The relationship between Nanyue and Annam in the ancient historical records of China and Vietnam

YE Shaofei1

(1.Honghe Prefecture Center for Vietnamese Studies, Honghe University 661100)

【Abstract】After the collapse of the Qin dynasty, Zhao Tuo founded Nanyue and subjected to Han, and then crowned himself as an emperor. The Records of the Grand Historian and Book of Han believed that Nanyue was the vassal of Han. During the Han and Jin dynasties, Nanyue became the geographical name of Lingnan and Jiaozhou. When Annam gained it autonomy, Song granted the name, Prince Nanyue, to its diseased king. From the perspective of territorial evolution, the Chinese and Vietnamese scholars believed that Annam inherited Xiangjun of Qin or the three prefectures of Jiaozhi, Rinan, and Jiuzhen, which was a part of Nanyue. After seizing Annam’s ruling power, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh requested to rename the state as Nanyue. Emperor Jiaqing rejected the request because Nanyue was related to Zhao Tuo’s Nanyue and granted the name, Vietnam. The Imperial Compendium of the Chronicle of Vietnamese History which Emperor Tự Đức asked his officials to compile regarded Nanyue as an unorthodox regime and negated the tie between Annam and Nanyue as established by the previous dynasties.

【Keywords】 China; Vietnam; Nanyue; Annam; relationship;

【Funds】 Youth Program of National Social Science Foundation of China (15CSS004)

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(Translated by ZHANG guoqing)

    Footnote

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    [2]. ② Hanshu汉书 95, Xinanyi Liangyue Chaoxian Zhuan 西南夷两粤朝鲜传.

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    [42]. ⑥ Ibid, 289.

    [43]. ⑦ See Chen, Z. ibid, 260.

    [44]. ⑧ Songshi 宋史 488, Jiaozhi Zhuan 交阯传.

    [45]. ⑨ Yuanshi 元史 209, Annam Zhuan 安南传.

    [46]. ⑩ Mingshi 明史 321, Annam Zhuan 安南传.

    [47]. ① Though the letter of Lê Tắc maintained the prestige of the Yuan dynasty, its views went in conflict with the actual conditions of Annam. It was consistent with Yuan’s historical views to record Annam emperors as hereditary houses, which was not accepted by Annam, however.

    [48]. ② Dong Xi Yang Kao 东西洋考 1, Jiaozhi 交阯. Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 1 (1981).

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    [51]. ⑤ Xu, W. & Xie, Q. Đại Nam thực lục as Historical Material about the Relationship between Qing and Vietnam (《大南实录》清越关系史料). Taipei: Center for Asia-Pacific Area Studies (RCHSS) at Academia Sinica, 36 (2000). The book is compiled on basis of Đại Nam thực lục published as photocopy by Keio University, Japan during 1961–1981. The chief editor, Professor Matsumoto Kwong-loi, said that the source is Đại Nam thực lục housed by the court of Hue.

    [52]. ⑥ Ibid, 37.

    [53]. ⑦ Institute of History, Chinese Academy of Social Science. Selected Historical Material about the Relationship between the Ancient China and Vietnam (古代中越关系史资料选编). Beijing: China Society Publishing House, 490–492 (1982).

    [54]. ① Institute of History, Chinese Academy of Social Science. Selected Historical Material about the Relationship between the Ancient China and Vietnam (古代中越关系史资料选编). Beijing: China Society Publishing House, 492 (1982).

    [55]. ② Niu, J. Royal Descendants and Rebels: a Study of the Relationship between the Vietnamese Mo’s Family and China (王室后裔与叛乱者—越南莫氏家族与中国关系研究). Beijing: World Publishing Corporation, 124–134 (2012).

    [56]. ③ Qingrenzong Shilu 清仁宗实录106.

    [57]. ④ Institute of History, Chinese Academy of Social Science. Selected Historical Material about the Relationship between the Ancient China and Vietnam (古代中越关系史资料选编). Beijing: China Society Publishing House, 493 (1982).

    [58]. ⑤ [Vietnam] Trịnh, H. Cấn trai thi tập (艮斋诗集·自序). Hong Kong: New Asia Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies, 132 (1962).

    [59]. ⑥ The excuse was strange that Nguyễn of Nhà Tây Sơn once adopted Annam as the state name, so Nguyễn dynasty deemed it illegal. When usurping the throne, Mạc Đăng Dung was appointed by Ming as the governor of Annam. The Nhà Hậu Lê resumed the regime by defeating Mạc Đăng Dung, so Ming also appointed the Emperor of the Nhà Hậu Lê as the governor of Annam. Though disappointed, the Nhà Hậu Lê accepted it and then further requested for the title of Emperor of Annam. Since the title of King of Annam was used for nearly 600 years from the Ly dynasty to the Nhà Hậu Lê, it was strange to treat it illegal then. However, both Đại Nam thực lục and Records of Qing have no records on the matter. Trịnh Hoài Đức was a key founding minister of the Nguyễn dynasty, so his interpretation can be deemed as the official view of the Nguyễn dynasty.

    [60]. ① Han, Z. & Wang, Y. Local Culture Research (地方文化研究), (1) (2014). The document believes that Nguyễn Phúc Ánh’s request for the state name Nanyue for the following reasons besides geographical harmony mentioned by Trần Trọng Kim. Firstly, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh looked down upon the Qing dynasty. Secondly, he played a political trick with the rules and argued from the aspects of politics, culture, the relationship of the Nhà Tây Sơn dynasty and the Nguyễn dynasty with Qing, and so on. However, the official reasons adopted by Nguyễn for the state name, Nanyue, were that it was used by his ancestors and the name of Annam was illegal, which were not accepted. No historical records mention the related excuses of Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, so it is hard to reach a conclusion, despite many speculations about his political psychology.

    [61]. ② [Vietnam] Trịnh, H. Cấn trai thi tập (艮斋诗集). Hong Kong: New Asia Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies, 132 (1962).

    [62]. ③ Liu, J. Further General Study of Qing Literature (清朝续文献通考卷222四裔·三). Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1936.

    [63]. ④ Qingrenzong Shilu 清仁宗实录 111.

    [64]. ⑤ Xu, W. & Xie, Q. Đại Nam thực lục as Historical Material about the Relationship between Qing and Vietnam (《大南实录》清越关系史料). Taipei: Center for Asia-Pacific Area Studies (RCHSS) at Academia Sinica, 37–38 (2000).

    [65]. ① [Vietnam] Trịnh, H. Cấn trai thi tập (艮斋诗集). Hong Kong: New Asia Institute of Advanced Chinese Studies, 132 (1962).

    [66]. ② [Vietnam] Lê, Q., in Collected Chinese Travel Notes of Vietnam (Edited and Housed by Vietnam), Vol. 9. Shanghai: Fudan University Press, 94–95 (2010).

    [67]. ③ Sun, H. Study on the Suzerain-vassal Relations between China and Vietnam in Qing Dynasty (清代中越宗藩关系研究). Heilongjiang: Heilongjiang Education Publishing House, 38–42 (2006).

    [68]. ④ Ly, Tran and Nhà Hậu Lê as three dynasties of Vietnam adopted Đại Viet as the state name at home and Annam abroad. Nguyễn Phúc Ánh accepted the state name Vietnam granted by Qing but called themselves Đại Viet at home. In 1838, Emperor Minh Mạng set the state name as Đại Nam and prohibited the use of Đại Viet. The Volume 6 of Quoc Am Thi Tap, Territory by Nguyễn Trãi of the Nhà Hậu Lê records that the former lord, Prince Kinh Dương with high morality, accepted Yue Nam as his fief, who was the ancestor of all Yue people. Nguyễn Thien Chong noted that Đế Minh accepted Vietnam as fief, so he was Prince Kinh Dư. Nguyễn Trãi also said that the official document mentioned Yue Nam, Nanyue, Jiaozhi, Annam and Nanping. Territory was written during the reign of Emperor Thái of Lê; therefore, though Prince Kinh Dương was a legend, it could show that many historical records mentioned Yue Nam and Vietnam.

    [69]. ⑤ The Imperial Compendium of the Chronicle of Vietnamese History 钦定越史通鉴纲目, 2.

    [70]. ⑥ Ibid, 8.

    [71]. ⑦ Ibid, 36–37.

    [72]. ⑧ [Vietnam] Ngô Thì Nhậm 越史标案, A2977.

    [73]. ⑨ [Vietnam] Đại Việt sử ký 大越史记前编, VHc612.

This Article

ISSN:1002-6800

CN: 11-2795/K

Vol 26, No. 03, Pages 111-120+181

September 2016

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Nanyue as a geographical name and title during the Han and Tang dynasties
  • 2 Relationship between Nanyue and Annam after the independently founding of Vietnam in the Chinese and Vietnamese historical literature
  • 3 Change of the state name from Annam to Vietnam
  • 4 Conclusion
  • Footnote

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