A wild yak survey in Changtang of Tibet Autonomous Region and Hoh Xil of Qinghai Province

HU Yiming 1,2,3 LI Weiqi 2,3 JIANG Zhigang 2,3 LIU Wulin 4 LIANG Jianchao 1 LIN Yizhou 5 HUANG Zhiwen 1 QIN Haihua 1 JIN Kun 6 HU Huijian 1

(1.Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou 510260)
(2.Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101)
(3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049)
(4.Forestry Inventory and Planning Institute of the Tibet Autonomous Region, Lhasa 850000)
(5.Guangzhou Yilin Ecological Monitoring Limited Company, Guangzhou 510075)
(6.Research Institute of Forest Ecology Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091)

【Abstract】The wild yak (Bos grunniens), which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, mainly distributed in Changtang region of Tibet, Hoh Xil and Sanjiangyuan regions of Qinghai and Altun Mountains of Xinjiang. In this study, we used field data and data from the published literatures to estimate the population of wild yaks as well as their distribution in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the adjacent areas in China. Field surveys were conducted in Changtang of Tibet, Hoh Xil of Qinghai between 2012 and 2014. According to our field survey, there were 11,222–21,072 wild yaks in Changtang of Tibet, and 659–1,793 in Hoh Xil of Qinghai. Although our results indicate that the population of wild yak has increased since 1990s and the distribution area of wild yak is shrinking. With the changing of the global climate and the intensifying of human activities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, actions should be strengthened to protect the endemic species in this area.

【Keywords】 Bos grunniens; Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; population; distribution; conservation;

【DOI】

【Funds】 National Natural Science Foundation of China (31400361) Special Program for Key Basic Research of the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (2013FY110300) Special Project for Biodiversity of Ministry of Environmental Protection Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province, China (2013B061800042)

Download this article

(Translated by ZHAO B)

    References

    Berger J, Schaller GB, Cheng E, Kang A, Krebs M, Li L, Mark H (2015) Legacies of past exploitation and climate affect mammalian sexes differently on the roof of the world: The case of wild yaks. Scientific Reports, 5, 8676.

    Buzzard PJ, Berger J (2016) Bos mutus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/2892/0. (accessed on 2017-09-14)

    Buzzard PJ, Zhang HB, Xu DH, Wong HM (2010) A globally important wild yak Bos mutus population in the Arjinshan Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Oryx, 44, 577–580.

    Harris RB, Pletscher DH, Loggers CO, Miller DJ (1999) Status and trends of Tibetan Plateau mammalian fauna, Yeniugou, China. Biological Conservation, 87, 13–19.

    Jiang ZG, Ma Y, Wu Y, Wang YX, Zhou KY, Liu SY, Feng ZJ (2015) China’s Mammal Diversity and Geographic Distribution. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Leslie DM, Schaller GB (2009) Bos grunniens and Bos mutus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Mammalian Species, 836, 1–17.

    Liang X, Kang A, Nathalie P (2016) Understanding habitat selection of the vulnerable wild yak Bos mutus on the Tibetan Plateau. Oryx, 51, 361–369.

    Liu JH, Gao JX, Wang WJ (2013) Variations of vegetation coverage and its relations to global climate changes on the Tibetan Plateau during 1981–2005. Journal of Mountain Science, 31, 234–242 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Liu WL, Schaller GB (2003) Distribution and status of wild yak. Tibet Science and Technology, 11, 17–23 (in Chinese).

    Lu FY, Shi JB, Zhang ZH, Su XK, Wu Y, Dong SK, Li XW, Zhang X, Xu DH, Gao F, Weng J (2015) Surveys of Tibetan antelope, kiang and wild yak in Arjinshan Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science), 4, 374–381 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Luo ZH, Tang SH, Li CL, Fang HZ, Hu HJ, Yang J, Ding JJ, Jiang ZG (2012) Environmental effects on vertebrate species richness: Testing the energy, environmental stability and habitat heterogeneity hypotheses. PLoS ONE, 7, e35514.

    Piao RZ, Ma YQ, Cui HS (1999) Current situation of the yak population in China. Life Science Research, 3, 161–169 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Schaller GB (1998) Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

    Schaller GB, Liu W (1996) Distribution, status, and conservation of wild yak Bos grunniens. Biological Conservation, 76, 1–8.

    Schaller GB, Ren J, Qiu M (1991) Observations on the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 29, 416–422.

    Shi Q, Guo Y, Engelhardt SC, Weladji RB, Zhou Y, Long M, Meng X (2016) Endangered wild yak (Bos grunniens) in the Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions: Population size, distribution, conservation perspectives and its relation to the domestic subspecies. Journal for Nature Conservation, 32, 35–43.

    Smith AT, Xie Y (2009) A Guide to the Mammals of China. Hunan Education Press, Changsha (in Chinese).

    The Comprehensive Scientific Expedition to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Chinese Academy of Science (1986) The Mammals of Xizang. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Thomas L, Buckland S, Burnham K, Anderson D, Laake J, Borchers D, Strindberg S (2002) Distance sampling. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, 1,544–552.

    Wang XT (1991) Vertebrate Fauna of Gansu. Gansu Science and Technology Press, Lanzhou (in Chinese).

    Wiener G, Han J, Long R (2003) The Yak. 2nd edn. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok.

    Yao J, Yang BH, Yan P, Liang CN, Guo J, Jiao S, Lang X, Guo X, Feng RL, Cheng SL (2006) Analysis on habitat variance and behaviour of Bos gruiens in China. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 15, 124–128 (in Chinese with English abstract).

    Zhang RZ (2011) Zoogeography of China. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese).

    Zhang ZG, Xia L, Yang QS (2009) Distribution and conservation of yak (Bos grunniens). Chinese Journal of Zoology, 44 (1), 148–150 (in Chinese with English abstract).

This Article

ISSN:1005-0094

CN:11-3247/Q

Vol 26, No. 02, Pages 185-190

February 2018

Downloads:2

Share
Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Overview of the study area and research methods
  • 2 Results
  • 3 Discussion
  • Supplementary material
  • References