Reproductive characteristics of Artemisia scoparia and the analysis of the underlying soil drivers in a desert steppe of China
(2.Key Laboratory for Restoration and Reconstruction of Degraded Ecosystem in Northwest China of Ministry of Education, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, China 750021)
【Abstract】 Aims Reproduction is an important part of plant life activities, and thus the reproductive characteristics of plants play an important role in explaining the ecological adaptability of plants as well as developing effective management strategy plans. The aims of this study are to explore the reproductive characteristics of Artemisia scoparia and analyze its main soil driving factors in a desert steppe of China. Methods As a method to extract and summarize the variation in a set of response variables, the redundancy analysis can be explained by a group of explanatory variables. In the present study, we selected the A. scoparia population in a desert steppe, and examined the physicochemical properties of different soil types and reproductive characteristics of A. scoparia with the redundancy analysis. Important findings There were significant differences in water-soluble carbon content (Cws), total nitrogen content (TN), total phosphorus content (TP), total salt content (TS), soil moisture (Ms) and soil hardness (SH) of calcareous soil (SS), aeolian sand soil (ASS) and weathered residual soil (WB). The average mass (Ma), the number (Ni) of average individual head inflorescence, and the average individual size (Sai) of a single plant were the largest in the SS habitat, followed by ASS and WB. No significant difference was observed in the reproductive allocation (Ra) of A.scoparia in different soil types. Extremely significant positive correlation was observed between Ra and the quality of single capitate inflorescence (Me), Ni and Ma, respectively, while Ni was negatively correlated with Me. The variation of the reproductive characteristics of A. scoparia was mainly affected by the soil water soluble carbon content (Cws), soil hardness (SH), soil moisture (Ms), TP and available phosphorus content (AP) in WB habitat. Ma was mainly affected by Cws, Ms and pH value; Ni was mainly affected by total salt content (TS); Ra and Me were mainly affected by the total carbon content (Ct) in the ASS habitat. Ma was positively correlated with Cws, Ms and Co, while the correlation between Ma and Co was not significant; Ni was significantly affected by the available nitrogen content (AN) in the SS habitat. A comprehensive analysis of the three soil types showed that the total explanatory amount of soil factors affecting the reproductive characteristics of A.scoparia was 30.74%. Ma and Ni were significantly affected by Cws and Ms. Ra and Me were negatively correlated with Cws and Ms though they were not statistically significant. We conclude that Cws and Ms are the main soil factors affecting the reproductive characteristics of A. scoparia populations in the desert grassland.
【Keywords】 desert steppe; Artemisia scoparia; reproductive characteristic; soil factor; redundancy analysis;
(Translated by ZHAO B)
Aysajan A (2018). Effect of habitat heterogeneity on floral trait differentiation level in distylous species Primula nivalis. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 38, 158–165 (in Chinese).
Bao SD (2000). Soil Agricultural Chemistry Analysis. 3rd edn. China Agriculture Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
Chen L, Song NP, Wang L, Yang XG, Li XB, Su Y, Li YF (2017). A bibliometric appraisal of research on Artemisia from 1986–2016. Acta Prataculturae Sinca, 26, 223–235 (in Chinese).
Chen T, Wang YF (2014). Response of reproductive characteristics of Saussurea maceota Franch. to elevation at eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 33, 3216–3221 (in Chinese).
Chen Y, Wang T, Li PK, Yao CL, Yuan ZL, Ye YZ (2016). Community characteristics and spatial distribution of dominant tree species in a deciduous broad-leaved forest of Muzhaling, Henan, China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 40, 1179–1188 (in Chinese).
Dong M (1996). Plant clonal growth in heterogeneous habitats, risk-spreading. Acta Phytoecologica Sinca, 20, 543–548 (in Chinese).
Du HD, Jiao JY, Kou M, Miao F (2016). Adaptability of foliar morphological, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of the pioneer species Artemisia scoparia growing in a hilly-gully Loess Regin at different slope sites. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36, 2914–2925 (in Chinese).
Fang H, Cheng S, Lin E, Yu G, Niu S, Wang Y, Xu M, Dang X, Li L, Wang L (2015). Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration stimulates soil microbial activity and impacts water-extractable organic carbon in an agricultural soil. Biogeochemistry, 122, 253–267.
Flessa H, Ludwig B, Heil B, Merbach W (2015). The origin of soil organic C, dissolved organic C and respiration in a long-term maize experiment in Halle, Germany, determined by 13C natural abundance. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 163, 157–163.
Gélin U, Wilson ME, Cripps J, Coulson G, Festabianchet M (2016). Individual heterogeneity and offspring sex affect the growth–reproduction trade-off in a mammal with indeterminate growth. Oecologia, 180, 1127–1135.
Gray AN, Spies TA (1997). Microsite controls on tree seedling establishment in conifer forest canopy gaps. Ecology, 78, 2458–2473.
He WM, Zhong ZC (1997). The concept and research contents of plant propagation strategy. Journal of Biology, 14, 1–3 (in Chinese).
He YH, Zhao HL, Liu XP, Zhao XY, Li YL, Zhao W (2009). Reproductive allocation and its relationship with the size of corispermum elongatum in different sandy habitats. Arid Zone Research, 26, 59–64 (in Chinese).
Huang ZH, Lu QF, Chen YZ (2017). Comparative study on reproductive success of Corydalis sheareri (Papaveraceae) between alkaline limestone soil and red soil habitats in a karst area. Biodiversity Science, 25, 972–980 (in Chinese).
Huo JS, Liu WG, Liu JG, Li HX, Xu Y, Maria N (2017). Driving forces of desert plant characteristics in a desert oasis transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 37, 8304–8313 (in Chinese).
Jiao DZ, Jiang QX, Cao R, Yan QY, Yang YF (2018). Quantitative characteristics and dynamics of the rhizome of Phragmites australis populations in heterogeneous habitats in the Zhalong Wetland. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 38, 3432–3440 (in Chinese).
Jiao JY, Zhang ZG, Jia YF, Wang N, Bai WJ (2008). Species composition and classification of natural vegetation in the abandoned lands of the hilly-gullied region of North Shaanxi Province. Acta Ecologica Snica, 28, 2981–2997 (in Chinese).
Johnson BG, Verburg PS, Arnone JA (2016). Plant species effects on soil nutrients and chemistry in arid ecological zones. Oecologia, 182, 1–19.
Kendall BE, Fox GA, Fujiwara M, Nogeire TM (2011). Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth. Ecology, 92, 1985–1993.
Koltes S (2006). Vegetation and fertilization effects on soil water soluble organic carbon. Current Applied Physics, 6, 182.
L'Hérault V, Franke A, Lecomte N, Alogut A, Bêty J (2013). Landscape heterogeneity drives intra-population niche variation and reproduction in an arctic top predator. Ecology & Evolution, 3, 2867–2879.
Larson JE, Funk JL (2016). Regeneration: An overlooked aspect of trait-based plant community assembly models. Journal of Ecology, 104, 1284–1298.
Li B, Liu ZJ, Zhao ZG, Hu C, Ren HM, Wu GQ (2013). Influence of altitude on reproductive traits and reproductive allocation of different colours in Anemone obtusiloba populations. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 22, 10–19 (in Chinese).
Li KC, Guo SJ (2012). Main Feed and Poisonous Plants in Ningxia. Sunshine Press, Yinchuan (in Chinese).
Liu F, Wang SJ, Luo HB, Liu YS, Liu HY (2008). Micro-habitats in karst forest ecosystem and variability of soils. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 45, 1055–1062 (in Chinese).
Liu FY, Zhang ZX, Wang XQ, Li K, Sun YY, Zhang CH (2011). Effects of habitat heterogeneity on early growth of Quercus franchetii natural regeneration seedlings in the Jinsha River dry-hot valley. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 17, 338–344 (in Chinese).
Liu RJ, Li ZC, Wang B, Wu YC, Cheng CF, Ma SJ, Ge-Ri LT (2013). Seasonal dynamics of soil water-soluble organic carbon in secondary forests and Chinese fir plantations in hilly region of northwest Zhejiang Province, East China. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 32, 1385–1390 (in Chinese).
Liu XD, Zhang KB, Wang LL, Yang XH (2015). How enclosure affects community characteristics of the sandy grassland in semi-arid areas of northwestern China. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 37 (2), 48–54 (in Chinese).
Liu ZJ, Du GZ, Chen JK (2002). Size-dependent reproductive allocation of Ligularia virgaurea in different habitats. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 26, 44–50.
Liu ZM, Jiang DM, Gao HY, Chang XL (2003a). Relationships between plant reproductive strategy and disturbance. Chinese Journal Apploed Ecology, 14, 418–422 (in Chinese).
Liu ZM, Zhao XY, Fan SX (2003b). Grime’s CSR model and his philosophy of ecological research. Advance in Earth Sciences, 18, 603–608 (in Chinese).
Ma DZ (1986). Flora of Ningxia. Ningxia People’s Press, Yinchuan (in Chinese).
Mayer C, Adler L, Armbruster WS, Dafni A, Eardley C, Huang S-G, Kevan PG, Ollerton J, Packer L, Ssymank A, Stout JC, Potts SG (2011). Pollination ecology in the 21st Century: Key questions for future research. Journal of Pollination Ecology, 3, 8–23.
Olmo M, Lozano AM, Barrón V, Villar R (2016). Spatial heterogeneity of soil biochar content affects soil quality and wheat growth and yield. Science of the Total Environment, 562, 690–700.
Palmer MW, Dixon PM (2010). Small-scale environmental heterogeneity and the analysis of species distributions along gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science, 1, 57–65.
Quan DJ, Wei Y, Zhou XQ, Yan C (2012). Growth dynamics, biomass allocation and ecological adaptation in Ceratocarpus arenarius L. Acta Ecologica Sinca, 32, 3352–3358 (in Chinese).
Ramakrishna RN, Charles DK, Hirofumi H, William MJ, Stephen CP, Compton JT, Ranga BM, Steven WR (2003). Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science, 300, 1560–1563.
Ren MX, Jiang XH, Zhang DY (2012). Some important questions in plant reproductive ecology. Biodiversity Science, 20, 241–249 (in Chinese).
Scaglia B, Adani F (2009). Biodegradability of soil water soluble organic carbon extracted from seven different soils. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21, 641–646.
Shen YF, Tao WH, Li SQ (2011). Effects of fertilization dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in the ryegrass farmland soil in wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Loess Plateau. Journal of Natural Resources, 26, 1387–1393 (in Chinese).
Singh AK, Rai A, Pandey V, Singh N (2017). Contribution of glomalin to dissolve organic carbon under different land uses and seasonality in dry tropics. Journal of Environmental Management, 192, 142–149.
Song G, An N, Ning Z, He Y, Shi P, Zhang J, He N (2018). Climate warming impacts on soil organic carbon fractions and aggregate stability in a Tibetan alpine meadow. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 116, 224–236.
Song NP, Wang X, Chen L, Xue Y, Chen J, Sui JM, Wang L, Yang XG (2018). Co-existence mechanisms of plant species within “soil islands” habitat of desert steppe. Biodiversity Science, 26, 667–677 (in Chinese).
Tang Z, Deng L, An H, Yan W, Shangguan Z (2017). The effect of nitrogen addition on community structure and productivity in grasslands: A meta-analysis. Ecological Engineering, 99, 31–38.
Vavrek MC, Mcgraw JB, Yang HS (1997). Within-population variation in demography of Taraxacum officinale: Season and size-dependent survival, growth and reproduction. Journal of Ecology, 85, 277–287.
Wang HJ, Chang SL, Zhang YT, Xie J, He P, Song CC, Sun XJ (2016). Density-dependent effects in Picea schrenkiana forests in Tianshan Mountains. Biodiversity Science, 24, 252–261 (in Chinese).
Wang JC, Shi X, Zhang DY, Yi LK (2009). The morphological plasticity of Eremosparton songoricum a long heterogeneous micro-habitats of continuous moisture gradient changes in sand dunes. Acta Ecologica Snica, 29, 3641–3648 (in Chinese).
Wang X, Yang X, Wang L, Chen L, Song N, Gu J, Xue Y (2018). A six-year grazing exclusion changed plant species diversity of a Stipa breviflora desert steppe community, northern China. PeerJ, 6, e4359. DOI:10.7717/peerj.4359.
Wang XG, Li CS, Yong L, Hua KK, Zhou MH (2016). The impact of nitrogen amendment and crop growth on dissolved organic carbon in soil solution. Journal of Mountain Science, 13, 95–103.
Wang YY, Shi S, Lin F, Yuan ZQ, Ye J, Wang XG, Hao ZQ (2014). Reproductive traits and their correlation among woody plants in a broadleaf-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Northeast China. Chinese Science Bulletin, 59, 2407–2415 (in Chinese).
Xiao H, Xu CL, Zhang DG, Chai JL, Pan TT, Yu XJ (2018). Effects of simulated trampling and rainfall in sexual reproduction characteristics of Medicago ruthenica var. inschanica on alpine meadow. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 37, 1976–1982 (in Chinese).
Xiao L, Liu GB, Li P, Xue S (2017). Effects of nitrogen addition and elevated CO2 concentration on soil dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere of Bothriochloa ischaemum. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 28, 64–70 (in Chinese).
Xu GF, Shen SC, Zhang FD (2014). Adaptability and reproductive characteristics of Mikania micrantha H. B. K under different habitats. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 23, 1258–1264 (in Chinese).
Xu Z (1999). Plant development and reproduction: Advances and prospectives. Acta Botanica Sinica, 41, 909–920.
Yu M, Zhou ZY, Kang FF, Ouyang S, Mi XC, Sun JX (2013). Gradient analysis and environmental interpretation of understory herb-layer communities in Xiaoshegou of Lingkong Mountain, Shanxi, China. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 37, 373–383 (in Chinese).
Yue YM, Wang KL, Xiong Y (2012). Feasibility of monitoring karst standing conditions with vegetation spectra. Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 32, 1891–1894 (in Chinese).
Zhang DY (2004). Evolution of Plant Life History and Reproductive Ecology. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).
Zhang DY, Jiang XH (2001). Mating system evolution, resource allocation, and genetic diversity in plans. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 25, 130–143 (in Chinese).
Zhang ZL, Tuo F, Shang H, Zhang YM (2009). Difference in growth status and ecological adaptability strategy of large-fruit seabuckthom under different site conditions. Journal of Southwest Forestry University (Natural Sciences), 29 (5), 12–15 (in Chinese).
Zhao LC, Zhao CZ, Wang XP, Wen J (2017). Interrelations between environmental factors and distribution of Tamarix gansuensis in Qinwangchuan wetland. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 38, 3422–3431 (in Chinese).
Zhao RF, Zhou HR, Qian YB, Zhang JJ (2006). Interrelations between plant communities and environmental factors of wetlands and surrounding lands in mid- and lower reaches of Tarim River. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 17, 955–960 (in Chinese).