,No. 01
The concentrations of 10 priority metals were compiled for eight major river basins in China. In addition, the toxicology data of metals were collected and validated. The overlapping area and joint probability curve methods were adopted to characterize the ecological risk and the results were compared with the current water quality standards. Copper and zinc were identified as the elements exhibiting the greatest potential to cause adverse effects to aquatic organisms. The current water quality standards might not be sufficiently protective of aquatic organisms. Conversely, the water quality standards for mercury and nickel were deemed sufficient or even slightly over-protective of aquatic organisms. The ecological risks of selenium, arsenic and antimony were low. The water quality standards were moderately protective for these three elements. It is suggested that current water quality standards should be revised and monitoring should be strengthened in order to provide effective protection for the aquatic ecosystem safety in China.
2. Bioavailability and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of Lake Chaohu
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 35,No. 02
Surface sediment samples were taken from Lake Chaohu, total and fractions of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb) were studied. The pollution of heavy metals were evaluated by the potential ecological risk index (RI) and risk assessment code (RAC). Heavy metal distribution of surface sediment indicated a higher degree of contamination in the west regions, and then the east regions, the content of heavy metals in Nanfei inflow river area are higher from 1.09 to 1.21 times than the whole lake. Fractions of heavy metals analysis showed that Cr, Ni and Cu existed mainly in residual fraction (82.99%, 63.63% and 54.25%) and the weak acid soluble fraction was the dominant for Cd and Zn (55.96% and 35.84%), while Pb was found mainly in the reducible fraction and oxidizable fraction (39.66% and 24.56%). Potential ecological risk assessment showed that high pollution level regions were distributed in Nanfei inflow river area (351.54–381.17). The risk assessment code showed that Cd had very high risk level, Zn had high risk level, Cu and Ti were between low risk and medium risk level, Pb was between no risk and low risk level, Cr posed no risk. Therefore, emergent management measures must be taken to control pollution of Cd and Zn in Nanfei inflow river area.
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 37,No. 03
Based on the investigation on the distribution of total contents and speciation of 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the surface sediments at 14 typical sites of the Yangtze Estuary during three hydrological seasons (wet, normal, and dry seasons), this study applied equilibrium partitioning approach to build the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of the Yangtze Estuary, and assessed ecological risks of the heavy metals. The relationship between ecological risk and speciation of heavy metals was also revealed. The results showed that, except for Cd, the residual fraction was the main speciation of heavy metals,especially for As, Cr and Hg, their residual fraction proportions were all over 90%. The sediment quality guidelines of the Yangtze Estuary for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn were 43.29, 0.672, 79.65, 19.08, 0.569, 339.09, 30.87, 411.36 μg·g ?1, respectively. Cu had the highest ecological risk to aquatic organisms. The upstream of Yangtze Estuary was mainly affected by Yangtze River runoff, where the risks were relatively high in wet season and relatively low in normal and dry seasons. However, the downstream of the estuary was mainly affected by municipal sewage of cities like Shanghai, where the risks were relatively high, especially in normal and dry seasons. There were three different relationships between the ecological risks and speciation of the eight heavy metals.
4. Pollution assessment and source analysis of heavy metals in offshore surface sediments from Jiulong River
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 04
Contents of 26 heavy metals in the 39 offshore surface sediments of Jiulong River were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry(AFS) and atomic absorption spectrometry(AAS). Geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index were applied to evaluate the pollution degree and potential ecological risk of heavy metals, and multivariate statistical methods were applied to speculate the main sources of these heavy metals. The results showed that the distributions of heavy metals were different in three regions of Jiulong River(northern creek, western creek and estuary), the high contents of Mn, Zn, Cd, Mo, Sb, Cs, Y, Th and U elements appeared in the northern creek and western creek, and the high contents of Fe, Ni, Cr, V, Co, Sc, Li, Rb, Sr, Tl and Ga elements appeared in the estuary. Most of these elements were enriched in the sediments. The results of pollution assessment by geo-accumulation index revealed that the pollution degree of Cd was the highest and at a serious polluted level in 10. 3% of the samplings. The assessment results of potential ecological risk indicated that the potential ecological risk of heavy metals showed the order of Cd > Hg > Cu > Pb > Ni > Co > Cr > Mn > Zn > V. Cd and Hg contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 78.1% and 12.1%, respectively. The results of multivariate statistics analysis indicated that the source of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Bi were mainly from agricultural activities and mining activities; the source of Ni, Co, Sc, Li, Rb, Sr, Be, Ga and Tl were mainly from burning fossil fuels; and the source of Ba, Y, V, Th, U and Cs were mainly from the rock weathering of granite.
5. Pollution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from River Network Sediment in Western Area of Taihu Lake
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 38,No. 05
River sediments is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of heavy metals in the western areas of Taihu Basin and the associated risks to human health. We collected samples of typical inflow river sediments from nineteen sites during different water periods. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the river sediments followed the order of Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Cd > Hg. Compared to the background concentrations, the mean concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb seriously exceeded the standard values. Except for As, the highest concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg) were found in the samples from normal water period. The metal (Cd) presented moderate pollution degree and ecological risks, and the RI value of Cd accounted for about 35% of the total RI value. The mPEC-Q values of the sediments were in the range of 0.12–0.76, and the mean value was 0.3, indicating that the sediments in all of the sampling sites had a 15%–29% probability of toxicity. In terms of the highest value of the heavy metals, high concentrations, I geo, mPEC-Q and PCA values were found at the S2 sampling sites. The results showed that effects of synergism of heavy metals pollutants on the point were found in the paper, which will provide scientific basis for control of heavy metal pollution in the Taihu Basin.
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 37,No. 06
In this study, a total of 103 surface sediments were collected from lakes and rivers in Taihu watershed on the basis of different ecological zones. The nutrients and heavy metals in sediments were analyzed and the assessment of the ecological risk was carried out. The results showed that the concentration of total nitrogen descended as Ⅱ 11 zone (hill zone of west lake) > Ⅱ 21 zone (agricultural zone of Wuxiyu) > Ⅱ 12 zone (mountain zone of Zhexi) > Ⅱ 23 zone (agricultural zone of Husujia) > Ⅱ 22 zone (wetland zone of Taihu Lake) with the value in the range of 550 to 3 453 mg/kg. The concentration of total phosphorus descended as Ⅱ 23 zone > Ⅱ 21 zone > Ⅱ 22 zone > Ⅱ 11 zone > Ⅱ 12 zone with the value ranging from 320 to 2 481 mg/kg. The results of heavy metals in surface sediment of Taihu watershed indicated that the value of heavy metal concentrations was highest in zones of Ⅱ 23 and Ⅱ 21. It was the lowest in zones of Ⅱ 12, Ⅱ 11 and Ⅱ 22. The results of comprehensive pollution index (FF) indicated that the contamination of nutrients in sediment of Taihu watershed was very serious and a grading of pollution has been formed. The value of RI indicated that metals in Ⅱ 21 zone ranked the highest, followed by zones of Ⅱ 23, Ⅱ 12 andⅡ 22 and Ⅱ 11 zone ranked the lowest. The results of I geo indicated that the pollutions caused by metals including As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Cr were slight while the value of Er indicated that Hg and Cd were the elements contributing most to the pollution status in sediments of Taihu watershed.
7. Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 07
In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the geo-accumulation index ( I geo) and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > As > Co; all heavy metals except for Ti were 1.17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua-Quzhou basin natural soils background values. The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions. The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by I geo followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti; thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites. The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti; Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21.62%, and others had a total of 55.54%. Through the ecological risk assessment, 89.34% of the potential ecological risk indexes (RI) were low and 10.66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas.
8. Pollution Level,Distribution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of 32 PPCPs in Surface Water of Luoma Lake
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 38,No. 08
A total of 22 water samples collected from Luoma Lake were determined using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to evaluate the pollution level, spatial distribution and ecological risk of 32 PPCPs. 23 PPCPs were detected in surface water of Luoma Lake and the total concentrations of 22 samples were 892–1 536 ng·L ?1. The concentration of norfloxacin (256–707 ng·L ?1) was the highest among the detected PPCPs, followed by ketoprofen (85–438 ng·L ?1), acesulfame (101–290 ng·L ?1) and naproxen (1.9–112 ng·L ?1). Spatial differences were found in concentrations of PPCPs in various sampling sites. The concentrations of PPCPs in northeast of Luoma Lake were higher than those of southwest. The concentration of PPCPs in Fangting River was high and that of Zhangshanzha River was relatively low. The risk assessment of 13 pharmaceutical PPCPs showed that the risk quotients (RQs) of norfloxacin were 0.26–0.72, posing medial risk to aquatic ecosystem. Gemifibrozil posed low ecological risks with RQs > 0.01 in most sampling sites. The RQs of other 11 PPCPs were less than 0.01, posing no ecological risks. The combined risk quotients of 12 PPCPs in water of Luoma Lake were 0.29–0.75, indicating that those compounds posed an medial risk to aquatic ecosystem. Human health risk assessment showed that the RQs were less than one for 6 selected PPCPs, indicating that these compounds did not appear to pose an appreciable risk to human health by potential environmental exposure from drinking water.
9. Potential Risk and Distribution Characteristics of PPCPs in Surface Water and Sediment from Rivers and Lakes in Beijing, China
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 38,No. 09
Thirty-four water samples and twenty-three sediment samples from the urban rivers, ten water samples and five sediment samples from urban lakes were collected in Beijing. Ten PPCPs (acetaminophen, lincomycin, caffeine, trimethoprim, azithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, diltiazem, tylosin, carbamazepine, fluoxetine) were extracted from water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and from sediment samples by ultrasonic extraction, and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The ranges of geometric mean values were 0–655 ng·L ?1and 0–252 ng·L ?1 in water samples from urban rivers and lakes, respectively. The range of detection ratio was 0–100% for 10 PPCPs in river water samples, caffeine was the dominant pollutant in water samples and the detection ratio was 100%, whereas sulfamethoxazole, diltiazem and tylosin were not detected in river samples. The range of detection ratio was 0–100% for 10 PPCPs in lake water samples. The detection ratios of acetaminophen, lincomycin, caffeine and azithromycin were 100%, whereas sulfamethoxazole, diltiazem, tylosin, carbamazepine were not detected in lake water samples. The ranges of geometric mean values were 0–1 709 ng·g ?1and 0–35.9 ng·g ?1in sediment samples from urban rivers and lakes, respectively. The ranges of detection ratio were 4%–96% and 0–100% for 10 PPCPs in river and lake sediment samples, respectively. The detection ratio of trimethoprim was 96% and that of tylosin was 4% in river sediment, the detection ratio of diltiazem was 100% and caffeine, tylosin, carbamazepine were not detected. The concentrations of PPCPs in water and sediment samples from Yongyin River, Liangshui River, Tonghui River, Bahe River were higher than those in other rivers. The concentrations of PPCPs in water and sediment samples from Yongding River, Kunyu River were lower than those in other rivers. Further risk assessment results showed that the overall risk was not high in water of rivers and lakes and the RQ values were below 0.1, which showed low risk to microorganisms. But the condition was not the same in sediment from rivers and lakes. The RQ values of acetaminophen were between 0.1 and 1 in sediments from Yongyin River, Tonghui River, Bahe River. The RQ values of lincomycin were between 0.1 and 1 in sediments from Yongyin River, Wenyu River, Tonghui River, Hucheng River, Bahe River, Liangshui River, Houhai Lake. The RQ values of trimethoprim were between 0.1 and 1 in sediments from Yongyin River, Qinghe River, Wenyu River, Tonghui River Hucheng River, Bahe River, Liangma River, Liangshui River and Houhai Lake. The RQ values of azithromycin were between 0.1 and 1 in sediments from Liangma River, Liangshui River, which all showed medium risk to microorganisms in sediments. The RQ values of azithromycin exceeded 1 from Yongyin River, Qinghe River, Wenyu River, Tonghui River, Bahe River and Houhai Lake, which showed high risk to microorganisms in sediments.
10. Distribution characteristics of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in water and soil environment in reclaimed water irrigation area of a city
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 10
In order to preliminarily understand the distribution characteristics of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in soil environment, and to identify the main source of PPCPs in groundwater of a farming area in southeast suburban of City B, drilled profiles in natural water irrigation area, reclaimed water irrigation area and wetland were investigated in detail. In each profile, samples of surface water, groundwater and soil samples from different depths were collected. The routine indexes and 15 target PPCPs of all samples were analyzed. The analytical results indicated that there was an obvious difference in concentration levels of PPCPs in different areas. Generally, the concentrations of PPCPs in the soil profiles in reclaimed water irrigation area were the highest, and those in the wetlands were the lowest. The average total concentration of soil PPCPs was 15.6 μg/kg. The detected PPCPs mainly include carbamazepine (CBZ), bezafibrate (BF), gemifibrozil (GF), chloramghenicol (CP) and indomethacin (IM). In the irrigation area, the average total concentrations of PPCPs in surface water and in groundwater were 272.5 ng/L and 63.5 ng/L, respectively. In surface water, there was a trend that the concentration of PPCPs decreased downwards. By using the mixing Multi-cell principle and concept of Push flow, vertical transport process of PPCPs from soil surface to ground water was depicted. The calculated results of 9 selected PPCPs (not including CBZ, mefenamic acid (MA) and nalidixic acid (NA)) in groundwater accorded well with the measured values. This preliminarily indicated that the reclaimed water is the main source of PPCPs in groundwater in the irrigation area.
11. inOccurrence, Distribution and Ecological Risk of Antibiotics in Surface Water of the Gonghu Bay, Taihu Lake
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 37,No. 11
In order to assess the contamination degree and ecological risk of antibiotics in Gonghu Bay of Taihu Lake, the contamination characteristics of four kinds of antibiotics (tetracycline, quinolones, sulfonamides and macrolides) in surface water of the Gonghu Bay were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS). The results showed that 13 of the 16 target antibiotics were detected in the Gonghu Bay. The mass concentrations of the 13 antibiotics ranged 0. 005–4.720 μg·L ?1, and OTC was of the highest concentration. The detected mass concentration of antibiotics was also different between the northern and the southern parts of Gonghu Bay, and the mass concentration of tetracycline in the northern part was higher than that in the southern part. Moreover, the concentrations of quinolones and sulfonamides in the southern part were larger than those in the northern part. The potential ecological risks of the detected antibiotics were assessed via using the risk quotients (RQs) approach. The preliminary results showed that 5 kinds of antibiotics: OTC, NOR, OFL, CIP and ENR were at high risk, accounting for 38. 5% and 4 kinds of antibiotics TC, CTC, ROX and SMX were at medium risk, accounting for 30.8% in the antibiotics detected in Gonghu Bay, while the others (SMR,SMP,SQX,TMP) were at low risk. Ecological risk assessment revealed that some risks were present in antibiotics in the Gonghu Bay. The tetracyclines and quinolones were particularly prominent, which should draw enough attention, and corresponding preventive measures should be taken as well.
12. Occurrence and ecological risk of typical antibiotics in surface water of the Datong Lake, China
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 38,No. 12
The concentrations of 12 antibiotics, classified into sulfanilamides (SAs), trimethoprim (TMP), quinolones (QNs) and tetracyclines (TCs) in surface water of the Datong Lake, were detected by UPLC-MS/MS in order to assess the occurrence and risk level of typical antibiotics. The 11 antibiotics were detected expect for ofloxacin, and the total concentrations of antibiotics ranged from 0.19 ng/L to 261.89 ng/L in surface water. The highest average concentration was sulfadiazine (37.41 ng/L), followed by sulfamethoxazole (12.34 ng/L) > sarafloxacin (8.55 ng/L) > enrofloxacin (8.04 ng/L) > trimethoprim (7.56 ng/L) > chlortetracycline (3.92 ng/L). The detection frequencies of sulfadiazine, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, sarafloxacin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole could be higher than 50%. The pollution level was similar to those of other rivers and lakes in China expect for sulfadiazine and enrofloxacin. Spatially, the pollution level of antibiotics in Datong Lake showed distinct differences. The results of environmental risk assessment indicated that sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and sarafloxacin, RQ > 1, might pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms of the Datong Lake. The cumulative risk of S2, S3 and S6 were higher, and the main factors were enrofloxacin and sarafloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sarafloxacin, respectively. The health risk indexes for adults and children, calculated for 11 antibiotics based on the acceptable daily intake through drinking water, ranged from 8.74 × 10 –8 to 9.17 × 10 –3, with children having a higher index than adults.
13. Distribution Characteristics of Fluoroquinolones Antibiotics in Surface Water and Groundwater from Typical Areas in a City
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 13
In order to investigate the characteristics of 5 typical kinds of fluoroquinolones (FQs) pollution in waters from a city, surface water and groundwater samples from main drainage rivers and typical areas were collected, respectively. The conventional test and FQs concentrations analysis of the water samples were conducted. The results showed the concentration and composition of FQs in groundwater differed substantially from those in surface water. The average concentration of FQs in surface water was 789.1 ng·L ?1 with the main components of ofloxacin (OFL) and lomefloxacin (LOM). This value was higher than the average concentration of FQs in groundwater: 342.7 ng·L ? 1 with the main components of norfloxacin (NOR) and lomefloxacin (LOM). The enrofloxacin (ENR) exhibited relatively lower levels in both surface water and groundwater as compared to others. The highest FQs concentrations in surface water were found in trenches, followed by tributaries and the main stream. For groundwater, FQs concentrations were relatively higher along the sewage riverside. A decreasing trend of FQs concentration was monitored with the increasing distance of sampling points to the drainage rivers and all components mentioned above showed similar changing trends. The results of this study preliminarily indicated that FQs in groundwater along the riverside probably came from the surface water.
14. Distribution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Thirteen Sulfonamides Antibiotics in a Drinking Water Source in East China
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 37,No. 14
Trace levels of residual antibiotics in drinking water sources may threaten public health and becomes a serious issue in modern society. Occurrence and distribution of 13 sulfonamides antibiotics in a drinking water source in East China were investigated using solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that all 13 sulfonamides were detected with the total concentrations ranging from 10.5 ng·L ?1 to 238.5 ng·L ?1. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and sulfonamide (SAM) presented the 100 % detected frequency, and the maximum concentrations reached 107.0 ng·L ?1and 43.1 ng·L ?1, respectively. Sulfonamides contamination levels in the inlet were relatively higher than those in the outlet. The concentration of SMX was substantially unchanged in different positions of drinking water source. Seasonal variation of sulfonamide concentration showed that the concentrations were higher in winter and spring compared with those in summer and autumn. The range of total sulfonamides concentration detected in winter and spring was from 110.8 ng·L ?1 to 117.9 ng·L ?1, which was 3.6–3.8 times higher than those in summer and autumn. Human health risk characterization of residual sulfonamides in drinking water source was based on the assessment of risk quotients (RQs) for which different life stages were taken into account. The results showed that no sulfonamides had a RQs higher than 1. Trimethoprim (TMP) was the most risky antibiotic to the 0–3 months old infants with RQs reaching 0.001.Although the sulfonamides detected in the drinking water source do not pose any risk to the peoples' health, the implication of long-time exposure and comprehensive risk still deserve attention.
15. Distribution Characteristics of Sulfonamide Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Drinking Water Source in East China
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 39,No. 15
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water sources have attracted widespread attention due to the threat they pose to water security and human health. This study mainly focused on the distribution of sulfonamide ARGs ( sul1, sul2) and one integrase gene ( intI1) in water and sediment using qualitative and fluorescent quantitative PCR, based on previous work on the characteristics of 13 kinds of sulfonamides in a drinking water source in East China. Results showed that the three target genes were all detected in water and sediment. The sul1 gene was the sulfonamide ARG with highest concentration, with 1.5 × 10 4–6.4 × 10 5 copies·m L ?1 in source water and maximum concentration of 1.6 × 10 8 copies·g ?1 in sediment. Concentration of sul1 was 0.6–2.2, 0.5–1.9 order of magnitudes higher than that of sul2 and intI1 genes, respectively. There was no significant difference between the absolute concentrations of sul1, sul2, and intI1 in inflow and outflow. However, in the case of sediment, absolute abundances of sul1, sul2, and intI1 in outflow were higher than those in inflow. The maximum concentration of sul1 was detected in outflow in summer (6.4 × 10 5 copies·m L ?1). The concentration of intI1 was higher in winter that in other seasons. There was a positive correlation between sul1 and 13 sulfonamides ( r = 0.69, P < 0.05), and the relative concentration of sul1 and amount of sulfamethoxazole were significantly positively related ( r = 0.79, P < 0.01). There were also positive correlations between the relative concentrations of intI1 and sul1, sul2 ( r = 0.80 and 0.73, P < 0.05), respectively, suggesting that intI1 played an important role in horizontal gene transfer of sulfonamide ARGs in this drinking water source. This study provides basic data for monitoring pollution of ARGs, as well as a basis for controlling ARG pollution in the drinking water environment and making management decisions.
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 16
Eutrophication characteristics and variations were analyzed using four main statistical methods of box-plot analysis, cluster analysis, correlation analysis and principal component analysis, which were conducted based on natural geographic data and water quality monitoring data of 65 estuaries from 2007 to 2012 in China. The results showed there was significant difference in eutrophication response indicators between the large-scale estuaries and small-scale estuaries. The eutrophication states of large-scale estuaries were more serious. It was also showed DIN, PO 4 3 ?-P and COD were the first principal components of eutrophication characteristics, DO and Chl-a were the second principal components, and depth, tidal range and area were the third principal components. In addition, the Chl-a concentration was significantly positively correlated with TN input ( P < 0.01), DIN ( P < 0.01), PO 4 3 ?-P ( P < 0.05), flow ( P < 0.01) and temperature ( P < 0.05), while was significantly negatively correlated tidal range ( P < 0 05), salinity ( P < 0.01) and DO ( P < 0.01) in estuaries. It indicated the increase in nutrient input was the main factor which resulted in eutrophication symptoms. However, eutrophication state would be adjusted by natural attributes of the estuary and lead to different response characteristics among estuaries. The nutrient conversion efficiencies of estuarine with tidal range below 2.5 m were higher than the ones with tidal range above 2.5 m. It is implied the susceptibility of phytoplankton biomass to nutrient could be regulated by changing water residence time, vertical mixing and light conditions. Furthermore, the Chl-a concentration were also influenced by water exchange with offshore area, biological predation and other nutrient forms supply in estuary. The differences of eutrophication among estuaries and eutrophication extent were determined synthetically by nutrient inputs from human activities, as well as natural attributes of the estuary.
17. Seasonal Stratification and Eutrophication Characteristics of a Deep Reservoir, Longtan Reservoir in Subtropical Area of China
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 17
In order to reveal the seasonal stratification and eutrophication characteristics of the subtropical large deep reservoir-Longtan Reservoir, the spatial and temporal distribution of environmental factors and eutrophic index were investigated during November (dry period) 2012, April (level period) and July (wet period) 2013. The results suggested that: 1) The stratification structure of Longtan Reservoir was meromictic lake, it had a single thermocline structure in the dry season; the surface layer to the 60 m was a mixomolimnion; 60–80 m was a thermocline; deeper more than 80 m was a monimolimnion. It had a double thermocline structure in level period and wet period; the surface to 10 m was a mixed layer; 10–20 m was a thermocline; 20–40 m was a mixed layer; 40–60 m was a thermocline; and deeper more than 60 m was a mixed layer. 2) The thermal stratification dominated the structure of other environmental factors; the stratification structure limited the water convection, especially the monimolimnion reduced the harm of the endogenous pollution. 3) The trophic level index (TLI) was 23.4–32.8 in the dry period, 27.1–38.6 in the level period and 26.0–45.1 in the wet period, which were all Mesotropher. The trophic state index of total nitrogen was 60.3–72.5, which was eutrophic to hypereutrophic. N:P was 107:1, indicating a phosphorus limited state.
18. Characteristics of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Pollution and Eutrophication Assessment of Secondary River in Urban Chongqing
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 18
To understand the secondary river quality in Chongqing urban area, six typical secondary rivers were chosen to investigate the pollution characteristics of total nitrogen and total phosphorus and to evaluate the water eutrophication level according to the monitoring data of water physicochemical characteristics and chlorophyll content from April 2013 to March 2014. The study results showed that: the six rivers mentioned above have been seriously polluted by TN and TP, with the monthly mean values of TN and TP far exceeding the universally accepted threshold values of water eutrophication. Water eutrophicaton appraisal result indicated that all rivers in each season were in a state of eutrophication, and the eutrophication level could be arranged in the order of Panxi River > Qingshui River > Tiaodeng River > Huaxi River > Funiu River > Chaoyang River. The seasonal changes in TN and TP of secondary rivers were significant, with high concentrations of TN and TP in spring and winter, and lower concentrations in summer and autumn. TN and TP of the rivers showed a trend of increasing from the upstream to the downstream in each season. Pollutant concentration accumulated gradually along rivers and the maximum accumulation rate reached 1.25 mg·(L·km) ?1.Therefore, further study on urban secondary river pollution characteristics is of great significance to urban water pollution control.
19. Spatial analysis on diffuse pollution and algal bloom characteristic with remote sensing in Chao Lake Basin
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 35,No. 19
Based on the monitoring with MODIS data, the DPeRS model and algae bloom (AB) information were extracted and were used to assess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) diffuse pollution (DP) and AB characteristics at pixel scale. Results showed: 1) the yearly production of total nitrogen was 1,900.3 t in 2010 and 846.5 t were discharged. The total phosphorus production was 244.1 t and the discharge load was 76 t. 2) Agriculture contributes mostly the N-DP, and the water loss and soil erosion had great effect on P-DP. 3) The spatial-temporal feature analysis on N/P-DP loads and AB frequency confirmed that the N/P-DP related to AB. The AB happening lagged the DP firstly and after AB reaching the maximum, the DP and AB had the same temporal trend. The spatial distribution of AB matched well with DP. The correlation coefficient of bloom areas and NP loads was 0.45. 4) The scenarios analysis was analyzed with DPeRS model due to the dependency between DP and AB. The four scenarios could reduce N/P-DP 50% with reducing the fertilizer application 30%, improving the decontamination rate of urban and livestock refuse to 80% and rural life to 60%.
20. Nutrient Exchange Between Meixi River and Yangtze River Due to the Typical Interaction Process of the Three Gorges Reservoir and Its Tributary
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 20
Frequent algal blooms have been observed in the Meixi bay of the Three Gorges Reservoirs (TGR) since its initial filling. In order to understand the effects of intrusions from Yangtze River mainstream on the nutrient supply of the Meixi Bay, a detailed field monitoring was conducted from August 2012 to July 2013. The results showed that there were significant intrusions from the mainstream to the Meixi Bay during the different water level scheduling periods of the TGR. As a result, the invading flow from the mainstream of the Yangtze River caused a significant effect on the nutrient distribution in the Meixi River. Annually, the mainstream transportednet fluxes of 5 478.02 t DIN, 234.04 t DIP and 5 935.22 t DSi to the Meixi Bay, which were 2.37 times, 4.32 times and 1.33 times of the corresponding fluxes from the upstream, respectively. The influence on the nutrient distributions was not only limited in the estuary area but also in the upper reaches, the supply of DIP changed the nutrient structure and relieved the P restrictions on phytoplankton growth.
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 38,No. 21
The evolution characteristics of water quality and major driving factors were investigated by the data from 1991 to 2015 in Dongting Lake. The effects of declining water quality on aquatic ecological risks also discussed in this study. The results showed that water quality declined from 1991 to 2015. TN and TP were the major indexes that caused water quality decline, with the concentrations ranged from 1.06 to 2.07 and from 0.026 to 0.146, respectively. During 1991–2002, the concentrations of TN and TP increased significantly, which could be the effects of water level and sedimentation according to the multiple regression analysis. From 2003 to 2015, TN concentration continued to increase but TP was relatively stable, which resulted from nitrogen and phosphorus load input and water level. The level of ecological risk of Dongting Lake transformed from slightly to moderately from 1991 to 2015. The flood and enhanced agricultural nonpoint source pollution and urbanization were the main drivers. From 1991 to 2008, the risk all increased in different degrees, especially in the western district of Dongting Lake. From 2009 to 2015, the risk in different regions declined, the decrease in East Dongting Lake was more significant than that in West Dongting Lake. Therefore, to protect the aquatic ecosystem of Dongting Lake, optimization of hydrologic conditions, control of nutrients loading, and a particular focus on phosphorus risk were the most important strategies.
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 35,No. 22
The vertical distribution characteristics of the pore water nitrogen concentration of the sediment from Dianchi Lake are studied, the nitrogen diffusion flux at its sediment-water interface was estimated quantitatively based on Fick diffusion law, and its influencing factors were also discussed. The results show: The total dissolved nitrogen of the sediment pore water from Dianchi Lake was mainly in the form of NH 4 +-N, accounting for 72.30%, With the increasing depth its concentration presented an increasing trend; followed by dissolved organic nitreogen (DON), accounting for 24.59%, with the increasing depth the concentration presented a trend of first increasing then decreasing gradually stabilized. NO 3 --N accounted for a lower proportion, and the concentration with depth increasing showed a decreasing trend. The amount of the NH 4 +-N diffused at sediment-water interface was between 12.73 and 59.74 mg/m 2·d [With an average of 30.18mg/(m 2·d)]. The amount of the NH 4 +-N released was 3305.04 t per year for the whole lake, and those of Caohai Lake, north, northeast, and south of Waihai Lake were large, average 35 mg/(m 2·d). Their spatial distribution presented decreasing trend from the north region to the south region gradually, the annual amount of the DON released was 1147.55 t which had a similar spatial distribution with NH 4 +-N. The amount of the NO 3 --N diffusion flux was from ?2.70 to 0.27 mg/(m 2·d) [with an mean of ?0.50 mg/(m 2·d)], and its releasing trend was from the overlying water to the sediment. Compared with other lakes in Chian, the sediment from Dianchi Lake with the larger nitrogen concentration, its NH 4 +-N fluxes at the sediment-water interface was higher, so there was the larger effect on the ammonia concentration of the overlying water. That was significantly positive correlation between its NH 4 +-N fluxes from the sediment with its total nitrogen, organic matter, exchangeable nitrogen and exchangeable ammonia nitrogen content in sediment, so the NH 4 +-N released from the sediment of Dianchi Lake was mainly influenced by its exchangeable nitrogen, particularly ammonia nitrogen content. The potential risk of the DON release from sediment was large, which was correlated significantly with its values of C/N in sediment at the same time.
23. Characteristics of Nitrogen Pollution and the Potential Mineralization in Surface Sediments of Dianchi Lake
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 23
The nitrogen content, its different forms and their spatial distribution were studied by using the 53 sediment samples from different sites in Dianchi Lake. Thereafter, the potential nitrogen mineralization ability of the sediments and their pollution characteristics were also explored to understand the influencing factors of nitrogen pollution and its release risk from the sediment surface to the overlying water of Dianchi. The results showed: (1) the average total nitrogen content of surface sediment in Dianchi Lake was 3 515.60 mg·kg ?1,which was at a high level from the inlets in Caohai northeastern thinning digging area, Panlong River and the Haikou into Dianchi Lake, but relatively low in Baoxiang River estuary dredging area. The total organic nitrogen (TON) content, accounting for 85.86% of TN, was at a high level; on the other hand, the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) content was lower, which accounted for 14.10% of TN. The spatial distribution of TON and TN kept the same trend, but not the DIN. Compared with other lakes in China, the nitrogen content of sediment in Dianchi Lake was at a high level, and the extent of pollution was just below the serious polluted city lakes. (2) The average potential mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) content of Dianchi Lake was 1 154.76 mg·kg ?1, accounting for 32.90% of TN, which raised the potential risk of its release into the overlying water. Higher PMN was found in the Caohai Lake area, the inlet of Panlong River in the North, the inlets of Luolong River and Liangwang River and the Baiyukou in the Middle. Nowadays, the pH value of Dianchi Lake was favorable for its sediment nitrogen mineralization, and its nitrogen mineralization was affected by the release of NH 4 +-N from organic matter. In the heavily polluted area, the concentration of the overlying water nitrogen was seriously affected by nitrogen mineralization of sediment from Dianchi, while the slightly polluted area was less affected.
24. Characteristics of Atmospheric Nitrogen Wet Deposition and Associated Impact on N Transport in the Watershed of Red Soil Area in Southern China
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 24
In this study, Qianyanzhou Xiangxi River Basin in the rainy season was monitored to measure different nitrogen (N) form concentrations of rainfall and rainfall-runoff process, in order to explore the southern red soil region of nitrogen wet deposition characteristics and its influence on N output in watershed. The results showed that there were 27 times rainfall in the 2014 rain season, wherein N wet deposition load reached 43.64–630.59 kg and N deposition flux were 0.44–6. 43 kg·hm –2, which presented great seasonal variability. We selected three rainfall events to make dynamic analysis. The rainfall in three rainfall events ranged from 8 to 14 mm, and the deposition load in the watershed was from 18.03 to 41.16 kg and its flux reached 0.18 to 0.42 kg·hm –2. Meanwhile, this three rainfall events led to 4 189.38 m 3 of the total runoff discharge, 16.72 kg of total nitrogen (TN) load and 4.64 kg·hm –2 of flux, wherein dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) were 9.64 kg and 2.68 kg·hm –2, ammonium-nitrogen (NH 4 +-N) were 2.93 kg and 0.81 kg·hm –2, nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 –-N) were 5.60 kg and 1.56 kg·hm –2. The contribution rate of N wet deposition to N output from watershed reached 56%–94%, implying that the rainfall-runoff had tremendous contribution to N loss in this small watershed. The concentrations of TN in water had exceeded 1.5 mg·L –1 of eutrophication threshold, which existed a eutrophication potential.
25. Annual Variation of Different Phosphorus Forms and Response of Algae Growth in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 25
Based on the monthly investigations of different forms of phosphorus (P) and algae growth from January to December 2013 in Meiliang bay of Taihu lake, the transformation of different P forms and the relationship between different P forms and algae growth was investigated under the dual conditions of disturbance due to wind and wave and algae growth. Results of the total P (TP), particulate P (PP), dissolved total P (DTP), dissolved inorganic P (DIP) and bioavailable P (BAP) showed that the monthly concentrations reached the maximum in summer and autumn while the minimum in winter and spring. In addition, the algae growth showed the same trends as above. However, no variation was found in the dissolved organic P (DOP) and bioavailable particulate P (BAPP). The bioavailability of PP was only 12.75% from June to October, which was obviously lower than the annual mean (37.14%). It was attributed to the acceleration on the transformation of PP to DTP due to the immobilization of sedimentary P under sediment disturbance and algae adsorption. The percentage of DTP in BAP was up to 69.33% (average), which was obviously higher than the percentage of bioavailable PP (30.67%, average) and the annual mean (56.63%) of DTP during the interval. In addition, the algae bloom appeared in the interval.
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 35,No. 26
The total phosphorous (TP) and various forms of phosphorus contents characteristics of Poyang Lake surface exposed sediments were studied, in order to reveal the influence of the water level descend resulted from the changing relationship between Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake on the potential phosphorus-release risk of Poyang Lake sediments. Results showed that: The TP contents of Poyang Lake surface sediments varied from 214.5 to 736.0 mg/kg, and the average content of TP was (428.6 ± 154.3) mg/kg. The TP contents in the estuary of "five rivers" and central area of Poyang Lake were close, 444.5 mg/kg and 445.4 mg/kg respectively; and the content in the north area was 387.7 mg/kg which was far less than the estuary of "five rivers" and central area of Poyang Lake. The spatial distribution of various forms of phosphorus in Poyang Lake surface sediments was relatively uniform; the average content of reactive phosphorous from Poyang Lake surface sediments was (254.6 ± 114.3) mg/kg, that of non-reactive phosphorus was (69.1 ± 26.3) mg/kg, and that of organic phosphorus was (105.0 ± 49.2) mg/kg, showing the feature of the reactive phosphorous > organic phosphorus > non-reactive phosphorus. The relationship between Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake changed, thus the sediments exposure in low water season advanced and the outcropped time prolonged, which then caused the TP and various forms of phosphorus contents increased with the elevation rise from 10–11 m to 12–13 m, and the growth rate of the reactive phosphorous was faster than organic phosphorus and non-reactive phosphorus. The growth in the estuary of "five rivers" was the most significant, the central area comes second, and the north area was the least.
27. Identification of inorganic and organic species of phosphorus and its bio-availability by aequential extraction method in surface sediments of Danjiangkou Reservoir
China Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 36,No. 27
Forms and occurrence characteristics of organic phosphorus and inorganic phosphorus in surface sediments of Danjiangkou Reservoir were studied by sequential extraction method, and the bio-availability and release risk of phosphorus in various forms were also discussed combining with the spatial distribution characteristics of dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) in interstitial water. Contents of phosphorus with different forms were higher in rivers than that in reservoir areas. TP of sampling sites ranged from 203.08 to 1,625.61 mg/kg, with the mean value of 642.51 mg/kg. IP was the main phosphorus form, and IP took 52.9% of TP. Average value of Ca-P i was 196.46 mg/kg, taking 57.8% of IP. Ca-P i was the main fraction for IP. NA-P o dominated organic phosphorus (OP) in sediments, and the mean value was 180.83 mg/kg, taking 59.7% of OP. WA-P i, PA-P i, Fe/Al-P i, WA-P o and PA-P o had significant positive correlations with DTP in pore water, but not significant positive correlation between Ca-P i, MA-P o, NA-P o and DTP. Both contents of bio-available phosphorus and release flux of sediments from rivers were higher than that of reservoir area, and the release risk for phosphorus was higher.
28. Characteristics of Organic Phosphorus Fractions in the Sediments of the Black Water Aggregation in Lake Taihu
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 37,No. 28
Potential release of phosphorus in lake sediments depends largely on the fractions and distribution of organic phosphorus. Mao Du was chosen as the research area in the west of Lake Taihu. The chemical forms of the surface sediments were investigated by the extraction methods recommended by Ivannoff et al. The results showed that the main organic phosphorus form of sediments at different sampling places was humic acid-OP. It accounted for 35% of the total organic phosphorus. Horizontal distribution: total organic phosphorus content from the shore to the middle of total showed a trend of rising after decline; vertical distribution: total organic phosphorus content was the lowest in 2–6 cm and the highest in 4–8 cm.Various phosphorus content followed the order of humic acid-OP > residual-OP > HCl-OP > fulvic acid-OP; the relative content of NaHCO 3-OP in the total organic phosphorus content showed a trend of rising followed by reduction and then rising again from the shore to the middle, cyanobacteria residue deposition increased the content of NaHCO 3-OP in sediment. Contents of NaHCO 3-OP and humic acid-OP both first reduced, then increased and finally reduced in the vertical distribution, the content of NaHCO 3-OP was the lowest in 4–6 cm and humic acid-OP was the highest in 4–8 cm. HCl-OP and fulvic-OP decreased with increasing depth in the vertical distribution.The content of residual-OP showed stable tendency in the vertical direction and was about 45 μg·g ?1. Labile OP and pH, DO, the depth of water were significantly negatively correlated, OM and NaOH-Pi were significantly correlated with total organic phosphorus, labile OP, moderately labile OP and nonlabile OP. Three components of organic phosphorus had bio-availability and played an important role in lake eutrophication. The increase of the content of labile OP might promote the black water aggregation (BWA) in cyanobacteria accumulation.
29. Pollution Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides in Water Source Areas of Guangdong and Guangxi
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 37,No. 29
The concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 7 water samples collected from different sites of water source areas of Guangdong and Guangxi were detected by SPE-GC-MS, and then the pollution characteristics were analyzed. This study established species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves with BurrⅢ distribution model. In the meantime, HC5 values were calculated by Burrli OZ software, which were used to evaluate the toxicity effects of OCPs towards aquatic organisms. Finally, margin of safety concentration values were calculated to assess the ecological risk. The results showed that the concentration of OCPs varied from 6.64 to 34.19 ng·L ?1, with a mean value of 16.76 ng·L ?1, while HCHs and DDTs contributed a lot. HCHs were predominately originated from lindane, which is a component in household insecticide, while DDTs were from dicofol contamination or historical residues. Vertebrates could stand severer toxicity in comparison with invertebrates. The α-endosulfan showed a greater toxicity towards aquatic plants and microorganisms than others, while p, p'-DDT turned out to be the most hazardous pollutant to vertebrates and invertebrates among the 16 OCPs studied. Generally speaking, OCPs in study areas did not show conspicuous ecological risks towards aquatic organisms, DDTs and α-endosulfan, however, are still worth paying close attention due to their high potential risks.
30. Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Water and Sediments from Nansha Mangrove Wetland
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 38,No. 30
Mangrove wetland plays an important role in coastal environment. A total of 10 surface water samples and 7 surface sediment samples were collected in March, 2015 from Nansha mangrove wetland, and 8 compounds of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) were determined by GC-ECD to investigate residues level, source, and ecological risk of these compounds in the study region. The result showed the concentrations of OCPs in water ranged from 1.89 to 90.19 ng·L ? 1 (mean 30.16 ng·L ? 1), and the concentrations of OCPs in sediments varied from 3.10 to 16.02 ng·g ? 1 (average 8.58 ng·g ? 1). Compared with other estuaries and harbors around the world, the concentrations of OCPs in this study stayed at a median pollution level. The mean values of the distribution coefficients of HCHs and DDTs between water and sediments were 857 and 368, respectively. Sediments in some parts of the area, whose distribution coefficient was relatively high, may bring water the secondary pollution. Source analysis indicated that HCHs mainly originated from the application of Lindane, and DDTs originated from mixed sources of dicofol and technical DDT. Compared with OCPs in water, the OCPs in sediments might contain more historical residual components. The OCPs in water had light ecological risk, but the OCPs in sediments posed potential high risk to mangrove ecosystem.
31. Distribution and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives in Wastewater-Receiving Rivers in Beijing
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 40,No. 31
To analyze the pollution levels and health risk assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (SPAHs) in five typical effluents from sewage treatment plants and receiving rivers in Beijing, the concentrations of PAHs and SPAHs in samples were measured by the combined method of solid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The distribution characteristics were also analyzed. At the same time, the probabilistic health risk was assessed using toxic equivalent factors. The results showed that the contamination of PAHs and SPAHs in five typical effluents from sewage treatment plants and receiving rivers in Beijing was 75–584 ng·L ?1and 91–1 822 ng·L ?1, respectively. These PAHs were dominated by 2- and 3-ring PAHs, which accounted for 23%–48% of the total PAHs. The SPAHs in this study included three substances: methyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MPAHs), oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs), and chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs). The proportion of OPAHs in total SPAHs was 75%, while the proportion of MPAHs and ClPAHs was overall low (12% and 13%, respectively). Calculations of the toxicity equivalents of PAHs in five rivers indicated that attention should be paid to high-PAHs pollution during the heating season (December).
32. Comparison and Source Apportionment of PAHs Pollution of Runoff from Roads in Suburb and Urban Areas of Shanghai
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 40,No. 32
Rapid urbanization has driven surface runoff pollution in urban areas to a serious state. In particular, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from road surface runoff has attracted wide attention. Two traffic roads in Shanghai (Caobao Road in an urban central area, and Jiajin Expressway in the suburbs) were identified as research objects. Runoff samples from these two traffic roads were collected for 7 rainfall events between 2007 and 2018. Then, the concentration characteristics and composition ratio of PAHs were analyzed. The differences in pollution sources of runoff PAHs from two types of traffic roads were identified based on characteristic ratio method and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The results showed that the geometric mean value (5 539.2 ng·L ?1) of 16 PAHs of runoff from Jiajin Expressway in the suburbs was 10 times greater than that from Caobao Road (548.1 ng·L ?1), which was related to a higher truck traffic and a lower cleaning frequency on Jiajin Expressway. The benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) concentration on both roads exceeded the national emission standard, and the amount in the Jiajin Expressway was up to 21 times higher than the standard. There was no significant difference in the composition of PAHs of runoff between Caobao Road and Jiading Expressway, and 4–6 ring were dominant and responsible for 80%of total PAHs loads in both sites. Based on the analysis of the characteristic ratio method, the PAHs of runoff from Caobao Road mostly came from coal-fired sources and traffic sources, while that from Jiajin Expressway were mostly from fossil fuels, coal, and other traffic sources. Quantitative source analysis through PMF method showed that the primary sources of PAHs were gas and coal, accounting for 48.6%, followed by traffic emission sources (29.8%), and oil sources (21.7%). The contribution ratios of PAHs sources of runoff from Jiajin Expressway, sorted in descending order, are: traffic emission sources (38.5%), coal-fired sources (34.6%), oil sources (14.6%), and coking sources (12.6%). PAHs sources and contribution rates between urban and suburban roads are completely different. Gas and coal were the main sources of PAHs of runoff from Caobao Road, which was related to the high population density and relatively large gas consumption in the Xuhui District. Traffic emission was the main source of PAHs from surface runoff on Jiajin Expressway, which was related to the massive flow of coaches and trucks, and their higher PAHs emission compared to small cars. In addition, there are still coking sources of PAHs of runoff from Jiajin Expressway, which can be related to the massive industrial coal consumption in the Qingpu District.
33. Distribution, Sources, and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Surface Waters of the Yinchuan Wetlands
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 40,No. 33
In order to explore the composition, sources and ecological risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Yinchuan wetlands, water samples were collected in the dry season and wet season from 15 wetlands. Sixteen species of PAHs were analyzed by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer, and source identification of PAHs was investigated by PCA and EPA positive matrix factorization 5.0. The ecological risk was assessed using the risk entropy method based on the negligible concentrations (NCs) and the maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). The following results are obtained: ① In the dry season, eight kinds of PAHs are detected, the concentrations of which range from 1 455.38 ng·L ?1 to 2 538.84 ng·L ?1. In the wet season, 12 kinds of PAHs are detected, the concentrations of which range from 818.69 ng·L ?1 to 1 582.14 ng·L ?1. The concentrations of PAHs in the dry season in Yinchuan are higher than those during the wet season. Compared with other surface waters in China and other countries, the PAH pollution is high. ② In the dry season, PAHs are mainly composed of 3–5 rings, and the PAHs with 2–3 rings and 4–6 rings account for 35.6%–59.2% and 40.8%–59.7%, respectively. In the wet season, the PAHs are mainly composed of 4–5 rings, and the PAHs with 2–3 rings and 4–6 rings account for 10.2%–45.07% and 54.92%–89.76%, respectively. ③ The source analysis show that in both the dry season and wet season, the main sources are combustion and automobile emissions. ④ The ecological risk assessment indicates that the RQ MPCs values of BaA, BbF, InP, DBA, and BghiP during both the dry and wet seasons, and the RQ MPCs values of Phe during the dry season are higher than 1.0, indicating that attention needs to be paid to pollution levels. The RQ NCs values of Nap, Ace, Fla, Pyr, and BaP during the wet season and the RQ NCs values of Nap during the dry season are higher than 1.0, indicating that the pollution risk is moderate and the prevention and control of pollution from PAHs are required in the region.
34. Distribution, Sources, and Health Risk Assessment of PAHs in Water Supply Source Regions of Guangzhou
Environmental Science,Part 1: Water Pollution,Vol 40,No. 34
Trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water sources have significant harmful effects on human health. The water and sediment samples from water source regions of three water treatment plants in Guangzhou were collected and the distributions of 16 kinds of PAHs were analyzed. The human risk of PAHs in the water samples was also evaluated using the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The results showed that the PAHs in the samples from the three water source regions did not exceed the corresponding standard limit for water quality, and the contents of ΣPAHs in suspended solids and sediments were below the medium level. The non-carcinogenic risks (HQ and HI) of PAHs in the water samples were less than 1, and the non-carcinogenic risk was negligible. In addition, Risk ingest, Risk dermal, and Risk T for the waters were all in the range of 5.53 × 10 ?7 to 5.34 × 10 ?6, indicating that a carcinogenic risk was possible but acceptable. The results of the isomer ratio method indicated that the PAHs in the water sources of the three water plants had a mixed input of pollution, including petroleum discharge, petroleum combustion, and incomplete combustion of wood, coal, and biomass. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the water and sediment samples was positively correlated with the accumulation and enrichment of low-ring PAHs, and there was significant positive correlation between PAHs and similar molecules in the sediments. The ΣPAHs in the water and sediment samples were also strongly correlated.