Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences,2018,Vol 33,No. 01
Science and technology assessment plays a prominent role in science and technology management. It is not only the important task of think tank research but also the significant guarantee of think tank research quality. Nevertheless, the existing science and technology assessment methods are generally applied in part of the issues, which lacks the thinking and cognition of the whole process methodology of science and technology management from dialectics and systems theory, which is a common problem in the think tank research. Therefore, based on the Data–Information–Intelligence–Solution (DIIS) theory and methodology, this paper systematically analyzes the general laws followed by think tanks and consequently proposes a DIIS method of science and technology assessment. Furthermore, from the perspective of DIIS, six functions of science and technology assessment in the science and technology decision-making process are developed. Finally, in order to provide a guideline for the science and technology management and decision-making in China, this paper provides four examples to illustrate the applications of the science and technology DIIS methods, such as institution assessment, project assessment, policy assessment, and talent assessment.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences,2018,Vol 33,No. 12
With the in-depth exploration of think tank construction, the rational development of think tanks and the output of high-quality research results have received increasing attention in China. Nevertheless, the existing think tank research generally focuses on a part of a think tank problem, and it lacks systematic thinking and cognition of the whole process of think tank research. To this end, based on the principle of think tank Data–Information–Intelligence–Solution (DIIS), this study proposes a three-dimensional theoretical model of think tank DIIS from the perspectives of research process, think tank orientation, and methods and tools. Furthermore, the proposed model is analyzed from different views, including the front view of the research process and think tank orientation, the top view of the research process and methods and tools, and the left view of the methods and tools and think tank orientations. Through the research, this study aims to explore the systematic methodology of think tank research and make contributions to the construction of high-quality think tanks in China.
West Asia and Africa,2018,No. 01
Since modern times, as Western economies and military forces grow stronger, the Western political model has been widely copied by the non-Western world. But in the Islamic world, blindly following Western political systems triggered multiple negative effects. Firstly, the separation of church and state in the Islamic world led to the separation of the moral system and the legally constituted authority, as well as the internal frictions between secular and religious forces. Secondly, the shift from political centralization to decentralization led to the confusion about the system in the Islamic world. The Middle East upheaval at the end of 2010 is a failed experiment to follow the Western-style democracy. The political transformation in the Middle East has never been able to find solutions to three challenges: the contradiction between centralization and decentralization; the conflicts between secularity and religion; and the paradox between political transformation and economic development. It turns out that there is no political system suitable for all countries, and the political transformation requires the combination of traditional culture and advanced foreign culture in accordance with the national conditions.
The impact of industrial poverty alleviation strategies on the livelihoods and household incomes of the rural poor: an empirical analysis from Shaanxi Province
Chinese Rural Economy,2018,No. 01
This paper used a Probit model and coarsened exact matching to estimate the effect of industrial poverty alleviation strategies on the livelihoods and household incomes of the rural poor. The study employed survey data collected from 863 poor households in three counties and six towns in Shaanxi Province. It found that industrial poverty alleviation strategies had increased the proportion of poor households participating in agricultural cultivation and livestock breeding by 12% and 14%, respectively. However, no significant effect was found regarding the probability for the rural poor to be active in business or rural-urban migration. Moreover, under the poverty alleviation programs, household incomes from agricultural cultivation, livestock breeding and total household income had increased significantly while wage incomes had decreased. Meanwhile, no significant effect was found regarding business incomes and per capita household income. The results showed that industrial poverty alleviation strategies had brought good effects in increasing poor households’ incomes and reducing poverty. Poor households were found to allocate more time to farming activities and reduce time and frequency in business or rural-urban migration.
Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2018,Vol 42,No. 04
There are significant changes in precipitation over China under global warming. During 1951–2000, the precipitation experienced a period when its spatial distribution showed a pattern of “western wetting and eastern drying, WWED” in northern part of China and “southern flooding and northern drought, SFND” in eastern part of China. Does this distribution pattern of long-term precipitation change still maintain or change after 2001? Based on observations of monthly mean temperature, monthly mean precipitation, and calculated self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) and surface wetness index (SWI), the drying trend in China has been revisited. Results show that the wet–dry spatial distribution in China has been changing significantly after 2001. Over Northern China, the pattern of WWED switched to “western drying and eastern wetting, WDEW”; over Eastern China, the pattern of SFND changed to ‘southern drought and northern flooding, SDNF’ during 2001 to 2016. In central part of Northern China, precipitation trend switched from a decreasing trend to a significant increasing trend; precipitation in the upper and middle reaches of Yangtze River experienced a shift from significant increasing trend to a decreasing trend. However, according to the analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) data of The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the wet–dry pattern of SFND over Eastern China has not changed during 2001–2016, and the drying trend in northern China has been intensifying since 2001. This is opposite to the results shown in precipitation. The reason will be studied in the future.