(2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
(3.内蒙古大学生命科学学院, 呼和浩特 010021)
【摘要】百里香 (Thymus mongolicus) 草原是以唇形科小半灌木百里香为建群种的草原类型。该文以编写《中国植被志》为契机, 结合2015–2017年生长季野外调查数据和文献资料, 对中国百里香草原的分布、生态特征、群落特征和分类等进行了总结。结果表明: (1) 百里香草原主要分布于辽河上游西拉木伦河流域的黄土丘陵、河北西北部坝上高原、阴山山脉两翼低山丘陵、鄂尔多斯高原东部和黄土高原北部, 常分布在水蚀风蚀强烈的黄土丘陵和砾石质化基质的坡地。 (2) 根据91个样地记录统计, 百里香草原组成物种较丰富, 有种子植物167种, 隶属于34科101属, 以菊科、豆科和禾本科为主;其中有8种半灌木和小半灌木, 112种多年生杂类草;水分生态类型以典型旱生植物 (58种) 和中旱生植物 (45种) 为主;区系地理成分以东古北极成分 (70种) 和东亚成分 (46种) 为主。 (3) 根据生活型和优势度, 百里香草原可以划分为百里香、半灌木/小半灌木群丛组, 百里香群丛组, 百里香、丛生禾草群丛组, 百里香、根茎禾草群丛组, 百里香、薹草群丛组, 百里香、杂类草群丛组, 共计6个群丛组28个群丛。
【基金资助】 国家重点基础研究发展计划 (973计划) (2014CB-138800) ; 科技基础性工作专项 (2015FY210200) ;
Distribution, community characteristics and classification of Thymus mongolicus steppe in China
(2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 100049)
(3.College of Life Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, China 010021)
【Abstract】 Thymus mongolicus steppe was a vegetation formation dominated by typical dwarf semi-shrub of Lamiaceae. Based on the previous literature and primary plot data sampled during the growing seasons from 2015 to 2017, the distribution, ecological features, community characteristics, and classification of T. mongolicus steppe were summarized. (1) T. mongolicus steppe was mainly distributed on the loess hills of Xar Moron River Watershed, Bashang region in the northwest of Hebei Province, the hills surrounding the Yinshan Mountains, the east part of Erdos Plateau and the northern Loess Plateau. This formation occurred mainly on the stony slopes or loess hills with severe soil erosion. (2) In total, 167 seed plant species belonging to 101 genera of 34 families were recorded in the 91 sample sites, and families of Compositae, Leguminosae and Gramineae played crucial roles in the species composition. Eight of these families were semi-shrub and dwarf semi-shrub species, and 112 were perennial forb species. The typical xerophytes (58 species) and Meso-xerophytes (45 species) accounted for more than half part of all species. Eight geographic elements were involved. East Palaearctic (70 species) and East Asia (46 species) were the two major floristic elements. (3) Based on the life form and dominance of species in the community, the formation was classified into six association groups (T. mongolicus, semi-shrubs/dwarf semi-shurbs association group; T. mongolicus association group; T. mongolicus, bunchgrasses association group; T. mongolicus, rhizomatous grasses association group; T. mongolicus, Carex association group; T. mongolicus, forbs association group), consisting of 28 associations.
【Keywords】 Thymus mongolicus; dwarf semi-shrubby steppe; life form; floristic geographic elements; community classification;
【Funds】 National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB-138800) ; Key Program of National Fundamental Scientific Research (2015FY210200) ;
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Vol 42, No. 09, Pages 971-976