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针刺双向调节效应及可能机制

潘卫星1

(1.霍华德·休斯医学研究所/杰尼列研究校区, 弗吉尼亚州阿什本市20147美国)

【摘要】针刺对机体机能的调节作用及其机制研究已积累了大量资料,并引起国际生物医学界的兴趣。针刺双向调节效应即相同穴位相同刺激对系统功能亢进或低下状态均可产生纠正作用,是中国生物医学工作者多年来在不同实验研究中观察到的机能调节现象。此现象近年也被国际同行观察到。针刺双向调节效应多见于病理状态的事实提示,外周神经刺激产生的生物调节效应在生理状态与病理状态下的反应模式不尽相同,其即刻效应与长时效应的机制也不同。这不仅对针刺疗法及其疗效的理解和发展有重要意义,而且对生物调控过程本身的认识有所启示。本文从针刺效应之靶系统固有特性、靶系统功能状态、穴位特性及刺激参数等4个方面总结了针刺双向调节效应的基本特点和产生条件,并从外周纤维类型和中枢适应性调节两个关键环节分析针刺双向调节效应的可能机制。不同类型的外周神经纤维刺激后可产生相反的调节效应,若针刺混合纤维,则可能在不同病理状态下显示不同方向的效应。针刺也可能通过激发中枢适应性控制机制调节各生理系统的负反馈功能而表现出双向调节效应。

【关键词】 针刺;双向调节;稳态;应变稳态;适应性调节;

【DOI】

Bidirectional regulation of acupuncture and its plausible mechanisms

PAN Wei-xing1

(1.Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, the US)

【Abstract】The regulation of body function by acupuncture as well as the mechanism itself has been studied extensively. The most interesting feature of acupuncture is its ability to bidirectionally regulate the body’s homeostatic values either in hyper- or hypofunctional states, which has been confirmed by Chinese biomedical researchers over the past decades and also has been observed by their peers internationally. Acupuncture can produce two physiological responses, an immediate short-term response and/or a long-lasting response. The bidirectional regulatory effects of acupuncture are rarely observed under physiological conditions (normal homeostasis), but usually observed in pathological states (abnormal homeostasis) with long-lasting responses. This suggests that the effects of acupuncture under pathological conditions are different from those under physiological conditions, which is important for understanding and developing acupuncture therapy and gives insight into the biological control itself. The present paper reviews experimental literature and discusses the four conditions that produce bidirectional regulation of acupuncture, namely, the inherent characteristics of the target system, the functional status of the target system, the acupoint characteristics, and the stimulation parameters. Finally, two hypotheses are proposed to explain the mechanisms underlying bidirectional effects of acupuncture. The possible peripheral mechanism proposes that acupuncture can stimulate different types of peripheral nerve fibers to produce opposite regulatory effects. The possible central mechanism proposes that acupuncture might activate the adaptive control of the central nervous system to restore homeostatic balance.

【Keywords】 Acupuncture; Bidirectional regulation; Homeostasis; Allostasis; Adaptive regulation;

【DOI】

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This Article

ISSN:1000-0607

CN:11-2274/R

Vol 44, No. 11, Pages 843-853

November 2019

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Concept for bidirectional regulation of acupuncture
  • 2 Bidirectional regulation of acupuncture
  • 3 Mechanism of acupuncture for bidirectional regulation
  • 4 Summary
  • References