The relationship between Nanyue and Annam in the ancient historical records of China and Vietnam
【Abstract】After the collapse of the Qin dynasty, Zhao Tuo founded Nanyue and subjected to Han, and then crowned himself as an emperor. The Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han believed that Nanyue was the vassal of Han. During the Han and Jin dynasties, Nanyue became the geographical name of Lingnan and Jiaozhou. When Annam gained it autonomy, Song granted the name, Prince Nanyue, to its diseased king. From the perspective of territorial evolution, the Chinese and Vietnamese scholars believed that Annam inherited Xiangjun of Qin or the three prefectures of Jiaozhi, Rinan, and Jiuzhen, which was a part of Nanyue. After seizing Annam’s ruling power, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh requested to rename the state as Nanyue. Emperor Jiaqing rejected the request because Nanyue was related to Zhao Tuo’s Nanyue and granted the name, Vietnam. The Imperial Compendium of the Chronicle of Vietnamese History which Emperor Tự Đức asked his officials to compile regarded Nanyue as an unorthodox regime and negated the tie between Annam and Nanyue as established by the previous dynasties.
【Keywords】 China; Vietnam; Nanyue; Annam; relationship;
(Translated by ZHANG guoqing)
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. ⑥ Ibid, 37.
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. ③ Qingrenzong Shilu 清仁宗实录106.
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. ⑤ [Vietnam] Trịnh, H. Cấn trai thi tập (艮斋诗集·自序). Hong Kong: New Asia Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies, 132 (1962).
. ⑥ The excuse was strange that Nguyễn of Nhà Tây Sơn once adopted Annam as the state name, so Nguyễn dynasty deemed it illegal. When usurping the throne, Mạc Đăng Dung was appointed by Ming as the governor of Annam. The Nhà Hậu Lê resumed the regime by defeating Mạc Đăng Dung, so Ming also appointed the Emperor of the Nhà Hậu Lê as the governor of Annam. Though disappointed, the Nhà Hậu Lê accepted it and then further requested for the title of Emperor of Annam. Since the title of King of Annam was used for nearly 600 years from the Ly dynasty to the Nhà Hậu Lê, it was strange to treat it illegal then. However, both Đại Nam thực lục and Records of Qing have no records on the matter. Trịnh Hoài Đức was a key founding minister of the Nguyễn dynasty, so his interpretation can be deemed as the official view of the Nguyễn dynasty.
. ① Han, Z. & Wang, Y. Local Culture Research (地方文化研究), (1) (2014). The document believes that Nguyễn Phúc Ánh’s request for the state name Nanyue for the following reasons besides geographical harmony mentioned by Trần Trọng Kim. Firstly, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh looked down upon the Qing dynasty. Secondly, he played a political trick with the rules and argued from the aspects of politics, culture, the relationship of the Nhà Tây Sơn dynasty and the Nguyễn dynasty with Qing, and so on. However, the official reasons adopted by Nguyễn for the state name, Nanyue, were that it was used by his ancestors and the name of Annam was illegal, which were not accepted. No historical records mention the related excuses of Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, so it is hard to reach a conclusion, despite many speculations about his political psychology.
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. ④ Ly, Tran and Nhà Hậu Lê as three dynasties of Vietnam adopted Đại Viet as the state name at home and Annam abroad. Nguyễn Phúc Ánh accepted the state name Vietnam granted by Qing but called themselves Đại Viet at home. In 1838, Emperor Minh Mạng set the state name as Đại Nam and prohibited the use of Đại Viet. The Volume 6 of Quoc Am Thi Tap, Territory by Nguyễn Trãi of the Nhà Hậu Lê records that the former lord, Prince Kinh Dương with high morality, accepted Yue Nam as his fief, who was the ancestor of all Yue people. Nguyễn Thien Chong noted that Đế Minh accepted Vietnam as fief, so he was Prince Kinh Dư. Nguyễn Trãi also said that the official document mentioned Yue Nam, Nanyue, Jiaozhi, Annam and Nanping. Territory was written during the reign of Emperor Thái of Lê; therefore, though Prince Kinh Dương was a legend, it could show that many historical records mentioned Yue Nam and Vietnam.
. ⑤ The Imperial Compendium of the Chronicle of Vietnamese History 钦定越史通鉴纲目, 2.
. ⑥ Ibid, 8.
. ⑦ Ibid, 36–37.
. ⑧ [Vietnam] Ngô Thì Nhậm 越史标案, A2977.
. ⑨ [Vietnam] Đại Việt sử ký 大越史记前编, VHc612.