Temporal and Spatial Changes in Yield and Quality with Grain Sorghum Variety Improvement in China
【Abstract】[Objective] In order to provide a theoretical basis for variety breeding and production, yield and quality relevant traits of accredited grain sorghum varieties were investigated from 1977 to 2016. [Method] The information of a total of 324 nationally and provincially accredited sorghum varieties were obtained through yearbook and related article searching, and their yield and quality traits in regional trials were analyzed. [Result] In temporal evolution, the sorghum plant height decreased annually by 1.36 cm whereas the yield of regional trial increased annually by 69.1 kg·hm−2 in 40 years. The contents of starch and tannin obviously increased (P < 0.05), whereas the protein content decreased markedly (P < 0.05). The Lys and fat contents showed no significant trend over time. In spatial distribution, the average growth period of grain sorghum was found a large difference in different zones; the higher panicle grain weight (105.4 g) was in the spring and summer sowing zone, contrary to that (64.6 g) in south zone; the 1 000-grain weight exhibited significant difference among in different zones (P < 0.05), visualized maximum value of 30.3 g in spring-seeding and late-maturing zone, and expressed minimum value of 22.6 g in south zone. The average starch content was 74.2%, while the fat content was 3.5% in spring-seeding and early-maturing zone, as well as spring-seeding and late-maturing zone. The tannin content was assumed the highest in south zone. The protein and Lys contents showed no significant difference in different zones. [Conclusion] More significant measures should be taken for 1000-grain weight improvement greatly based on dwarfing of stalk and breeding of special varieties. It is essential for liquor-making sorghum to develop with appropriate high starch content, reasonable contents of protein and Lys, and especially in improving tannin content. The major approach of forage sorghum development should be the decreasing of tannin content and increasing of protein and Lys contents based on development of high starch content.
【Keywords】 grain sorghum; accredited variety; yield; quality; evolution;
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