The establishment of suzerain-vassal relationship between Hunza and the Qing Dynasty in the view based on Manchu archives*

CHEN Zhu1

(1.Institute of Oriental and Asian Studies)

【Abstract】According to the Manchu archives, Hunza that had subjected to Dzungar Khanate requested the Qing Dynasty’s acceptance of its tribute and submission after the Qing pacified the rebellion of Dzungar Mongolian and Khoja brothers. In mid-April and December of 1760, Mir Khusro of Hunza sent envoys twice to Xinjiang to present his tribute and memorial to Qianlong Emperor. Although the tributes were not accepted, the Qing court finally decided to accept his letter. In July of 1761, Mir Khusro sent his son Mirza with tribute and memorial to Yarkand, and the Qing official of Yarkand, Sinju, accepted them and granted a reward to Hunza. In this way, the suzerain-vassal relationship between the Qing Dynasty and Hunza was formally established.

【Keywords】 Hunza; the Qing Dynasty; Dzungar; suzerain-vassal relationship; Manchu archives;

【DOI】

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    Footnote

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    [23]. ⑤ 丙子, the first lunar month of 1760. in清高宗实录 Vol. 606. The name “iomat(卓尔玛特)” in the book is inconsistent with the Manchu archives, which should be transliterated as “尤玛特(You-ma-te)” or “尤默特(You-mo-te).” [^Back]

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    [32]. ⑤ 叶尔羌办事大臣新柱等奏出使巴达克山等处之侍卫明仁等路经沙尔库勒回京片 (乾隆二十五年十一月十六日) in Center of China’s Border and History and Geography Research and First Historical Archives of China (ed.). 清代新疆满文档案汇编 Vol. 49. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 8–9 (2012). The term “色勒库尔” is transliterated as “沙尔库勒.” [^Back]

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    [34]. ⑦ [Germany] Stellrecht, M. I. Zhu, B. (trans.) China’s Borderland History and Geography Studies (中国边疆史地研究导报), (2) (1989). Irmtraud Müller-Stellrecht has done extensive studies on the relationship between Hunza and the Qing Dynasty. He is the author of Hunza and China (1761–1891), but he has never paid attention or referred to Manchu archives. [^Back]

    [35]. ① 乾清门侍卫明仁等奏报到博洛尔等颁谕赏物情形折 (乾隆二十五年十一月二十六日) in Center of China’s Border and History and Geography Research and First Historical Archives of China (ed.). 清代新疆满文档案汇编 Vol. 49. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 138–143 (2012). Note that “Parsi (帕尔西字)” is the term that the Qing court used to call the Persian language and it used Parsi as the official language when associating with Hunza. The meaning of “卡合耶木” is unclear. [^Back]

    [36]. ② 叶尔羌办事都统新柱等疏奏三等侍卫明仁等奉使拔达克山等处情形 in 平定准噶尔方略 Sequel No. 8, 丁酉, the twelfth lunar month of 1760. Beijing: China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources, (1990). The term “Šarhul (色勒库尔)” is transliterated as “沙尔珲,” and the term “Hunza (洪扎)” is transliterated as “谦珠特.” [^Back]

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    [38]. ④ Zhang, H. master’s thesis, Inner Mongolia Normal University, 10–13 (2010). [^Back]

    [39]. ⑤ 驻叶尔羌办事参赞大臣阿里衮奏将叶尔羌事宜交付海明赴喀什噶尔巡查折 (乾隆二十五年四月初八日) in Center of China’s Border and History and Geography Research and First Historical Archives of China (ed.). 清代新疆满文档案汇编, Vol. 45. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 87–88 (2012). 参赞大臣阿里衮奏遵旨自喀什噶尔起程回京折 (乾隆二十五年八月十九日) in Center of China’s Border and History and Geography Research and First Historical Archives of China (ed.). 清代新疆满文档案汇编, Vol. 47. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 125–126 (2012). [^Back]

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    [42]. ① The King of Hunza, heisreo, is usually referred to as Mir Khusro or Shah Khisro Khan in the English literature, and as bek heisreo in the Manchu literature. Mir is the title of the Hunza ruler in Persian. Bek is the title of provincial Muslim officials and all local rulers in areas around Xinjiang. The ruler of Hohan, Badakšan, Bolor, Wakhan, and Hunza were all called Bek, while they all have titles of their own. From the title Bek, it seems that the Qing government intended to regard the surrounding rulers as the provincial rulers of Xinjiang. [^Back]

    [43]. ② Lu, S. The Western Regions Studies (西域研究), (3) (2012). [^Back]

    [44]. ③ In Western literature, he is called the Mirza Khan (or Mirza Khan II), who killed his father and succeeded to the throne. [^Back]

    [45]. ① 乾竺特黑斯娄伯克进贡金子等物书 (乾隆二十五年十月) in Center of China’s Border and History and Geography Research and First Historical Archives of China (ed.). 清代新疆满文档案汇编, Vol. 48. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, 312–313 (2012). The author’s note: The date “October, the 25th year of Qianlong era” is misrecorded. “Jemsit (杰穆希特)” is the legendary king in ancient Iran, but “kūlab (库拉伯)” is unknown so far. [^Back]

    [46]. ② 乾竺特伯克黑瑟柔为照准噶尔例贡献黄金事致额敏和卓文 (乾隆二十五年十二月) in 军机处满文录副奏折. Beijing: The First Historical Archives of China. File No. 03-0179-1858-018; Microfile No. 058-3392-3396. Note that the abstract is in page3392, the Manchu translated letters are in page 3393–3394, and the original Persian letters are in page 3395–3396. “Bek gosingga (郭兴阿伯克)” is unknown so far. [^Back]

    [47]. ① 寄谕都统新柱等外藩部落首领等若有浼人贡物者不必收受 (乾隆二十六年七月二十日) in 乾隆朝满文寄信档译编, Vol. 2. Beijing: The First Historical Archives of China, 376–378. Note that this citation refers to the original document in Manchu, and the Chinese translated version is on page 631. The two tribes “讷格尔” and “吉勒梯” refer to Nagar (那噶尔) and Gilgit (吉尔吉特) respectively. [^Back]

    [48]. ② 平定准噶尔方略 Sequel No. 12, 丙辰, the seventh lunar month of 1761. Beijing: China National Microfilming Centre for Library Resources, (1990). 清高宗实录 Vol. 641, 丙辰, the first lunar month of 1761. Note that the two books mistake the names of two tribes (places), “Nagar” and “Gilti” for the names of two persons. [^Back]

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    [50]. ① The title of the chancellor stationed in Yarkand varies from time to time. From the 1759 to 1763, Counselor Minister (办事参赞大臣), Assistant Commander (叶尔羌办事都统侍郎), and Commander (叶尔羌办事都统) are used as the title for the Amban of Yarkand. When Commander Sinju left the office of Yarkand in Septmber of 1763, Erjing’e was titled as the Counselor Minister of Premier Huijiang Services. After that, the amban was called Counselor Minister until 1766. After the Ush Rebellion in 1765, the office was moved to Ush, and the amban was called as the Counselor Minister of Ush. After Erjing’e left the office and returned to Beijing in November of 1766, there were no more Counselor Ministers, but Ambans were assigned to Yarkand until the 11th year of Daoguang era (1831). The Counselor Minister was then again assigned back to Yarkand in August of 1831, and that continued to 1864. The tributary payment from Hunza is therefore processed by the Counselor Minister of Ush Yonggui in 1778. [^Back]

    [51]. ② All these cases are detailed in the Manchu archives. See in The First Historical Archives of China and First Historical Archives of China, (eds.) 清代边疆满文档案目录 Vol. Xinjiang. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, (1999); Center of China’s Borderland History and Geography Research & The First Historical Archives of China (eds.). 清代新疆满文档案汇编 Vol. 33. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press, (2012); [Germany] Irmtraud Müller-Stellrecht. Zhu, B. (trans.) China’s Borderland History and Geography Studies (中国边疆史地研究导报), (2) (1989). [^Back]

    [52]. ③ See 陕甘总督左宗棠片(光绪四年十月二十三日) in The First Historical Archives of China (ed.). 光绪朝朱批奏折 Vol. 111. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, (1996). [^Back]

    [53]. ④ Xu, J. & Chen, J. Social Science Research (社会科学研究), (5) (2013). [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:1002-6800

CN: 11-2795/K

Vol 27, No. 04, Pages 136-149+182

December 2017

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Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Background of the establishment of the suzerain-vassal relationship between Hunza and the Qing Dynasty
  • 3 The two requests on acceptance for tributary and affiliation from Hunza
  • 4 The formal establishment of Suzerain-vassal relationship between Hunza and the Qing Dynasty
  • 5 Conclusions
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