仿蚯蚓运动多功能开沟器设计及参数优化

贾洪雷1,2 郑健1,2 赵佳乐1,2 郭明卓1,2 庄健1,2 王增辉3

(1.吉林大学工程仿生教育部重点实验室, 长春 130025)
(2.吉林大学生物与农业工程学院, 长春 130025)
(3.东北师范大学人文学院, 长春 130117)

【摘要】针对中国东北地区春播时耕种层土壤温度和含水率较低,严重阻碍大豆根系生长,进而影响大豆发育的难题,该文通过仿生结构设计和理论分析的方法,设计了一种集松土、沟底镇压和开沟功能为一体的仿蚯蚓运动多功能开沟器,其设有的仿蚯蚓动态松土开沟机构可模拟蚯蚓的运动方式对种沟上层土壤进行疏松作业,设有的镇压力调节机构可对种沟下方土壤进行镇压作业。通过参数优化试验和回归分析的方法,研究仿蚯蚓运动多功能开沟器关键结构参数和作业速度对平均土壤温度(0~100 mm)、平均土壤含水率(0~100 mm)和大豆出苗时间的影响规律,并运用Design-Expert和Matlab软件对试验结果进行分析,得出最优参数组合为:作业速度8 km/h、松土机构凸起高度6 mm和波纹圆盘波峰数量15。通过对比验证试验,发现仿蚯蚓运动多功能开沟器相较于传统单元盘和双圆盘开沟器,可提升土壤含水率(0~100 mm)5.92%和4.86%,提高土壤温度(0~100 mm)0.5和0.4℃,提前大豆出苗时间0.5和0.92 d。仿蚯蚓运动多功能开沟器可有效改善土壤耕种层结构,使耕种层土壤达到表层松软和下层坚实的状态,有效提高土壤温度和含水率,进而促进大豆发育,可为提高中国大豆产量提供技术装备支撑。

【关键词】 仿生; 农业机械; 优化; 松土; 镇压; 开沟;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 十三五国家科技支撑计划项目(2017YFD0700701) 国家自然科学基金项目(51705194) 吉林省教育厅十三五科学技术项目(JJKH20170811KJ) 吉林省重点科技成果转化项目(20160307011NY)

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This Article

ISSN:1002-6819

CN: 11-2047/S

Vol 34, No. 12, Pages 62-71

June 2018

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Article Outline

摘要

  • 0 引言
  • 1 仿蚯蚓运动多功能开沟器设计及其作业原理
  • 2 材料与试验
  • 3 试验结果与讨论
  • 4 结论
  • 参考文献