Relationship between hypertension and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among adult residents in Hainan Province: A prospective cohort study
Chinese Journal of Public Health,Vol 35,No. 08
Objective To explore the relationship of hypertension with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among adult residents in Hainan Province and to provide references for the prevention and control of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study among 30 000 residents aged 30–79 years selected with cluster sampling in Meilan District of Hainan Province. The baseline survey for the study was performed from June 2005 to July 2008 and then a long-term follow-up was conducted among the residents. Univariate and multivariate Cox regressions were used to analyze the association of hypertension with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among the residents. Results Among all the residents, 309 deaths were observed and only 3 (0.01%) were lost to follow-up till December 31, 2013; and the follow-up time ranged from 0 to 9 years and the mean time was 6.7 ± 1.4 years, with a total of 175 667 person years of follow-up. By the end of the follow-up, the incidents and accumulated incidence rate were 2 824 and 10.8% for cardiovascular diseases, 669 and 2.6% for ischemic heart disease, 2 059 and 7.8% for cerebrovascular diseases, 91 and 0.4% for haemorrhagic stroke, and 1 716 and 6.5% for ischaemic stroke, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that compared with the residents with normal blood pressure, the residents with hypertension had significantly increased risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases after adjusting for gender, age, education, marital status, smoking, alcohol drinking, diabetes, familial cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease history, body mass index (BMI), and other confounding factors, with the hazard ratios ( HRs) (95% confidence interval [95% CI]) of 2.76 (1.77–4.29) for haemorrhagic stroke, 1.25 (1.06–1.49) for ischemic heart disease, 1.19 (1.10–1.30) for cardiovascular disease, 1.15 (1.04–1.27) for cerebrovascular disease, and 1.11 (1.00–1.23) for ischemic stroke, respectively. The residents with isolated systolic hypertension had significantly increased risks of haemorrhagic stroke ( HR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.07–3.00), ischemic heart disease (1.23, 1.01–1.50), and cardiovascular disease (1.15, 1.04–1.27). The residents with systolic-diastolic hypertension had significantly increased risks of haemorrhagic stroke ( HR = 3.84, 95% CI: 2.14–6.88), ischemic heart disease (1.45, 1.10–1.91), cardiovascular disease (1.32, 1.14–1.51), ischaemic stroke (1.30, 1.09–1.54), and cerebrovascular disease (1.29, 1.10–1.52). Conclusion Hypertension, especially systolic-diastolic hypertension, increases the risks of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among adult community residents in Hainan Province.
Chinese Journal of Public Health,Vol 35,No. 07
As a comprehensive opening-up strategy, the Belt and Road Initiative is a major move for China to further conduct reform and opening-up, with the strategic goal of building a community with shared interests, developments and responsibility that features political mutual trust, economic integration, and cultural inclusiveness. Africa is an important strategic partner of the Belt and Road Initiative of China. However, the economic development in Africa has been restricted by its medical and health conditions, and the development of public health is relatively backward. The cooperation between China and Africa in the field of public health has realistic significance and is in line with long-term development interests. Regarding medical cooperation as a starting point can be the power agent that promotes the wide implementation of the Belt and Road Initiative and the lubricant that prevents possible obstructions. In this paper, the cooperation in public health with countries joining the Belt and Road Initiative was discussed and the radiation effect and long-term significance of public health cooperation with Kenya, a country with significant and extensive influence on Africa, was explored.
Chinese Journal of Public Health,Vol 35,No. 08
Objective To analyze the changes in life expectancy among Chinese residents during 2005–2016 and to provide a reference for developing strategies and measures on raising life expectancy of Chinese residents. Methods The mortality and relevant data were collected from China Health and Family Planning Statistical Yearbook published during 2006–2017. Life expectancy tables for Chinese residents between 2005 and 2016 were constructed and then changes in life expectancy during the period were analyzed. Results During the period, the lowest life expectancy was 76.56 years in 2005 and the highest was 80.03 years in 2008 for urban Chinese residents, with the mean life expectancy of (78.92 ± 0.96) years. However, for the rural residents, the lowest was 76.17 years in 2009 and the highest was 78.00 years in 2015, with the mean life expectancy of (77.10 ± 0.72) years. During the 12-year period, the increment of life expectancy among Chinese residents differed by registered permanent residence, gender, and age group. For urban residents, the maximum increment was 2.91 years for males of < 1 years old and 3.04 years for females of 1–4 and 15–19 years old and the minimum was −0.55 and −0.54 year for males and females aged ≥ 85 years old. For rural residents, the maximum increment was 1.18 years for males of 55–59 years old and 3.33 years for females of < 1 years old and the minimum was −0.83 and 0.74 year for males and females aged ≥ 85 years old, respectively. Conclusion At present, the increment in overall life expectancy of Chinese population is mainly affected by the life span of rural male residents and the elderly population of ≥ 85 years old.
Oil Geophysical Prospecting,Vol 53,No. 06
Hydraulic fracturing zones have anisotropic characteristics on the whole. It is necessary to analyze the influences of anisotropic parameters on focal mechanism and moment tensor. This paper studies the shear–tensile focal mechanism and seismic moment tensor when the source is located in anisotropic media. It analyzes the influences of focal anisotropy on double couple (DC) components, compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components, and isotropic (ISO) components. The seismic response characteristics of dry and saturated orthorhombic anisotropy media are also analyzed. The effects of crack parameters and fluid parameters on seismic response are discussed. The following results are obtained based on our research. A. The moment tensor in anisotropic media can be obtained by anisotropic parameters and source quantity. B. The non-DC components caused by shear–tensile crack depend on the rupture mode, type of anisotropic media, crack parameter and section strike. High ISO components appear in dry cracked media and high CLVD components appear in water saturation media. C. Far field P-wave radiation patterns are different between isotropic and anisotropic media. The source characteristics and medium anisotropy have significant impacts on the seismic wave travel time, amplitude, and polarity.
A simplified model of equivalent calculated pile length for pile–soil–structure interaction analysis
Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Dynamics,Vol 39,No. 01
To a certain extent, the pile length is one of the key factors affecting the complexity of the dynamic analysis of the pile–soil–structure system. A proper simplification for the pile length can improve the calculation efficiency, especially for a structural system with a large number of long pile foundations. Based on Boulanger model and OpenSees, this study analyzed the earthquake response of the single pile–soil–structure system in the soft clay site, including the displacement, bending moment, shear force of the pile and the acceleration response of superstructure, and investigated the variation of vibration modes and mode periods with different pile lengths, and then proposed a pile–soil–structure model with equivalent calculated length pile. The results show that the model with equivalent calculated length pile has high simulating accuracy, and the calculation error of the dynamic response of structure system is less than 5% when the change rate of the first three-mode periods of structure system is lower than 2.5%; the equivalent calculated pile length can be determined by the accuracy requirement of the dynamic response error, and for the single pile structure in the soft clay site, it is suggested that the corresponding calculated pile length should be regarded as the equivalent calculated pile length when the change rate of the first three-mode periods is controlled to 2.5%.