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外商直接投资对东道国企业间工资差距的影响

周云波1 陈岑1 田柳1

(1.中国特色社会主义经济建设协同创新中心、南开大学经济研究所、南开大学政治经济学研究中心 300071)

【摘要】本文在分析外商直接投资(FDI)对东道国内外资企业间工资差距影响的动态过程和理论机制的基础上,利用中国工业企业数据库测算了FDI对我国企业间工资差距的影响程度和变化趋势。理论分析显示,FDI通过劳动力转移效应和技术溢出效应引起的东道国内外资企业间工资差距,呈现先增大后缩小的倒U型特征。实证分析显示,在考察期内,FDI对我国企业间工资差距的影响显著,其贡献率在10%以上,在所考察的所有变量中排在第二位;从趋势上看,FDI的贡献总体呈现逐年下降的趋势。其原因在于:目前FDI引起的我国内外资企业间的工资差距已经进入缩小阶段,即FDI通过劳动力转移效应和技术溢出效应引起的我国内外资企业间的工资差距已经进入倒U型曲线的后半段。未来我们应该充分利用这一特点,进一步扩大对外开放的领域,提高引资质量,从而继续缩小国内企业间的工资差距,这将有助于我国尽快跨越“中等收入陷阱”。

【关键词】 FDI;工资差异;泰尔指数;Sharply值分解;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 教育部新世纪人才项目(项目号:NCET—13—0311)的阶段性成果;教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(12JJD790050)的阶段性成果; 南开大学基本科研业务费专项资金项目的重大课题培育项目(NKZXZD1404)的阶段性成果;

Foreign direct investment and wage inequality in host country

ZHOU Yunbo1 CHEN Cen1 TIAN Liu1

(1.Collaborative Innovation Center for China Economy,Nankai Institute of Economics, Center for Studies of Political Economy of Nankai University 300071)

【Abstract】Based on the theoretical analysis of the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on wage inequality, the paper calculates contributions of relevant factors, particularly FDI, to wage inequality in enterprise-level by using the regression based decomposition approach (Shapley value). Theoretical analysis shows that the wage gap between foreign and local firms which caused by FDI through labor transfer and technology spillover effects presents an inverted U-shaped feature. Empirical analysis shows FDI has great influence on China’s wage inequality which contributed over 10 percent to the wage gap, however,there is a sharp decline in the overall trend. The chief reason is that the wage gap between foreign and local firms which caused by FDI through labor transfer and technology spillover has entered the downward stage. Thus, in order to reduce the wage gap between enterprises, longstanding market-access barriers in China should be dismantled to attract more companies with high technological levels.

【Keywords】 FDI; wage inequality; Theil index; Shapley value decomposition;

【DOI】

【Funds】 The phased achievement of the New Century Excellent Talent Program of Ministry of Education (No.:NCET—13—0311); and the phased achievement of the major program of the Humanities and Social Science Research Base of Ministry of Education (12JJD790050); The phased achievement of the major subject cultivation program under the special fund programs for basic scientific research operations of Nankai University (NKZXZD1404);

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    Footnote

    [1]. ① According to the regulations of the National Bureau of Statistics, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) discussed in this paper includes three forms, namely, exclusively foreign-funded enterprises, Sino-foreign cooperative venture, and Sino-foreign joint venture. [^Back]

    [2]. ① The data from the National Bureau of Statistics show that the wage income in 2013 accounted for 56.9% of the per capita disposable income of China’s residents. [^Back]

    [3]. ② According to Rozelle (2012), the Gini coefficient of the residents’ income in the countries caught in the “middle income trap” after the World War II is about 0.47 on the average. The data from the National Bureau of Statistics show that in 2008, China’s income gap reached its peak, the Gini coefficient of the residents' income was 0.491, and after that the figure went down to 0.469 in 2014. [^Back]

    [4]. ① The Gini coefficient or variation coefficient is generally adopted to measure China’s income gap. However, the Gini coefficient focuses on measuring the overall income gap and has the disadvantages of uncertainty, one-sidedness, and incomparability while variation coefficient focuses on the differences between the average level of the subgroups and the overall income level. The advantage of the Theil index is that it can better measure the differences between the groups. [^Back]

    [5]. ① Assume f(w)=wlnw-w+1, f'_w=lnw>0, f(1)=0, so f(w)>0; assume g(w)=1-w+lnw, g'_w=1/w-1<0, g(1)=0, so g(w)<0, namely, w(1-w+lnw)<0, then η*<1. [^Back]

    [6]. ② Assume h(w)=3w-2lnw-3, then h(1)=0, h'_w(w)=3-2/w>0, so h(w)>0, namely η**-η*>0。 [^Back]

    [7]. ① Given the specific η, the fitted value of A_0 can be obtained. [^Back]

    [8]. ① According to the enterprise registration type of Chinese Industrial Enterprises Database, the foreign-funded enterprises mentioned in this paper mainly includes: Sino-foreign joint venture, Sino-foreign cooperative venture, exclusively foreign-funded enterprises, joint stock company with foreign investment, and Hong Kong-, Macao-, and Taiwan-invested enterprises. [^Back]

    [9]. ② According to Ding (2010), we have categorized the following into the monopolistic industry: petroleum and natural gas mining, petroleum processing, coking and nuclear fuel processing, coal mining and washing, nonferrous metal and ores selection, tobacco products, electric power, thermal production and supply, gas production and supply, and water production and supply. [^Back]

    [10]. ① We delete the samples as follows. The observation value of some important indices are missing and does not meet the “above-scale” standard and comply with the accounting principle and the extreme value of key indices. [^Back]

    [11]. ② As the data of the out-of-factory price indices of some industrial products are missing, we have substituted the indices of other mining industries, agricultural and sideline food processing industry, printing industry, the copying of the recorded media, universal equipment manufacturing industry, waste resources and waste materials recycling and processing industry with the same-period indices of the nonferrous metal picking industry, food manufacturing industry, paper making and paper products industry, special equipment manufacturing industry, art work and other manufacturing industries. [^Back]

    [12]. ③ We conduct matching and identifying over the enterprises based on the method of Brandt (2012). [^Back]

    [13]. ④ Due to space limitations, the results of the multicollinearity test are not listed in this paper. Readers who are interested in it can ask the author for the information. [^Back]

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This Article

ISSN:0577-9154

CN:11-1081/F

Vol 50, No. 12, Pages 128-142

December 2015

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Literature review
  • 3 Theoretical model
  • 4 Data and empirical analysis
  • 5 Regression and decomposition results
  • 6 Conclusion and policy enlightenment
  • Footnote

    References