Modi administration’s renewable energy development plan: drivers, achievements and limitations
【Abstract】After the Modi administration took office, India announced that it would begin to promote the world’s largest renewable energy plan. The introduction of this energy plan is rooted in the country’s needs with respect to economic development, energy security, as well as political interests. From 2015 to 2017, the Indian government made several revisions and improvements to the plan, including incorporating specific details of aspects of the plan. Generally speaking, since the implementation of the plan a few achievements have been made, but major gaps remain between its objectives and current levels of implementation. At the same time, India faces many limitations with respect to institutional barriers, capital, land, technology and infrastructure. To present, India has yet to identify effective means of systematically overcoming these limitations, and as a result, risks failing to meet the plan’s objectives according to schedule. What is more, even if it meets its planned objectives, as renewable energy represents only a small fraction of the country’s overall energy consumption, the plan may realize only limited benefits with respect to India’s energy security. As such, India will continue to face long term energy concerns.
【Keywords】 India; renewable energy; energy security; investment risk;
(Translated by LI Mengling)
. ① The energy categories in India’s renewable energy development plan mainly include solar energy, wind energy, hydroenergy (≤25 MW) and bioenergy.
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. ⑤ The generation objective of 5 GW hydroenergy does not include the hydropower capacity >25 MW.
. ⑥ India’s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission was launched by the former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on January 11, 2010, with the goal of deploying 20 GW of grid-connected solar power by 2022.
. ⑦ Carbon intensity refers to the amount of carbon dioxide emitted per unit of the GDP. The level of carbon intensity index does not indicate the level of efficiency. In general, this index decreases along with technological progress and economic growth.
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. ① Calculated based on the relevant data from BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2018.
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. ② Initiated by India and France, International Solar Alliance (ISA) aims to raise more than USD 100 billion for poor developing countries, and through technology sharing and capacity building, strives to add 1000 GW of solar photovoltaic capacity in these countries by 2030. At present, more than 120 countries have indicated their intention to join the ISA, and 60 of them have formally signed the agreement. More than half of the ISA member states are from Africa, followed by the island countries in Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, and fewer members are from Asian countries, with the exception of developed countries outside France and China.
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. ⑤ (100–17.05) GW× 1000 × 7.6 acres/MW = 630420 acres
. ① (100–17.05) GW × 1000 × 7.6 acres/MW = 630420 acres
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