Effects of Long-Term Different Fertilization and Irrigation Managements on Soil Bacterial Abundance, Diversity and Composition
【Abstract】[Objective] This study was carried out to investigate the bacterial community in a wheat-maize rotation field during wheat growing season in northern China. The effects of long-term different fertilization and irrigation regimes on the abundance, diversity and composition of bacterial community were identified. It will provide evidence for further optimizing fertilization and irrigation managements, improving soil productivity, and maintaining soil microbial diversity. [Method] Based on a long-term fertilization and irrigation experiment carried out in Wuqiao Experimental Station of China Agricultural University, six different soil samples were collected after wheat was harvested, including chemical fertilization and no irrigation (CI0), chemical fertilization and irrigation at the jointing stage (CI1), chemical fertilization and irrigation at the jointing and filling stages (CI2), manure fertilization and no irrigation (MI0), manure fertilization and irrigation at the jointing stage (MI1), and manure fertilization and irrigation at the jointing and filling stages (MI2). The abundance, diversity and composition of the bacterial community in different soil samples were revealed by using real-time PCR and Illumina Miseq platform, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Correlation analysis was carried out for soil properties with the bacterial abundance, diversity, and community structure. [Result] Irrigation significantly increased soil moisture and soil pH, and manure fertilization significantly increased the total organic carbon (TOC) content compared with no irrigation and chemical fertilization treatments, respectively. The copy number of bacterial 16S rRNA gene ranged from 4.34 × 109 to 1.39×1010 g−1 d. w. s in different treatments. Irrigation significantly increased the copy number of bacterial 16S rRNA gene by 1.17–1.60 and 0.76–1.93 times in the chemical and manure fertilization treatments, respectively. The bacterial α diversity index results showed that irrigation rather than fertilization significantly affected the bacterial α diversity index. At the phylum level, thirty-nine phyla were obtained in all the treatments, among which Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla, accounting for 77.22%–86.28% of the total reads. There were significant variations in relative abundance of Actinobacteria (11.09%–27.01%), Bacteroidetes (5.45%–12.13%) and Saccharibacteria (2.41%–3.77%) among different treatments. Irrigation significantly decreased the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Saccharibacteria by 36.48%–48.03%, 22.17%–33.67%, and 15.21%–45.54%, 13.40%–23.97% in the chemical and manure fertilization treatments, respectively. The hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that both fertilization and irrigation managements affected the bacterial community structure, and irrigation had a stronger effect than fertilization on the bacterial community structure. In addition, there were significant correlations of soil moisture, soil pH, total nitrogen (TN) content, and TOC content with the abundance, α diversity index, and structure of soil bacterial community. [Conclusion] Irrigation greatly altered the abundance, diversity, and structure of soil bacterial community, while fertilization had a minor effect on the abundance and structure of soil bacterial community, and soil moisture and soil pH were the potential environmental factors associated with the bacterial community variations.
【Keywords】 manure fertilizer; irrigation; bacterial community diversity; high-throughput sequencing; northern China;
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