不同取样强度下古田山木本植物幼苗组成及其分布格局比较

郭印1,2 王云泉1,2 陈磊2 米湘成2 任海保2 陈声文3 陈建华1

(1.浙江师范大学化学与生命科学学院, 浙江金华 321004)
(2.中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093)
(3.古田山国家级自然保护区管理局, 浙江开化 324300)

【摘要】幼苗阶段是森林群落更新的瓶颈, 研究木本植物幼苗组成和分布格局对正确认识森林群落构建以及多样性维持机制具有十分重要的意义。以往基于幼苗阶段的研究取样强度较小, 主要涉及常见种, 缺乏对稀有种的有效监测。我们对古田山24 ha森林样地幼苗监测网络进行了扩建, 在已有507个1 m×1 m幼苗监测样方的基础上, 增设了285个5 m×5 m幼苗样方, 对样方内所有高度≥10 cm且胸径<1 cm的木本植物幼苗按大样地监测标准进行了定位、挂牌、鉴定和测量。本研究利用2012年5 m×5 m幼苗监测样方的首次调查数据, 比较了24 ha大样地中不同取样强度下幼苗和非幼苗 (胸径≥1 cm的木本植物) 个体在物种组成、多样性分布格局以及生境偏好等方面的差异。结果表明: (1) 285个5 m×5 m幼苗监测样方共计有木本植物幼苗138种20, 581株, Shannon-Wiener多样性指数以及经多度校正的物种丰富度指数均显著高于1 m×1 m幼苗监测样方以及24 ha大样地的非幼苗个体, 该结果与基于Rarefaction方法计算的物种数期望值结果一致;与1 m×1 m幼苗监测样方结果相比, 5 m×5 m幼苗监测样方内物种数–取样面积曲线趋于饱和。 (2) 5 m×5 m幼苗监测样方幼苗与24 ha大样地非幼苗个体物种多度呈异速增长关系, 表明植物在幼苗阶段受到负密度制约效应的影响, 死亡率相对较高。 (3) 取样强度和胸径阈值的选取对群落稀有种的界定有重要影响, 朱砂根 (Ardisia crenata) 、山鸡椒 (Litsea cubeba) 、美丽胡枝子 (Lespedeza thunbergii subsp.formosa) 等物种在24 ha样地水平被认为是稀有种, 但是在5 m×5 m幼苗样方却属于常见种。 (4) 指示种分析结果表明, 基于不同取样强度的幼苗生境指示种与基于大样地非幼苗个体的分析结果存在较大差异。在5 m×5 m幼苗样方中, 13个物种与单一生境类型显著相关, 其中仅有3个物种与1 m×1 m幼苗样方指示种相同, 与24 ha大样地非幼苗相比, 仅有2个共有指示种。总之, 不同取样强度可显著影响幼苗物种多样性格局的分析结果, 通过样方扩建对林下幼苗进行系统监测, 可进一步加深对群落生物多样性维持机制的认识。

【关键词】 古田山; 木本植物幼苗; 取样强度; 稀有种; 物种多样性维持机制;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家自然科学基金面上项目 (31270495)

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ISSN:1005-0094

CN: 11-3247/Q

Vol 24, No. 10, Pages 1093-1104

October 2016

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摘要

  • 1 材料与方法
  • 2 结果
  • 3 讨论
  • 附录Supplementary Material
  • 参考文献