Publisher(s): China Academic Journals (CD Edition) Electronic Publishing House Co., Ltd.
First Published: 2021.01.19
Discipline(s): Politics/ Military Affairs/ Law
Price: $45 (for individuals) (中国大陆地区个人用户点此直接购买)
Institution users and community members, please click here to contact us.
Research on the South China Sea Issue: Perspectives on Strategy Selection series provide a rich collection of 63 papers in total published in journals such as Foreign Affairs Review, Southeast Asian Studies, and Northeast Asia Forum. The authors include Wu Shicun, President of the National Institute for South China Sea Studies, Zhu Feng, Executive Director of the Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies of Nanjing University, and other established professionals. The number of Chinese characters totals around 860,000 and that of English words totals roughly 600,000. This Chinese-English bilingual e-book series are composed of two volumes. This volume shares academic achievements on the South China Sea issue from three angles, embracing Legal Interpretation and Response, Conception and Intervention of Other Countries and Regions, as well as Historical Research and Chinese Strategy.
Southeast Asian Affairs,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 01
In recent years, the maritime issues in South China Sea have become increasingly severe, which greatly affects the regional harmony. As two important actors in the region, China and ASEAN should be dominant forces to build a harmonious maritime order. Their trade and economy are integrated, and concepts are similar. Besides, they both desire to provide public goods, and have established multi-level security dialogue mechanisms. All these make it realistic and feasible to build a harmonious maritime order in the South China Sea. China and ASEAN need to strengthen mutual understanding in pragmatic maritime cooperation, consolidate the basis for building a harmonious maritime order in the South China Sea, and improve maritime cooperation mechanisms and structure. What is more, they should expand the mutual understanding of maritime safety and order, pay attention to maritime cooperative relations with ASEAN and its member states, promote bilaterally and multilaterally pragmatic maritime cooperation, and speed up consultations on the Code of Conduct in the South China Sea to provide binding and legally effective norms and guidelines.
Taiwan Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 02
The cross-Strait relations and the South China Sea issue are a dialectical unity. The dialectical strategy is to address the South China Sea issue in the process of cross-Strait relations development and to develop cross-Strait relations in solving the issue of the South China Sea. Due to the conventions of the cross-Strait relations and current international constraints, addressing the South China Sea issue will be a gradual and complicated process and it will inevitably need a mediating mechanism. Pan-Beibu Gulf economic cooperation, as a transitional mechanism, is suitable for solving the South China Sea issue in the unique cross-Strait relations and will facilitate the final resolution of the South China Sea issue. Accordingly, the article made a discussion on the nature, limit, method and domain of cross-Strait cooperation in solving the South China Sea issue within the framework of Pan-Beibu Gulf economic cooperation.
3. Study on the Nationalist Government’s efforts to recover China’s sovereignty over the South China Sea islands after the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression
Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 03
After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, the Nationalist Government made proactive plans and overcame numerous difficulties to take over China’s sovereignty over the South China Sea islands from Japan, with troops dispatched to garrison Dongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao (then called “Tuansha Qundao” ). In addition to the construction of meteorological observatories on Dongsha Qundao and Woody Dao, the Nationalist Government sent technicians to survey and name these islands and drew the Position Sketch of the South China Sea islands and the map of every archipelago, thus marking the coastal territory of the South China Sea with 11-dash line forming a U-shape which was announced on December 1, 1947. During the government’s efforts to regain sovereignty over the South China Sea islands, the US and British government actually adopted a policy of acquiescence. It is China’s legal right to regain its sovereignty over the South China Sea islands, a right that is not only granted by the United Nations and the Allies after the World War Two but also based on post-World War Two international order.
Southeast Asian Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 04
To promote China’s power influence in Asia and the Western Pacific (especially in the western part of the Western Pacific) is a much clearer major objective China’s foreign policy. Two primary instruments are there to serve this objective, namely “strategic military” and “strategic economy.” From November 2012 when the18th National Congress of the CPC ended till the fall of 2014, the Chinese government employed primarily strategic military in pursuing that objective. However, since the fall of 2014, strategic economy has emerged dramatically, while a few major aspects of strategic military remained to be very influential and even more so. Therefore, it could be said that China’s current strategic approach in Asia and the Western Pacific has become a combined and complex approach. Both strategic military and strategic economy have their imperative of prudence to prevent “strategic overdraft,” which could damage the overall situation of China internal and external if it would become a major reality or even go further excessively. Closely related to this, the increasingly prominent and intensive issue of South China Sea needs to be treated from the required holistic perspective. There may begin to emerge a fundamental logic of interaction between the rising great power and the established great power, with its vitally important implications. The South China Sea issue is only a part of China’s strategic environment and task as a whole. It is necessary to put it in China’s overall strategic situation to deal with, as possible as we can. There is a general principle on the South China Sea issue: the principle of both promoting rights and maintaining stability. While enhancing China’s position of military strength and sovereign presence there, we really need to prevent China-US strategic rivalry and confrontation further intensify severely, and to support and improve the relationship between China and Southeast Asian maritime countries, treating it as a major component of our diplomacy as we did before.
5. Comparative analysis on Taiwan’s ocean policies between the East China Sea and the South China Sea
Taiwan Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 05
In recent years, with the growing trend of disputing in the East China Sea and the South China Sea, Taiwan was involved as an important factor in the development of the whole situation because it is a stakeholder to some extent. This paper shows that the attitude and policy consistency within Taiwan authorities in dealing with the two disputes will be the key indicator to achieve Taiwan’s political gains. Taiwan authorities have different interests and practical needs in the two seas so that different blocks for different strategic orientations and behaviors will be taken.
Southeast Asian Affairs,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 06
According to the stakeholder theory, this paper will regard China’s mainland and ASEAN as the major stakeholders in the South China Sea (SCS) dispute, and the United States and Taiwan as secondary stakeholders. China’s mainland and Taiwan respectively play a major and a minor role in the SCS. In spite of some commonalities, their SCS policies are fundamentally different. What is more, different relationships with other stakeholders and varying strengths of the two sides result in that the effects of their policies are almost completely different. As a whole, the polices of the China’s mainland and Taiwan lack effective force in constraining other stakeholders, and the SCS disputes will continue to develop within the triangle game among China’s mainland, the United States (US) and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The space for cooperation on the SCS between the two sides of the Taiwan Strait will be compressed gradually, which makes it hard for Taiwan to avoid the crisis of marginalization in the SCS disputes.
7. From East Asian seas to South-eastern territorial seas: Taiwan’s strategic position during the Ming and Qing dynasties
Taiwan Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 07
From the dual perspective of East Asian seas and South-eastern territorial seas, the historical context of Taiwan’s strategic position is presented in a long period of time during the Ming and Qing dynasties, and there is a historical process of bidirectional and interactive evolution. From the perspective of world history, Taiwan is the base for pirates and the international trade transfer station in East Asian seas. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the East Asian seas was a stage where various political and economic forces compete between China and Japan. After new sea routes opened, and with the coming of European powers especially the Dutch and Spanishwho once occupied the south and north of Taiwan as a base for pirates trading, Taiwan’s role as an international trade transfer station in the East Asian seas was reinforced. From the perspective of Chinese history, Taiwan is also the gateway and barrier of South-eastern territorial seas. As early as the mid-to-late Ming Dynasty, Taiwan was included in the national defense area of South-eastern territorial seas. When Zheng Chenggong recovered Taiwan, Taiwan was turned into a territorial seas of the Nan Ming Dynasty. After Kangxi’s campaign for unification of Taiwan, Taiwan’s strategic position of gateway and barrier was further strengthened. Only in the period of dynasty change from Ming to Qing, especially after Kangxi’s campaign for unification of Taiwan, did Taiwan’s strategic position experience a complex process of interactive evolution—a fundamental transformation from a base for pirates trade and an international trade transfer station in the East Asian seas to the gateway and barrier of South-eastern territorial seas.
8. Inspect on the history of Chinese government’s setting institutes and jurisdiction over the South China Sea during the Republic of China
China's Borderland History and Geography Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,Vol 26,No. 08
During the Republic of China, the Chinese government set corresponding institutes and organizations timely to realize normal jurisdiction over South China Sea islands and their nearby waters. This administrative jurisdiction went through a historical course, and it was practical, continuing, peaceful, which showed that the Chinese government had undisputed sovereignty over South China Sea islands and nearby waters. These sovereignty activities reflected the continuity and consistency of Chinese government’s execution of jurisdiction, and constituted part of the administration, management, sovereignty execution of the Chinese government in past dynasties and periods, which provides a great deal of concrete historical basis and legal basis to safeguard China’s sovereignty over the South China Sea islands and solve the dispute.
9. South China Sea crisis and preventive diplomacy from a regional perspective: China’s strategic choice
Foreign Affairs Review,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,Vol 32,No. 09
Nowadays, the “delicate balance” in South China Sea has been broken and a new strategic balance has not yet been established. The features of the South China Sea issue and the developments in the South China Sea crisis, have led to the unavoidability of the conflicts in this area. It is indispensible to conduct preventive diplomacy in this area from a regional perspective, in aspects such as the goal, risk, means, regulations, and mechanism. In this way, the South China Sea crisis, which has been under unsafe conditions with increasing uncertainties for a long time, could be effectively and properly managed and controlled, and common awareness on preventive diplomacy among all the parties could be promoted. As a claiming country in the South China Sea dispute and a stakeholder in regional security, China should change its behavior pattern of passive response, and adopt both the “passive” and “active” ways, namely, preventive diplomacy and regional cooperation, with the agenda as a guide, so as to build multiple and multi-tier structures and processes.
10. Dilemma of the joint development of the South China Sea: a perspective of supply of regional public goods
Southeast Asian Affairs,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 10
The joint development of the South China Sea is typical regional cooperation. Full supply of and efficient regional public good determines the success of regional cooperation, which indicates that the joint development of the South China Sea is closely correlated with the supply of the regional public goods. The quantity and quality of supply of the regional public goods profoundly affect the process of development of the South China Sea. But, joint development of the South China Sea is in a dilemma because inefficient supply of public goods in the South China Sea region cannot provide the perquisites and driving forces for it, and fails to improve it. China must strengthen the supply of public goods in the South China Sea region. Optimizing the supply structure of region public goods in the region, improving the level of supply of public goods there and playing an important role in the supply of the regional public goods are the three preferential choices of China to overcome the dilemma of the joint development of the South China Sea.
11. Research of the guidebook on sailing directions in the South China Sea: take Su Deliu’s Genglubu as an example
China's Borderland History and Geography Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,Vol 26,No. 11
Genglubu (Manual of Sea Routes) is a sailing guidebook and a valued historical archive about South China Sea history and culture, which was recorded by the eastern coastal fishermen in Hainan Island—presented by Tanmen fishermen—in the long-term practice to develop the South China Sea and its islands. Through researching Genglubu, not only can we prove that the Chinese fishermen were the first to develop and manage the islands in the South China Sea, but can also find that the fishermen group who, aside from fishery production, also did frequent commercial trade to maintain close and frequent trade and cultural interaction with Southeast Asian countries in history. At the same time, researching and investigating the Genglubu and the history as well as culture of these fishermen have an important reference to understand and deal with the conflicts encountered by Chinese fishermen in the South China Sea.
Journal of Contemporary Asia-Pacific Studies,Part 3: Historical Research and Chinese Strategy,No. 12
The debate about whether the South China Sea is China’s core interest has been a hot button among scholars in recent years, and it is necessary to provide a clear explication of this issue. The six core interests identified in China’s peaceful development represent an abstract overview of China’s core interests. With respect to the specification of detailed core interests, they can only be assessed on a case-by-case basis. Through a review of China’s vision of its core interests, this paper argued that when taking a narrow view from the diplomatic perspective, “core interests” refer to China’s legitimate national interests which are vital but severely threatened by external forces. Consequently, China has to take a high-profile position and repeatedly state its positions to convey the harshest signal that it will never make any concessions and take the use of force off the table. The importance of an interest for a state’s survival, the modality in which the interest is manifested, and China’s overarching strategy are factors that should be referenced in assessing China’s specific core interests. The South China Sea contains China’s vital and legitimate national interests, yet pale in comparison to China’s three traditional core interests, of which Taiwan question is the classical example. As such, issuing declarations with respect to the South China Sea as a core interest will result in magnified threats and bring more losses than gains in strategy. In order to more effectively defend its interests in the South China Sea, China needs to transcend the notion of core interests, adopt a soft approach, yet take strong countermeasures when challenged. China should also explore new possibilities and ideas with respect to the notion of inclusive sovereignty and cooperative sharing.