Logic of the effective supply of regional security public goods by small state groups: a case study of the ASEAN
【Keywords】 small state groups; autonomy preference; power pooling; regional security public goods; the ASEAN; regional security;
【关键词】 小国集团; 自主偏好; 力量汇集; 区域安全公共产品; 东盟; 地区安全;
【Funds】2014 Key Project of the National Social Science Fund of China (14ZDA087);
【基金】2014年度国家社会科学基金重大项目“总体国家安全观下的中国东南周边地区安全机制构建研究” (项目编号:14ZDA087) 的阶段性成果;
(Translated by ZHONG Yehong)
① For research in this area, please refer to: Monika Barthwal-Datta and Soumita Basu, “Reconceptualizing Regional Security in South Asia: A Critical Security Approach”, Security Dialogue, Vol. 48, No. 5, 2017, pp. 393–409; Chen, X. & Wang, Y. World Economics and Politics (世界经济与政治), (6): 102–122 (2015).
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② Seng Tan, Multilateral Asian Security Architecture: Non-ASEAN Stakeholders, Routledge, 2016, p. 29.
③ [Singapore] Mahbubani, K. & Sng, J. The ASEAN Miracle: A Catalyst for Peace. Zhai, K., Wang, L. et al. (trans.) Beijing: Peking University Press, Preface 22 (2017).
④ Representative works in this area include: Clive Archer, Alyson J. K. Bailes and Anders Wevel, Small States and International Security: Europe and Beyond, Routledge, (2014); Wei. M. Small States and International Security (小国与国际安全). Beijing: Peking University Press (北京大学出版社), (2016).
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④ Peter Jones, “South Asia: Is a Regional Security Community Possible?” South Asian Survey, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2008, pp. 183–193; Zahid S. Ahmed, Regionalism and Regional Security in South Asia: The Role of SAARC, Ashgate, 2014.
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① Relative to regional powers, world powers include the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, namely, the United States, China, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, as well as Japan according to the existing recognition criteria of the international community, which are also the “poles” in the multipolar era. Refer to Andrew F. Cooper, “Testing Middle Power’s Collective Action in a World of Diffuse Power”, International Journal, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2017, pp. 529–544.
② There are various interpretations of the concept of small states, including physical scale, national capacity and subjective perception. It is generally believed that small states are the vulnerable party whose national strength is at the bottom of the international system and it is difficult for them to change the nature and function of relations. Refer to Robert O. Keohane, “Lilliputian’s Dilemmas: Small States in International Politics”, International Organization, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1969, pp. 291–310; Laurent Goetschel, Small States Inside and Outside the European Union, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, p. 14; Clive Archer, Alyson J. K. Bailes and Anders Wevel, Small States and International Security: Europe and Beyond, p. 9.
① Club goods are built on the basis of user-paid joint supply and individual consumption, and their relative publicity is reflected in the exclusiveness of non-members and partial competitiveness among members. Fan, Y. & Bo, S. 区域公共产品理论与实践：解读区域合作新视点. Shanghai: Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 24 (2011).
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② Generally speaking, a region’s security threats and its demand for security public goods are relatively stable factors, and only the form and intensity of regional security threats will change.
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② Of course, member states are also concerned that their autonomy may be undermined by the small state groups, which to some extent will hinder the willingness and ability of the small state groups to supply public goods.
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① It should be said that this is a political rather than a military alliance in the true sense. Refer to Donald E. Weatherbee, International Relations in Southeast Asia: The Struggle for Autonomy, Rowman & Littlefield, 2015, p. 65.
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③Although it is claimed in the Bangkok Declaration announcing the establishment of the ASEAN in 1967 that the purpose of the ASEAN is to promote regional economic development, social progress and cultural development, the political security factor is the main hidden driver behind it, and the ASEAN’s downplaying of political security is to avoid the misunderstanding of the ASEAN’s motives by surrounding powers.
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② Jurgen Haacke summarized the “ASEAN norms” in six aspects: sovereign equality, non-force and peaceful settlement of conflicts, non-interference in internal affairs, non-involvement in unresolved conflicts among member states, quiet diplomacy and mutual respect and tolerance. Refer to Jurgen Haacke, ASEAN’s Diplomatic and Security Culture: Origins, Development and Prospects, Routledge, 2005, p. 1.
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