Emotional manufacturing: the study on the female live-streamer’s labor process in pan-entertainment live streaming

TU Yongqian1 XIONG Yun1

(1.School of Labor and Human Resources, Renmin University of China)

【Abstract】This study regarded the female live-streamer in pan-entertainment live streaming as the examination object. Through the method of participatory observation and the method of semi-structural interview, this paper tried to analyze how the technological change and the gender role worked on labor control mechanism together, and hence led to the reconstruction of the labor-customer relationship and generated the phenomenon of emotional manufacturing that inspired customers. The emotional manufacturing needed to undergo the processes of body symbolization, creating public persona and remodeling relationships. These series of processes could also induce the female live-streamer’s different subjective responses. The core meaning of emotional manufacturing was to mobilize the customers’ emotion, transforming the affection to virtual gifts and then to money. This indicated that the labor process not only shaped the female live-streamer but also shaped the fans as customers.

【Keywords】 female live-streamer; labor process theory; emotional labor; emotional management;


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    [1]. (1) The “guild” here is different from the industry guild in the chamber of commerce. The guild in the industry guild was an organization formed by the companies in the same industry in the past. This kind of guild was generally loose, and its members could be organizations or individuals. The guild in the live-streaming industry is a jargon refers to an organization, usually entertainment brokerage firms or studios, which signs, packages and cooperates with live-streamers. The guild seeks, trains and manages live-streamers and delivers live-streamer resources to live-streaming platforms. The gifts obtained by live-streamers in live-streaming rooms are kept by the guild, and are shared between live-streamers and the guild according to a certain proportion. [^Back]

    [2]. (2) Gifts on different live-streaming platforms are different. The gift of the H live-streaming platform which the author joined is “firepower.” [^Back]

    [3]. (3) The duration of a single live streaming longer than one hour is recorded as an effective day. Otherwise, it will be considered as one absence. Guilds have their own distribution rules with live-streamers and the proportions are varied. According to research, live-streamers can earn 20%–70% of the gifts received in live-streaming rooms monthly. [^Back]

    [4]. (4) The guild which the author joined has 65 part-time live-streamers. [^Back]

    [5]. (5) This is a contract template between a guild and a live-streamer. In the contract, Party A is a media company, namely, the guild, and Party B is a live-streamer signing with the guild. [^Back]

    [6]. (6) In the process of live streaming, the number of viewers can be seen on the interfaces of the live-streamer and viewers. The number of viewers actually means the popularity of the live-streamer. For the live-streamer to be promoted, the guild will invest capital to buy data, that is, to increase the number of viewers. In this way, fans will speak highly of the live-streamer, and they tend to think that the live-streamer is popular and valuable. Thus, they would like to stay in the live-streaming room. [^Back]

    [7]. (7) http://politics.people.com.cn/n1/2017/0414/c1001-29209632.html [^Back]


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This Article


CN: 11-3280/C

Vol , No. 04, Pages 1-12+94

July 2019


Article Outline



  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Research review
  • 3 Research methods
  • 4 Emotional manufacturing mechanisms in live-streaming process
  • 5 Conclusions and discussion
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