A study on the topic maker auxiliary “硬” in the dialect of Miluo of Hunan Province of China and its grammaticalization sourcesJul. 17,2019
The function and character of “硬” The Chinese character "硬 [?io? 21]yang departing "(translated as “啊”in mandarin) is used as topic maker auxiliary in dialect of Miluo (Changle) in Hunan Province of China. The examples are as follows: (1) a. 老人家硬好客气! (老人家啊好客气!) b. 老人家好客气! Translation: What a man of hospitality! (2) a. 修条路硬要几万. (修条路啊要几万.) b. 修条路要几万.Translation: It is tens of thousands Yuan that will be used in mending the road!It distinguish between theme and rheme (“老人家”( the old); “修条路”(build a road)) to emphasize important information of rheme (“好客气”(hospitality); “要几万”(tens of thousands Yuan)). Thus, this word will appear in declarative sentences in stressing tones and exclamatory sentences.
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