West Asia and Africa,2018,No. 01
Since modern times, as Western economies and military forces grow stronger, the Western political model has been widely copied by the non-Western world. But in the Islamic world, blindly following Western political systems triggered multiple negative effects. Firstly, the separation of church and state in the Islamic world led to the separation of the moral system and the legally constituted authority, as well as the internal frictions between secular and religious forces. Secondly, the shift from political centralization to decentralization led to the confusion about the system in the Islamic world. The Middle East upheaval at the end of 2010 is a failed experiment to follow the Western-style democracy. The political transformation in the Middle East has never been able to find solutions to three challenges: the contradiction between centralization and decentralization; the conflicts between secularity and religion; and the paradox between political transformation and economic development. It turns out that there is no political system suitable for all countries, and the political transformation requires the combination of traditional culture and advanced foreign culture in accordance with the national conditions.
The impact of industrial poverty alleviation strategies on the livelihoods and household incomes of the rural poor: an empirical analysis from Shaanxi Province
Chinese Rural Economy,2018,No. 01
This paper used a Probit model and coarsened exact matching to estimate the effect of industrial poverty alleviation strategies on the livelihoods and household incomes of the rural poor. The study employed survey data collected from 863 poor households in three counties and six towns in Shaanxi Province. It found that industrial poverty alleviation strategies had increased the proportion of poor households participating in agricultural cultivation and livestock breeding by 12% and 14%, respectively. However, no significant effect was found regarding the probability for the rural poor to be active in business or rural-urban migration. Moreover, under the poverty alleviation programs, household incomes from agricultural cultivation, livestock breeding and total household income had increased significantly while wage incomes had decreased. Meanwhile, no significant effect was found regarding business incomes and per capita household income. The results showed that industrial poverty alleviation strategies had brought good effects in increasing poor households’ incomes and reducing poverty. Poor households were found to allocate more time to farming activities and reduce time and frequency in business or rural-urban migration.
Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2018,Vol 42,No. 04
There are significant changes in precipitation over China under global warming. During 1951–2000, the precipitation experienced a period when its spatial distribution showed a pattern of “western wetting and eastern drying, WWED” in northern part of China and “southern flooding and northern drought, SFND” in eastern part of China. Does this distribution pattern of long-term precipitation change still maintain or change after 2001? Based on observations of monthly mean temperature, monthly mean precipitation, and calculated self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) and surface wetness index (SWI), the drying trend in China has been revisited. Results show that the wet–dry spatial distribution in China has been changing significantly after 2001. Over Northern China, the pattern of WWED switched to “western drying and eastern wetting, WDEW”; over Eastern China, the pattern of SFND changed to ‘southern drought and northern flooding, SDNF’ during 2001 to 2016. In central part of Northern China, precipitation trend switched from a decreasing trend to a significant increasing trend; precipitation in the upper and middle reaches of Yangtze River experienced a shift from significant increasing trend to a decreasing trend. However, according to the analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) data of The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the wet–dry pattern of SFND over Eastern China has not changed during 2001–2016, and the drying trend in northern China has been intensifying since 2001. This is opposite to the results shown in precipitation. The reason will be studied in the future.
Effects of Radiative Forcing on Precipitation over Arid and Semi-arid Region in China Based on CCSM 4.0 Simulation
Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences,2018,Vol 42,No. 02
Based on long-term simulations of the Community Climate System Model version 4.0 (CCSM 4.0) forced by preindustrial (1850) and present (2000) radiative factors (e.g., greenhouse gases and aerosols, solar, and volcanic aerosols), effects of radiative forcing on precipitation over the arid and semi-arid region in China are investigated. The result shows that the model simulations can well capture the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of long-term mean precipitation despite certain biases in the simulations. There exists little difference in long-term precipitation trend between the simulations forced by the preindustrial and present radiations; however, regional mean difference in precipitation between the two simulations shows a 70–100-year quasi-periodic change. The simulation with present radiative forcing displays large amplitude in multi-decadal precipitation variation and obvious increases in the frequency of heavy and extreme precipitation. In contrast, the simulation with preindustrial radiative forcing shows a roughly 100-year quasi-periodic variation that is likely related to the solar magnetic activity cycle. Further analysis shows that the leading modes of multi-decadal precipitation variability forced by the preindustrial radiation are nearly consistent with those forced by the present radiation, while the present radiative forcing related to human activities can affect the interaction between the multi-decadal precipitation variability and tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly, which in turn modulates the amplitude of the multi-decadal precipitation variability over the arid and semi-arid region in China.
World Economics and Politics,2018,No. 10
China’s economic reform over the past 40 years has eliminated institutional barriers deterring the flow of factors of production, and in particular facilitated the exit of abundant laborers from low-productivity fields, the migration between rural and urban areas, across regions, and among industries, and the entry to high-productivity fields. Such a resource reallocation has not only created necessary conditions for high speed growth but also increased income of rural households by enhancing their labor participation in non-agricultural sectors, thus combining development and sharing. Paralleling to that holistically shared development, the Chinese government launched the national strategy of rural poverty alleviation in the second half of 1980s, showing its determination to fight against absolute poverty. As the development stage and poverty nature have changed over time, the strategy has gradually shifted its target from regional development to individual households, along with large-scale government inputs. The overall shared development and governments’ special efforts in reducing poverty have simultaneously helped China break the diminishing effect of poverty alleviation often seen elsewhere and achieve the internationally recognized success in poverty reduction. By narrating the process of reform and development, this paper begins with revealing the unique sources of China’s economic growth in the past four decades and shows its nature of sharing. It then reviews the implementation of the national strategy of rural poverty alleviation under the guidance of people-centered development idea. It summarizes main lessons of the poverty alleviation experience of China and draws implications to other developing countries. In conclusion, it points out new challenges facing China’s poverty reduction after the country meets its goal of zero rural poverty by the current poverty standard by 2020, and provides policy suggestions.