Film Art,2021,No. 02
Hi, Mom, a film written, directed, and starred by Jia Ling, has a strong personal imprint, but it evokes universal empathy and raises a series of thoughtful questions. Will Hi, Mom be a special case in the history of cinema? Does the film advocate a cheap success? Is the film a work of high artistic value or the family album and sketch collection? In the author’s opinion, the film, with a rather simple intuition, faces the living situation of women, and presents the process of women confronting existence through the creation and transforming the passive experience of accepting maternal love into the positive experience of creating love. This film adopts many sketch forms in its plots, but it is by no means a simple sketch collection in narration and structure.
Analysis of the differences in bitter and astringent substances in the pellicle of different walnut varieties
Journal of Fruit Science,2021,Vol 38,No. 02
[Objective] The pellicle is the key part that causes the bitter and astringent taste of walnut kernels. In order to find out the main bitter and astringent substances in walnut pellicle and find varieties with light bitter and astringent taste, we compared the differences in bitter and astringent substances in walnut pellicle among different walnut varieties. [Methods] Sensory evaluation was conducted on the taste quality of fresh walnut kernels and pellicle in the early stage, and the water extract of pellicle was tested using electronic tongue. In this study, fruits of five walnut varieties (‘Zhonglin 3’, ‘Jing 861’, ‘Xiangling’, ‘Bokexiang’ and ‘Nonghe 1’) were selected as the test materials at mature stage. The total tannin content was determined by the Folin colorimetric method, and the content of bitter and astringent substances such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and alkaloids were determined by HPLC. The obtained data were processed using SPSS 23.0 software for correlation analysis and principal component analysis was conducted using SAS 8.0 software. [Results] The total tannin content was highest in ‘Zhonglin 3’ and lowest in ‘Nonghe 1’. The tannin content in ‘Zhonglin 3’ was 2.62 times that in ‘Nonghe 1’. The content of different phenolic acids was in a descending order of gallic acid > caffeic acid > chlorogenic acid > ferulic acid > vanillic acid > ellagic acid > p-coumaric acid > syringic acid, and total phenolic acid in ‘Zhonglin 3’ was significantly higher than the other varieties ( p < 0.05). The content of rutin in ‘Xiangling’, ‘Zhonglin 3’ and ‘Jing 861’ was significantly higher than in the other varieties ( p < 0.05); catechins from high to low were catechin, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate. ‘Zhonglin 3’ and ‘Jing861’ had a significantly higher content of catechins than the other varieties ( p < 0.05), and the total amount of catechins and ester catechins in ‘Nonghe 1’ was the lowest. As for alkaloids, theobromine was not detected in any varieties, and the content of caffeine was significantly higher than that of theophylline in all the varieties. The caffeine content in ‘Bokexiang’ was significantly higher than in the other varieties ( p < 0.05). The content of theophylline in ‘Zhonglin 3’ was significantly higher than that in the other varieties ( p < 0.05), and the content of caffeine and theophylline in ‘Nonghe 1’ was the lowest. Correlation analysis showed that all bitter and astringent substances were positively correlated with bitterness and astringency, and there was a significant positive correlation between gallocatechin and bitterness, and coumaric acid, epicatechin, and epicatechin gallate were significantly positively correlated with bitterness. Total tannins, epicatechins and astringency are significantly positively correlated. These indicated that all the bitter and astringent substances tested in this study contributed to bitterness and astringency. Among them, gallocatechin, coumaric acid, epicatechin and epicatechin gallate contributed more to bitterness, while total tannin and epicatechin contributed more to astringency. The result of principal component analysis showed that the cumulative contribution rate of the two principal components was 83.08%, which contained 83.08% of the bitterness and astringency index. The first principal component could be interpreted as the “total bitterness” factor. All bitter and astringent substances contributed to the first principal component, among them, the contribution of epicatechin, total tannins, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate and theophylline were greater. The second principal component could be interpreted as a “bitter structure” factor, which included coumaric acid, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, and caffeine. According to the score of the first principal component, the taste could be divided into two categories: lighter and heavier bitterness and astringency. ‘Nonghe 1’ and ‘Bokexiang’ had lighter bitterness, and ‘Zhonglin 3’, ‘Jing861’ and ‘Xiangling’ had heaver bitterness and astringency. According to the score of the second principal component, the varieties with astringent taste greater than bitter taste were ‘Nonghe 1’, ‘Xiangling’ and ‘Jing 861’, and the varieties with bitter taste greater than astringent taste were ‘Bokexiang’ and ‘Zhonglin 3’. From the results of the principal component analysis, it could be seen that the total tannin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, caffeine and other substances basically contain bitterness and astringency information of walnut pellicle. [Conclusion] Total tannin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine are the main substances that affect the bitter taste of walnut pellicle. In terms of taste intensity, ‘Zhonglin3’ is the highest, ‘Nonghe 1’ the lowest. This provides inspiration for future research on the taste quality of walnut pellicle and the selection of walnut varieties with lower bitterness and astringency. ‘Nonghe 1’ has the lightest bitterness and astringency, so it can be used as an important material for walnut breeding and can be promoted to meet the needs of consumers.
Expert consensus on the dose-effect relationship of physical exercise delaying cognitive decline in the elderly
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
With the increasing degree of aging, the cognitive decline of the elderly has become a global public health problem. A large number of clinical experiments and meta-analyses have confirmed that physical exercise can improve the cognitive function of the elderly. In December 2017, the American Academy of Neurology formally recommended physical exercise as an intervention for mild cognitive impairment. In 2018, physical exercise was written into the American physical activity guideline for the first time as an effective means to improve cognitive function. Although we have reached a consensus that physical exercise can improve cognitive function, the dose-effect relationship between physical exercise prescription (exercise type, duration, intensity, and frequency) and cognitive function is still not clear. There is an urgent need for clinicians and researchers to formulate a guideline for physical exercise to delay cognitive decline. Therefore, experts and scholars from universities and hospitals across the country jointly write the expert consensus on physical exercise to delay the cognitive decline of the elderly. We searched five electronic databases for randomized controlled trials of physical exercise interventions on cognitive function in the elderly. We graded the included literature according to evidence level and recommendations grades of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine and analyzed the effect of physical exercise on cognitive function. Finally, an expert consensus on the dose-effect relationship of physical exercise delaying cognitive decline was written. Aerobic exercise has a better effect on executive function. The recommended program is 3 times a week with moderate intensity, which lasts 30–60 minutes each time within 12–24 weeks. Resistance exercise has a better effect on executive function. The recommended program is 2 times a week with moderate and high intensity, which lasts 60 minutes each time within 24 weeks. Multi-component exercise has a better effect on the global cognitive function, memory function, and executive function. The recommended program is 3–4 times a week with moderate intensity, which lasts 30–60 minutes each time within 12–24 weeks. Traditional Chinese national sports have a better effect on global cognitive function. The recommended program is more than 3–5 times a week with moderate intensity, which lasts 30–60 minutes each time within 12–24 weeks.
Research development of mitochondrial-mediated skeletal muscle remodeling in exercise against cancer cachexia
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
Cancer cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome characterized by progressive weight loss and muscle loss, with energy depletion, inflammation and loss of muscle mass as the main features. Cancer cachexia is the most common of these and is responsible for 20% of deaths in cancer patients. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the prevention of cancer cachexia. In this paper, a literature review was conducted using the keywords including exercise, cachexia, mitochondria and myasthenia gravis, and a comprehensive analysis revealed that skeletal muscle energy depletion, inflammatory response and muscle mass loss in cancer cachexia were associated with mitochondrial abnormalities. Myasthenia was associated with reduced mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, increased mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and mitochondrial dysfunction in the cachectic state. Moreover, disorders of energy metabolism, secretion of pro-inflammatory factors and protein degradation interact with mitochondria as the center to form a tumor microenvironment, accelerating muscle cell apoptosis and muscle fiber damage, and aggravating the development of cachexia muscle atrophy. Therefore, it is important to repair the structure and function of mitochondria in cachectic state and reshape the mitochondrial normal network counteracting cancer cachexia. In turn, the key to repairing mitochondria in cachectic state is to rebuild mitochondrial quality control. The mechanism is that exercise increases the number and quality of mitochondria through PGC-1a, increases the aerobic oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, inhibits lactate production, and rebuilds a benign myogenic environment to counteract cachexia. Mitochondrial autophagy was regulated by PGC-1a to remove damaged mitochondria and repair damaged mitochondria in skeletal muscle in cachexia, thereby restoring muscle function. Exercise reverses the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by IL-6, desensitizes skeletal muscle to the cachexia inflammatory environment, so that skeletal muscle is not affected by tumor microenvironment, and then restores the normal function of myocyte components including mitochondria. Studies have shown that regular exercise significantly reduces ubiquitination activity, inhibits protein degradation of skeletal muscle and mediates atrophy. In conclusion, in the cachectic microenvironment, exercise maintains skeletal muscle metabolic homeostasis and reverses atrophy by remodeling mitochondria, but questions remain to be addressed: it is different for lactate from skeletal muscle or tumor in energy metabolism, and the relationship between them needs to be further clarified. Protein ubiquitination plays a key role in the development of cachectic muscle atrophy and in maintaining mitochondrial function. How exercise regulates mitochondrial ubiquitination and thus prevents the development of muscle atrophy in a cachectic state needs to be further investigated. Furthermore, exercise interventions as a therapeutic tool face enormous challenges. Therefore, it is important to provide personal and effective exercise prescription for patients with cancer cachexia at an early stage.
Query and clarification: the intensity correlation of school physical education health pursuit based on reflection of physical education curriculum teaching on specific exercise intensity
Journal of Shanghai University of Sport,2021,Vol 45,No. 01
The suggestions or requirements regarding specific exercise intensity (the average exercise intensity of 140–160 beats/minutes per lesson) in the relevant documents and practices, which are widely used as the evaluation requirements and indicators of the physical education curriculum teaching (especially open class), have become important representations of school physical education in China. They are assumed to be moderate-to-high exercise intensity, and are largely based on health (including physical fitness and physical performance) assumption and effect. This study focuses on the problems and dilemmas associated with the pursuit of health and specific exercise intensity in school sports. Through literature examination, logical reflection, and value analysis, it clarifies the different logics and orientations of specific exercise intensity, health pursuit, and physical education, and provides theoretical and value resources for school sports to better implement the guiding ideology of “health first” and deepen related reforms. This paper has the following findings. (1) The given exercise intensity cannot meet the health pursuit of school physical education. First, the inappropriate introduction of fitness or physical activity intensity into school physical education (mainly physical education curriculum instruction) is a one-sided and misplaced health orientation. For example, the heart rate intensity cannot reveal the health value of different forms of exercise, which is mainly related to cardiopulmonary endurance but has no necessary relationship with other physical fitness. Many events of school physical education will exceed the limit of appropriate intensity, and the unified intensity requirements are in a lack of individual pertinence. Second, the implied defect may appear in average heart rate requirements, but its low and high intensity may not be the appropriate intensity for fitness or physical activity. Due to the existence of a large number of low-intensity teaching processes and content in physical education teaching, the practice of averaging the low and high intensity in order to meet the requirements of the average heart rate intensity of the whole class may violate the health assumption under the moderate-to-high intensity. Third, the heart rate intensity is not directly and necessarily related to physical fitness improvement. but more of a reference index for endurance development. (2) The given exercise intensity is not compatible with the essence and regulation of physical education teaching. Under the regulation of average (medium and high) intensity, the compensation of high intensity to low intensity is limited and unreasonable, which makes the low-intensity teaching process, specific situations, low-intensity events in a given period and moral education in physical education excluded or ignored. This paper provides the following suggestions. (1) Suggestions or requirements for specific exercise intensities in relevant documents and practices are a misinterpretation and misapplication of moderate-to-high intensity for fitness or physical activity, including a narrow and average interpretation of appropriate moderate-to-high intensities and limiting physical education classes to per-class requirements. (2) The specific exercise intensity is not necessary for the development of physical strength, technical ability, and sports morality, and thus it should not be regarded as the unified requirement of curriculum teaching in physical education. (3) The intensity requirements of curriculum teaching in physical education should keep tension with the health orientation, the internal regulation of physical education teaching and its multidimensional values, and even go beyond the assumption and limitation of health, including the re-examination and re-positioning of “health first.” In addition, the mistakes and problems in the relevant evidential literature of specific exercise intensity were examined in this paper, and the consideration factors of the specific application of exercise intensity in curriculum teaching in physical education were put forward. For example, it is not suitable to debase the low-intensity sports events and teaching process in physical education as the labeled and unqualified physical education teaching.
The mystery of high capital occupation and low asset-liability ratio of Chinese listed central enterprises: based on the perspective of financing trade
Studies of International Finance,2021,No. 03
According to the traditional theory of capital occupation, capital occupation will lead enterprises to borrow money and improve their asset-liability ratio. However, the data from 2008 to 2016 show that the phenomenon of high capital occupation and low asset-liability ratio exists in listed central enterprises, which is inconsistent with the traditional capital occupation theory. What causes high capital occupation and low asset-liability ratio in listed central enterprises? In the literature review, the financing trade behavior of some central enterprises is included in the study. Enterprises that carry out financing trade finance in the name of trade. They use false trade behaviors to cover up capital flows among enterprises to realize inter-enterprise capital borrowing. Sufficient capital providers provide financing to capital demanders, thus obtaining huge profits. It is worth noting that enterprises engaged in financing trade will show large capital occupation scale, and may also affect the asset-liability ratio of enterprises in theory. Therefore, financing trade may be an important reason for high capital occupation and low asset-liability ratio of listed central enterprises. Using the China Stock Market & Accounting Research Database , global statistical databases and financing trade data, this paper studies the internal logical relationship between financing trade and the mystery of high capital occupation and low asset-liability ratio of listed central enterprises after 2008. We obtain the following results through empirical studies. First, the financing trade will significantly increase the capital occupation of enterprises, but it will not cause a significant increase in asset-liability ratio through the micro-transmission channels of capital occupation. Second, enterprises that carry out financing trade will have a two-way self-locking effect. On the one hand, financing trade increases capital occupation; on the other hand, financing trade negatively regulates and even blocks the positive influence of capital occupation on enterprises’ external borrowing. This is related to the spontaneity and planning of capital occupation by enterprises engaged in financing trade, which is the main reason of high capital occupation and low asset-liability ratio of listed central enterprises. Compared with the existing research, this paper makes expansions in the following two aspects. First, the previous studies have not made empirical research on the relationship between financing trade and capital occupation and asset-liability ratio of central enterprises. However, this paper brings financing trade, a major enterprise behavior that can affect capital occupation and asset-liability ratio of central enterprises during the reporting period, into the research perspective and makes an empirical test. Second, by using the natural language processing method, combining with the financial data of listed central enterprises in China, the legal data of wenshu.court.gov.cn and macroeconomic data, this paper sorts out the financing trade enterprises and cases, and establishes links with the data of listed companies. The conclusion of this paper enriches the theory of capital occupation closely related to the asset-liability ratio of enterprises, verifies the two-way self-locking effect of financing trade on the micro-mechanism of capital occupation theory, and provides an important reference for the research in accounting, finance and other fields with asset-liability ratio as the main variable. At the same time, the analysis of financing trade and financial characteristics of enterprises in this paper can provide reference for the government to identify financing trade enterprises and prevent business risks.
Official tenure, yardstick competition and local government S&T expenditure: new evidence based on Chinese municipalities data and two-regime spatial Durbin model
R&D Management,2020,Vol 32,No. 06
Based on the data of prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2016, this paper used the tenure of officials to analyze the impact of promotion incentives on local government S&T expenditure. The results show that under the multi-dimensional performance appraisal, local officials strategically arrange government S&T expenditure during their term of office, and the relationship between their tenure and local government S&T expenditure is U-shaped, and the turning point occurs in the fifth to sixth year of their tenure. In addition, under the promotion incentive, the local government has significant complementary strategic interaction in S&T expenditure, and the response coefficient of government S&T expenditure in the first term of office is significantly higher than that in the second term of office, that is, when the promotion incentive is stronger, the competition of local government S&T expenditure is more intense. This shows that under the relative performance appraisal mode, the local government S&T expenditure response coefficient is significantly higher than that of the official second term. Local officials carry out yardstick competition around S&T innovation, increase government investment in S&T innovation, and improve the structure of government expenditure.
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management,2020,Vol 34,No. 05
With the increasing demand for resources and growing consciousness on environment protection, more and more countries have attached importance to the resource recycling industry. The first step involves the collection and disposal of waste. However, in China, the formal recycling industry at present is still in its infancy. The market capacity of end-of-life products is relatively limited, and domestic consumers have a low awareness of formal recycling corporations. The government needs to subsidize the formal recyclers and design a reasonable and effective incentive mechanism to encourage them to improve their effort of collection and disposal as well as reflect their real ability. In this paper, we designed an incentive contract between the government and two recycling enterprises in a duopolistic market based on the incentive theory. Thus, we can get the realistic prerequisite of screening contracts and analyze the influence of competition degree and other factors on the government’s utility and recyclers’ benefits. Although much literature concentrates on the issue of coordinating strategy and profit distribution between government and enterprises, only little research investigates the incentive contracts used by the government and the enterprises for adverse selection and moral hazards under asymmetric information. In our model, the government acts as the principal, and the two competing duopolistic recyclers are agents. Taking the recycling capacity of recyclers as asymmetric information under the adverse selection, the degree of effort as hidden information under moral hazards, the government designs an incentive contract to identify the real type of the two recyclers and encourage them to improve recycling capacity. The analysis shows that the realistic prerequisite of a pooling contract or screening contract is related to the derivative of the government subsidy to the recycler’s capacity. The factors such as the cost of enterprises’ efforts, coefficient of absolute risk aversion, the standard deviation of exterior uncertainties, competition degree, and recycling market conditions, are also discussed in detail. We elaborated on the relationships among the expected utility of government, the expected profit of recyclers, and the recyclers’ recycling capacity under the two types of contracts based on a numerical analysis. The results indicate that the screening contract is more efficient in screening the type of recyclers and offers them higher revenue than the pooling contract does. The enterprise with higher ability is provided with more allowance and gains more benefits for both government and itself. Besides, the fiercer competition among the industry comes with fewer subsidies that the government gives to the two duopolistic enterprises. In summary, our research provides guidance for the development of the resource recycling industry in China. The conclusions and proposals provide a reference for the government on how to identify and inspire the recycling companies to enhance recycling ability.
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management,2020,Vol 34,No. 05
As one of the three major factors of project management, the construction schedule directly affects the project function and income. Therefore, schedule control is significantly crucial in program management and is the key to the realization of the program objectives. Among the main schedule control measures, economic incentives are the most acceptable measure to contractors. Furthermore, relevant research shows that the effective incentive mechanism can promote the control and optimization of the program schedule to a certain extent. The existing program schedule incentives generally employ linear incentive measures. The model can perform an incentive role in project optimization with low engineering complexity and small project. Especially in single projects or projects with a short project schedule, it is an applicable incentive measure for the project owner. However, because of the cyclical characteristics of the program income caused by a complex external environment, the threshold effect of the owner’s incentive will become a nonlinear increase of the cost caused by the accelerated progress of projects. Therefore, using the linear incentive method for program schedule control is the obvious disadvantage. To this end, it is necessary to construct a nonlinear incentive model that matches the characteristics of the program schedule. Firstly, according to the four components of the program schedule incentive, the paper discussed the characteristics of the linear incentive model of the program schedule from four aspects, namely, the income brought by schedule control, the cost of accelerating the program schedule, the incentive of the owner, and the effort level of the contractor. The discussion shows the shortcomings of the incentive model, that is, the incentive method does not match the income brought by schedule control and the cost of accelerating the program schedule, which may lead to insufficient incentive effect and contractor risk preference. Secondly, this paper analyzed the theoretical basis of the nonlinear incentive of the program schedule, established an analytical framework with the principal-agent theory, and demonstrated the nonlinear relationship between program schedule and incentives through interest convergence and entrenchment defensive hypothesis. Meanwhile, the two main nonlinear incentive models show the characteristics and shortcomings in detail. Furthermore, three goals were proposed for a reasonable program incentive model. According to this, this paper explained reasons that the existing marginal increase and marginal diminishing incentive models do not apply to actual engineering. Thirdly, this paper analyzed the nonlinear incentive mechanism and characteristics of the program schedule and concluded that there is an N-type nonlinear relationship between the amount of program schedule in advance and the number of incentives. That is to say, the incentive amount possesses the N-curve characteristic with the program schedule in advance, a marginal decrease after a marginal increase. Through the simulation of the N-curve form, a quantified model of incentive is obtained. In addition, this paper also deeply analyzed the two stages of the N-type nonlinear incentive model. Finally, the critical path method (CPM) was introduced to analyze the impact of the contract project schedule on the program schedule. Based on the above analysis, the nonlinear incentive model of the program schedule was constructed, and the program in the South-to-North Water Diversion Project was studied as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The research results show that considering the impact of the external operating environment of the program and the expectation of the owner’s program schedule in advance, there is a nonlinear relationship between the project schedule and the incentive. In other words, the incentive amount is characterized by a marginal increase, followed by a marginal decrease with the program schedule in advance. The nonlinear incentive model constructed in this paper demonstrates unique advantages in the two stages of incentive effect and defensive effect. The model guarantees the sufficiency of incentive utility through the design of marginal increment mode. Also, the model introduces the highest incentive amount and marginal decline mode to control contractors’ risk preference. The model can help overcome the problem of insufficient incentive effect and uncontrolled contractor’s excessive pursuit of schedule targets in the linear incentive model. The case study shows the result that under the same amount of program schedule in advance, the amount of incentive for the nonlinear model is significantly reduced compared with the linear model. To a certain extent, the research results can provide a theoretical basis for the design of the incentive mechanism for the program schedule and the formulation of the incentive clause for the construction contract.