Journal of Inorganic Materials,Vol 32,No. 01
A polymer electrolyte using agarose as polymer matrix, NMP as solvent and deep eutectic solvent (DES) as modifier was investigated and employed in quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) of which the DES was composed of urea and choline chloride. The ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes with different urea/choline chloride ratios was studied. It was found that the maximum ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte was obtained at urea/choline chloride ratio of 2:1. Under the optimal urea/choline chloride ratio condition, the electrochemical properties of the polymer electrolytes and the photoelectric properties were systematically characterized by photoelectric tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that both the ionic conductivity of electrolyte and the photoelectric performances of the DSSC were optimized with DES content of 20 wt%, where the photoelectric parameters were as follows: Voc at 0.59 V, Jsc at 10.28 mA/cm 2, FF at 0.51, and the cell efficiency at 3.18%.
Microbiology China,Vol 46,No. 01
[Background] The majority of studies on microbial contamination in drinking water focus on bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms, but less on fungi. We should also pay attention to fungi that contains a variety of potential pathogenic groups. [Objective] To study the changes in population and community structure of fungi and potential pathogenic fungi that may exist in urban water supply systems. [Methods] Two culture media (MEA and RB) were used to study the raw water, the purified water from two waterworks and the tap water from different secondary water supply modes in water supply systems. The total DNA of the above samples was extracted and the Illumina MiSeq platform was used for high-throughput sequencing of the ITS1 gene. [Results] According to the high-throughput sequencing data, 579 470 effective sequences and 1 260 OTUs were obtained from 15 samples. The 228 fungal genera belong to 67 orders, 26 classes, and 8 phyla. The dominance of Ascomycota in water supply systems and fungal genera such as Aspergillus and Acremonium were present in all samples but the rest was varied from samples to samples. The results of culture dependent and high-throughput sequencing showed that the population and species richness of fungi rose after filtering by biological activated carbon. Chlorination had a significant effect on the quantity, diversity and community of fungi. After passing through the water distribution systems and secondary water supply facilities, tap water sample showed significantly higher data in the quantity and species richness of fungi than effluent water. [Conclusion] The dominant fungi in the water supply system belong to Ascomycota and the dormant fungal spore can penetrate the multi-stage barriers in the water treatment process. The water purification process can effectively remove culturable fungi from water, and the biological activated carbon filtration process can lead a fungus leakage. Water supply pipelines and secondary water supply facilities are important sources of fungal contamination in drinking water and potentially pathogenic fungi that can cause infections exist in water supply systems.
Clinical trials of acupuncture of Jiaji (EX-B2) for treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients
Acupuncture Research,Vol 44,No. 01
Objective To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of acupuncture of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B2) in the treatment of gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients, aiming at providing new clinical approach and evidence for improving septic gastrointestinal activity. Methods A total of 40 patients with septic gastrointestinal dysfunction who met our inclusive criteria were randomly divided into a control group and a treatment group ( n = 20 cases in each). Patients in the control group received routine treatment of nasogastric mosapride citrate (5 mg/time, three times a day) and tifidobacterium triple viable capsules (420 mg, twice a day), intravenous infusion of omeprazole (40 mg, twice a day), rational dose of antibiotics, maintenance treatment of functions of the heart, lung, brain, kidney and other important organs and water electrolyte balance, as well as symptomatic treatment. Patients of the treatment group were treated by acupuncture of EX-B2 on the basis of routine treatment mentioned above in the control group. The acupuncture needle was inserted into EX-B2, twirled for a while and retained for 30 min, once a day for ten successive days. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) score was given according to Knaus and colleagues’ method, the intra-abdominal pressure was detected by using a manometer which was connected to an inserted canal in the urinary bladder, and the intragatric residul volume detected by using an injection syriange pumping via a nasal feeding tube. Results After the treatment, the APACHE II score, intra-abdominal pressure and intragastric residual volume on day 10 were significantly decreased in both groups in comparison with their own pre-treatment ( P < 0.05) , while the borborygmus levels on day 10 were considerably increased in both groups relevant to their own pre-treatment ( P < 0.05) .The APACHE II scores, intra-abdominal pressure and intragastric residual volume on day 3, 6 and 10 were significantly lower in the treatment group than those in the control group ( P < 0.05), whereas the borborygmus levels at the 3 rd, 6 th and 10 th day in the treatment group were apparently higher than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Acupuncture stimulation of EX-B2 has a good curative effect in improving gastrointestinal dysfunction in sepsis patients.
Journal of China Coal Society,Vol 44,No. 01
A total 1 357 items of in-situ stress measurement data in Chinese underground coal mines were collected, which include the data obtained by hydraulic fracturing methods with small boreholes applied by Mining Branch, China Coal Research Institute, and those from overcoring and hydraulic fracturing methods by other companies and organizations. The in-situ stress database of Chinese underground coal mines was established on the basis of those data, and the in-situ stress map for Chinese underground coal mines was drawn. The in-situ stress distribution features and its influence factors were studied. The achievements are as follows: ① the buried depth of measurement sites is an important factor affecting the in-situ stresses in underground coal mines. In general, the vertical stress increases with depth, as some discreteness of stress data exists. The maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses also increase with depth; however, the discreteness of stress data is obviously greater than that of vertical stresses, and the increasing rate of horizontal stresses with depth is smaller than that of vertical stresses. ② The stress is mainly of the thrust type ( σH > σh > σV) in a shallow coal mine, and the normal type ( σV > σH > σh) in an ultra-kilometer deep, while it is mainly of the slip type ( σH > σV > σh) with depth in between. ③ The ratios of horizontal stresses to vertical stresses, including those of maximum, minimum and average horizontal principal stresses to vertical stresses, and those of the difference between the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to vertical stresses, distribute in a broad range with greater discreteness when depth is small. As the depth increases, the discreteness of these ratios gradually decreases and the ratios tend to approach constant values. ④ The stress statistical results of four strata with different lithology, namely siltstone, fine sandstone, mud sandstone and mudstone, point out that, in general, the larger rock strength can lead to the higher horizontal stresses the rock bears. ⑤ The rock with higher elastic modulus bears larger horizontal stresses. However, the soft and fractured rock with lower elastic modulus bears less horizontal stresses.
Acta Psychologica Sinica,Vol 50,No. 03
Amount of historical anecdotes suggest that the heuristic prototype is an effective method to get insight. The prototype heuristic theory suppose that insight obtain when people activate a prototypical example in nature and apply it to the problem at hand. In the real life, people often encounter a problem and then a heuristic prototype help them solve this problem. Some previous studies used the quartering problem and demonstrated that the automatic activation of prototype was the key process of prototype heuristic. However, this relationship was needed to test with real-life scientific innovation problems. Moreover, the mechanism of prototype activation also needed to explore further. Thus, current study used two experiments to test the cognitive mechanism of the prototype activation with real-life scientific innovation materials. In Experiment 1, 48 participants were recruited to complete the prototype heuristic task. There were two stages in this task. In the first stage, participants needed to learn ten scientific problems that were randomly presented. They should press some buttons to indicate whether they have some knowledge of these problems. In the second stage, ten prototypes were presented and participants should first write which scientific problem learnt in the first stages could be solved by the current prototype. Then, participants needed to write how to solve the previous scientific problem with current prototype. The dependent variables were the prototype activation and the accuracy of the problem solving. In Experiment 2, 47 participants completed the prototype heuristic task. The procedure was the same with that in Experiment 1 and the prototype activation was the dependent variable. In Experiment 1, a regression analysis was conducted. In this analysis, the problem activation was the independent variable and the accuracy of the problem solving was the dependent variable. The result of the regression analysis was R2 = 0.93, p < 0.001. This result suggested that the problem activation was the key process of problem solving. The results of Experiment 2 showed that retrieval of the key words of the scientific problem significantly influenced the association of the problem and the prototype, t(44) = 27.677, p < 0.001. Moreover, match of the key words of the prototype and scientific problem significantly influenced the activation of the problem, t(44) = 8. 744, p < 0.001. In addition, semantic similarity between the key words of the scientific problem and the prototype was significantly correlated with the problem activation, r = 0.202, p < 0. 5. The results also showed that the difficulty of the prototype significantly influenced the problem activation, F(2, 132) = 96.73, p < 0. 01, η 2p = 0.594. In summary, the results suggest that the problem activation was the key process in the real-life problem solving enhanced by heuristic prototype. The semantic similarity between the feature function of the prototype and the demand function of the problem is the mechanism of the problem activation.