The reform of the imperial examination system and the origin of the edict ordering the establishment of the Jinshi Bureau

HAN Ce1

(1.Department of History, Peking University, Beijing 100871)

【Abstract】As one of the important measures of the new policy reforms in late Qing, the reform process of the imperial examination system was complicated and circuitous. The imperial edict issued in the eleventh lunar month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu period (1902) to establish the Jinshi Bureau continued the path of reform in the Hanlin Academy around 1900. Adopting methods that could achieve quick results, it further cultivated talented persons who had already been selected by the imperial examination, achieved a crucial transformation in regulations on Hanlin bachelors, and was closely connected with preparations for establishing the Officials’ College in the Imperial University of Peking. In the early discussions of the Political Affairs Council, the difference in opinion among officials about establishing the Jinshi Bureau reflected the complicated entanglements in the relationship between the Hanlin Academy and the Imperial University of Peking as well as the relationship between the imperial examination system and the schools. In the end, the Jinshi Bureau was established under the forceful promotion from Qu Hongji, Rong Qing, and other high officials. The establishment of the Jinshi Bureau was an important reform for the Hanlin Academy and for the mechanisms of cultivating and appointing newly selected jinshi (a successful candidate in the highest imperial examinations). It was a key measure at the highest level to adjust the relationship between schools and the imperial examination system. It corresponded to the new imperial examination regulations of 1901 and was a major component of the reform of the imperial examination system. In the meantime, it was also intended to profoundly constrain the imperial examination system and promote schools instead. The establishment of the Jinshi Bureau thus indicated the directions of change in this period.

【Keywords】 imperial examination; Hanlin Academy; Imperial University of Peking; Qu Hongji; Wang Wenshao;

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(Translated by XUEyongle)

    Footnote

    [1]. ① Tiyuan (Title of a poem by Guan Genglin), Jiechang (Guo Zeyun) (ed.) in Zhonghe Monthly (中和月刊), 1(11): 50 (November 1940).

    [2]. ② Including one compiler, two editors, and several Hanlin bachelors, secretaries in various bureaus, and secretaries in the Grand Secretariat.

    [3]. ① Newly selected jinshi appointed as district magistrates were ordered to study in the Officials’ Colleges of various provinces. First Historical Archives of China. Records of Imperial Edicts in the Guangxu and Xuantong Reigns (光绪宣统两朝上谕档), Book 28. Guangxi Normal University Press, 281 (1996).

    [4]. ② Xie, X. (eds.) Diaries by Rong Qing (荣庆日记), Northwestern University Press, 56 (1986).

    [5]. ③ Shang Yanliu discusses concisely the new regulations on the imperial examinations in 1898 and 1901, tracing the replacement of the Bachelors’ College with the Jinshi Bureau. See Shang, Y. (ed.) Studies in the Qing Dynasty Imperial Examinations and Related Works (清代科举考试述论及有关著作). Baihua Literature and Arts Press, 80–82, 165 (2004). Wolfgang Franke traces the ideas and attempts of reforming and abolishing the imperial examination in the Kangxi and the Qianlong reigns as well as the period since the Tongzhi and the Guangxu periods. He notices the establishment of the Jinshi Bureau and argues that, “if the edict was implemented strictly, it would be an important innovation.” See Wolfgang Franke, The Reform and Abolition of the Traditional Chinese Examination System, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 54 (1963). Wang Dezhao traces in detail the recommendations and measures concerning the reforms and abolishment of the imperial examination in the Kangxi and the Qianlong reigns as well as the period since the Daoguang and the Xianfeng reigns, but regrettably he does not examine in detail the period after 1901. See Wang, D. The Imperial Examination System in the Qing Dynasty (清代科举制度). Zhonghua Book Company, 161–245 (1984). Luo Zhitian examines the changes in selection criteria and reference books before the abolishment of the imperial examination. By studying the influences on publishing, book sales, book purchasing, and lives of scholars, he discusses the various profound social impacts of the abolishment of the examination. See Luo, Z. Social Sciences in China (中国社会科学), (4) (1998). Liu Haifeng examines the last provincial, metropolitan, and palace examinations after the implementation of new regulations in 1901, and he discusses concisely the general situation of newly selected jinsh’s training in new knowledge at the Jinshi Bureau. See Liu, H. Journal of Xiamen University (厦门大学学报), (5) (2003), and Liu, H. Journal of Xiamen University (厦门大学学报), (4) (2004). Li Xizhu uncovers published and unpublished letters and telegraphs to examine the reforms and curtailment of the imperial examination system since 1898 and yields much insight. See Li, X. Studies on Zhang Zhidong and Political Reforms in the Late Qing Dynasty (张之洞与清末新政研究) Shanghai Bookstore Press, 130–140 (2003). Guan Xiaohong discusses the discussion on and abolishment of the imperial examination system in the late-Qing Dynasty and examines the regulations of 1898 and their implementation. She reaches important conclusions on various questions such as the relationship between schools and the examination and the impacts of the abolishment of the examination system. See Guan, X. Social Sciences in China (中国社会科学), (3) (2004); Guan, X. Journal of Historical Science (史学月刊), (10) (2007); Guan, X. Modern Chinese History Studies (近代史研究), (1) (2013); and Guan, X. The Abolishment of the Imperial Examination System and the Modern Chinese Society (科举停废与近代中国社会). Social Science Academic Press, 18–138 (2013).

    [6]. ④ Li Guilian and others outline the development of the Jinshi Bureau in A Hundred Years of Legal Education: History of the Law School of the Peking University (1904–2004) (百年法学:北京大学法学院院史(1904–2004)). Beijing: Peking University Press, 25–29 (2004). Zhou Junxian uses memorials to explain the purpose, courses, and methods of evaluation and rewards of the Jinshi Bureau in Zhou, J. Sources on Culture and Education (文教资料), (March, 2007). Han Ce reconstructs the history of instructors who studied overseas at the beginning of the Jinshi Bureau, discussing their identity crisis and teaching challenges when they taught new knowledge to jinshi with deep education backgrounds. See Han, C. Journal of the Tsinghua University (清华大学学报), (3) (2013).

    [7]. ① Di, Y. The System of the Hanlin Academy of the Qing Dynasty (清代翰林院制度). Beijing: Social Science Academic Press, 8, 161 (2007).

    [8]. ② Shang, Y. & Shang, Z. Studies in the Qing Dynasty Imperial Examinations and Related Works (清代科举考试述录及有关著作), Baihua Literature and Arts Press, 157 (2004).

    [9]. ③ According to the section on “Duties of the chancellors of the Hanlin Academy” in the Compilation of Regulations (会典), “After the jinshi selected by the Ministry of Rituals take the palace examination and are called their names, the Ministry of Rituals will send their roster to the Hanlin Academy. The chancellors will request the emperor to administer an examination at the Baohe Palace. This is called the court examination.” See Imperial Compilation of Regulations of the Great Qing (The Jiaqing reign) (钦定大清会典(嘉庆期)), Book 55, in Shen, Y. Three Compilations of Primary Sources in Modern Chinese History (近代中国史料丛刊三编) (638). Taipei: Wenhai Press, 2545 (1991). Also, in the twenty-first year of the Guangxu period, Censor Xilin sent a memorial reporting errors in the grading of the court examinations of 1892 and 1895. The imperial edict ordered chancellors of the Hanlin Academy to seal and submit the original examination sheets of the court examinations. See section on the fifth month of the twenty-first year of the Guangxu period (Part I), in Veritable Records of the Qing Dezong (清德宗实录), Book 367. Zhonghua Book Company, 798 (1987). We can thus reconsider the claims by Guan Xiaohong that the Ministry of Appointments directed court examinations. The material that Guan cites—Wang Qingyun’s Shiqu Yuji (石渠余纪)—actually demonstrates that the aim of the court examination was to select Hanlin bachelors. See The Abolishment of the Imperial Examination System and the Modern Chinese Society (科举停废与近代中国社会) 229, 238.

    [10]. ④ Sun, J. Memorial suggesting that Hanlin bachelors study politics and foreign affairs upon entering the Hanlin Academy (奏为庶常入馆即宜课以政治兼习洋务敬陈管见事), the eighteenth day of the fourth month of the twenty-seventh year of the Guangxu period, duplicate copy of memorial, First Historical Archives of China, No. 03/7203/127, microfilm 537/0939. Note that the title was created by archivists. The original summary was “Adjustment of Courses in Pursuit of Practical Learning in the Hanlin Academy,” immediate records of the Grand Council, First Historical Archives of China, No. 03/0308/2/1227/105.

    [11]. ⑤ First Historical Archives of China. Records of Imperial Edicts in the Guangxu and Xuantong Reigns (光绪宣统两朝上谕档), Book 27. Guangxi Normal University Press, 81 (1996).

    [12]. ① The edict orders joint changes in graduation examination, final examinations, and make-up examinations. The edict on the sixteenth day of the seventh month of the same year which abolished the eight-legged essay and included the discourse on policies also regulated changes in the forms of questions in graduation and make-up examinations. This reveals that adjustments in the Hanlin Academy were closely related to the reforms of the imperial examination system.

    [13]. ②“Zhang Baixi,” in Wang, Z. Biographies in the Official History of the Qing Dynasty (清史列传) , Book 16. Zhonghua Book Company, 4821 (1987).

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    [19]. ①Subao (苏报), in Selections from News in Current Affairs in Beijing (北京时事采新汇选), (4) the second day of the first month of 1902.

    [20]. ②First Historical Archives of China, Records of Imperial Edicts in the Guangxu and Xuantong Reigns (光绪宣统两朝上谕档), Book 28, Guangxi Normal University Press, 27 (1996).

    [21]. ③Kun, G. & Sun, J. Memorial on methods to supervise imperial academicians to study practical knowledge (奏为遵旨督饬翰林院人员用功实学酌拟办法事), twenty-seventh day of the first month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu period, duplicate copy of memorial, First Historical Archives of China, No. 03/7175/008, microfilm 535/0887.

    [22]. ④First Historical Archives of China, Records of Imperial Edicts in the Guangxu and Xuantong Reigns (光绪宣统两朝上谕档), Book 28, Guangxi Normal University Press, 281 (1996).

    [23]. ⑤ Zhao, D. (ed.) Complete Works of Zhang Zhidong (张之洞全集), Book 12. Wuhan Publishing House, 100 (2008).

    [24]. ⑥Shang, Y. Studies in the Qing Dynasty Imperial Examinations and Related Works (清代科举考试述录及有关著作). Baihua Literature and Arts Press, 164–165 (2004).

    [25]. ⑦Kun, G. Sun, J. & Xu, F. et al. Memorial asking for imperial edict on whether to hold the graduation examination for Hanlin bachelors this year because the metropolitan examination of 1901 is postponed to the next year (奏为补行辛丑科会试改至明年举行庶吉士散馆今年应否举行请旨事), the fifth day of the third month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu period, duplicate copy of memorial, First Archives of China, No. 03/7204/013, microfilm 537/0985.

    [26]. ⑧Shang, Y. Studies in the Qing Dynasty imperial examinations and related works (清代科举考试述录及其有关著作) Baihua Literature and Arts Press, 165 (2004).

    [27]. ① Subao (苏报), the sixth day of the twelfth month of 1901, in Selections from News in Current Affairs in Beijing (北京时事采新汇选), (1–3) nineteenth cay of the twelfth month of 1901.

    [28]. ② Zhao, D. (ed.) Complete Works of Zhang Zhidong (张之洞全集), Book 10. Wuhan Publishing House, 359, 361 (2008).

    [29]. ③ Liao, Y. & Luo, Z. (compiled) Memorials by Yuan Shikai (袁世凯奏议), Part I. Tianjin Ancient Book Press, 482–484 (1987).

    [30]. ④ Zhao, D. (ed.) Complete Works of Zhang Zhidong (张之洞全集), Book 10. Wuhan Publishing House, 368 (2008).

    [31]. ⑤ Peking University and First Historical Archives of China, Selected Documents from the Imperial University of Peking (京师大学堂档案选编). Peking University Press, 101–109 (2001).

    [32]. ⑥Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (3) the second day of the ninth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu period.

    [33]. ⑦ in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao(大公报), (3) the second day of the ninth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu period; Selected Documents from the Imperial University of Peking (京师大学堂档案选编), Peking University Press, 171 (2001).

    [34]. ⑧ Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (3) the sixteenth day of the ninth month of the Guangxu period; Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao, (3) the twenty-second day of the ninth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign; Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (5) the twenty-eighth day of the ninth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [35]. ⑨ Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (4) twenty-seventh day of the ninth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [36]. ①Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (2) the twentieth day of the tenth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign; Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (3) the twenty-eighth day of the tenth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign; Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (4) the second day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [37]. ② Sin Wan Pao (新闻报), (2) the fourth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [38]. ③Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (3) the seventh day of the tenth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [39]. ④ Wang Kangnian’s Letters with Teachers and Friends (汪康年师友书札) Shanghai Ancient Book Press, 1795 (1986).

    [40]. ⑤Gan, P. Diaries on the Journey to the North (北游日记), the ninth day of the sixth month of the twenty-fourth year of the Guangxu reign, in Writings in the Qianlu (潜庐随笔), Book 9. Qianjiang ganshi chongyatang, 18 (1993).

    [41]. ⑥Memorials by Yuan Shikai (袁世凯奏议), Part I, 269–270.

    [42]. ⑦ Wang, S. Collected Works by Yan Fu (严复集). Zhonghua Book Company, 564 (1986).

    [43]. ①For this passage, see Xie, X. Diaries by Rong Qing (荣庆日记). Northwestern University Press, 56 (1986).

    [44]. ②Jiechang (Guo Zuoyun), Writings on the Imperial Examination (科举慨咏) in Zhonghe Monthly (中和月刊), 1(11): 52 (November 1940). Rong Qing was Mongolian and had the posthumous name of Wenke. Guo Zeyun’s father Guo Cengxin at the time served as Chief Secretary of the Grand Council, and was also serving as Supervisor of the Political Affairs Council together with Rong Qing. Guo Zeyun was interested in pursuing historical roots and heard much about affairs at court. Since he was well acquainted with the inner workings of the court, his words surpassed the conjectures by outsiders.

    [45]. ③Wang, J. in Qian, Z. (ed.) Collection of Guangqing Memorials and Biographies (广清碑传集). Suzhou University Press, 1220–1221 (1999).

    [46]. ④ Wang Kangnian’s Letters with Teachers and Friends (汪康年师友书札), Book 2, twenty-eighth day of the tenth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, 1795.

    [47]. ⑤Qu, H. Collected works by Qu Hongji (瞿鸿禨集). Hunan People’s Publishing House, 194 (2010).

    [48]. ⑥See letters from Zhang Jiguang to Wang Kangnian in Wang Kangnian's Letters with Teachers and Friends (汪康年师友书札), Book 2, 1793–1799. Some of them were co-signed by Zhang Jiguang and Zhu Qiqian. Qu espcially asked them “absolutely not to spread the news” implied that they usually “spread the news” widely and that Qu was aware of it and might have even intentionally permitted them to do so.

    [49]. ⑦Imperial Edict (谕旨), Memorial at the Political Affairs Council (政务处折), the second day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, immediate records of the Grand Council, First Historical Archives of China, No. 03/0313/2/1228/292.

    [50]. ⑧Summary of key recent events in Beijing (北京近事述要), in Chinese and Foreign Daily (中外日报), (1) the first day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [51]. ⑨ Chinese and Foreign Daily (中外日报), (1) the second day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [52]. ① Sin Wan Pao (新闻报), (2) the fourth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [53]. ② Sin Wan Pao (新闻报), (1–2), the fourth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign; Shun Pao (申报), (1) the fourth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [54]. ③ Sein Min Choong Bou (新民丛报) 22, (101–102) the fifteenth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [55]. ④ Xuanbao (选报) 47: 16 the fifteenth day of the third month of the twenty-ninth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [56]. ⑤Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (2–3) the ninth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [57]. ⑥Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (2) the thirteenth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [58]. ⑦Undoubtedly, Chief Minister of the Grand Council Rong Lu had the most power. But because he was not selected through the imperial examination, his influence on the issue of examination was relatively muted. Opinions of central officials who used to be jinshi, such as Wang Wenshao, Lu Chuanlin, and Qu Hongji were more noteworthy.

    [59]. ⑧The letter noted “the eighth day of the sixth month according to the Chinese calendar, July 12 according to the Western calendar.” Comparing the Chinese and Western calendars, the date was undoubtedly the eighth day of the sixth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign. But the letter demanded Zhang Jiguang to transfer it. But the day it arrived in Beijing, Zhang Jiguang was in Kaifeng to participate in the provincial examination moved from Shuntian. He did not receive the letter until he returned to Beijing after the examination ended on the sixteenth day of the eighth month. When he submitted it to Qu Hongji, it was probably already in the ninth month. In Letter from Yang Yulin to Qu Hongji (杨毓麟致瞿鸿禨), the eighth day of the sixth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, third letter in Qu Hongji’s letters with friends and colleagues (瞿鸿禨朋僚书牍), Archives of the Modern Chinese History Institute in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, No. A 375-2.

    [60]. ①Letter from Zhang Jiguang to Qu Hongji, around the end of the eighth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, second letter in Qu Hongji's letters with friends and colleagues (瞿鸿禨朋僚书牍), Archives of the Modern Chinese History Institute in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, No. A 375-1.

    [61]. ②According to Chinese and Foreign Daily (中外日报) which had insider information, “since the beginning of the proposal, imperial academicians would enter the Officials’ College for one year. The one with the top ability in languages would be selected and sent abroad.” In Summary of key recent events in Beijing (北京近事述要), in Chinese and Foreign Daily (中外日报), (1) the first day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [62]. ③See Li, X. Studies on Zhang Zhidong and Political Reforms in the Late Qing Dynasty (张之洞与清末新政研究), 123, 135–139; Guan, X. The Abolishment of the Imperial Examination System and the Modern Chinese Society (科举停废与近代中国社会), 95–100.

    [63]. ④Zhang Jiguang was ranked the twenty-fourth among those who passed the provincial examination. Complete record of the provincial examination in all provinces in the special make-up examination for 1900 and 1901 during the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign (光绪二十八年补行庚子、辛丑恩正并科各省乡试同年全录), (2) the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [64]. ⑤For this passage, see Letter from Zhang Jiguang to Qu Hongji (张缉光致瞿鸿禨), the seventeenth day of the tenth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, second letter in Qu Hongji’s letters with friends and colleagues (瞿鸿禨朋僚书牍), Archives of the Modern Chinese History Institute in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, No. A 375-1.

    [65]. ①In terms of abolishing the imperial examination system, Qu Hongji was not as radical as Zhang Baixi directly involved in the university. Qu said, “as for abolishing the imperial examination, the court should gather officials from six ministries, nine senior officials, and officials on all levels to agree unanimously before issuing the edict so as to avoid future controversies.” Xuanbao (选报) 47: 16, the fifteenth day of the third month of the twenty-ninth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [66]. ②Letter from Zhang Jiguang to Qu Hongji, around the end of the tenth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, second letter in the Qu Hongji pengliao shudu (Qu Hongji’s letters with friends and colleagues), Archives of the Modern Chinese History Institute in the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, No. A 375-1.

    [67]. ③Ye, C. Diaries in the Yuandulu (缘督庐日记), Book 5. Jiangsu Ancient Book Press, photocopy version, 3538 (2002).

    [68]. ④Luo Zhitian once pointed out the functional “transition” between the Imperial University and the Hanlin Academy. “The schools established in the late-Qing Dynasty originally only sought to train new kinds of scholar-officials’ to cope with new trends. In particular, students in the Imperial University used to be officials, so the school functioned as a new kind of Hanlin Academy. Social Sciences in China (中国社会科学), 4: 191 (1998).

    [69]. ① Shi, P. & Xu, S. (eds.) Complete Works of Wu Rulun (吴汝纶全集), Book 3. Huangshan Book Company, 597–598 (2002); Xu, Y. Papers of Yishi (一士谭荟), Zhonghua Book Company, 134, 136 (2007).

    [70]. ② Wang Kangnian’s Letters with Teachers and Friends (汪康年师友书札), 1787.

    [71]. ③The Manchu chancellor of the Hanlin Academy Kungang was suffering from illness and would soon retire, so he was unable to take up this responsibility. Wang Wenhao belonged to the same cohort of scholars who passed the provincial examination in the first year of the Xianfeng reign. At that time, similar rumors also circulated that, “some imperial academician requested that the Imperial University be incorporated into the Hanlin Academy and that supervisors of studies be turned into chancellors of the academy. He further asked to send a prince to serve as inspector of studies, so he wanted to constrain the actions of the Imperial University.” In Compilation of important affairs on the university (大学要务汇志), in Sin Wan Pao (新闻报), (2) the fourth day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [72]. ④ Wang Kangnian’s Letters with Teachers and Friends (汪康年师友书札), 1795.

    [73]. ⑤ Xie, X. Diaries by Rong Qing (荣庆日记). Northwestern University Press, 70 (1986).

    [74]. ⑥Memorial at the Political Affairs Council (政务处折), the second day of the eleventh month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign, immediate records of the Grand Council, First Historical Archives of China, No. 03/0313/2/1228/292.

    [75]. ⑦See Shang, Y. Studies in the Qing Dynasty Imperial Examinations and Related Works (清代科举考试述录及其有关著作) 160.

    [76]. ⑧Key news from current affairs (时事要闻), in Tianjin Ta Kung Pao (大公报), (3) the twenty-fourth day of the fourth month of the twenty-eighth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [77]. ⑨The first supervisor of the Jinshi Bureau was Zhi Hengrong, and the supervisor of academic affairs was Hua Xuelan. For details on instruction at the beginning of the Jinshi Bureau, see Han, C. Journal of Tsinghua University (清华大学学报), (3) (2013).

    [78]. ①Shen, Y. First Compilation of Primary Sources in Modern Chinese History (近代中国史料丛刊初编). Taipei: Wenhai Press, 450–451 (1970).

    [79]. ②Xu, Y. in Guowen Zhoubao (国闻周报) 6(26): 56 (1929-7-7).

    [80]. ③Guo, Z. in Zhang, Y.(ed.) Collection of Commentaries on Poems in Republican China (民国诗话丛编) Book 4. Shanghai Bookstore Press, 801 (2002).

    [81]. ④Zhao, D. (ed.) Complete Works of Zhang Zhidong (张之洞全集), Book 12, 106.

    [82]. ⑤See Xu, Y. Works of Yishi (一士谭荟), 134–139.

    [83]. ⑥See Summary of key recent events in Beijing (北京近事述要), in Chinese and Foreign Daily (中外日报), (2) the first day of the first month of the twenty-ninth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [84]. ⑦Summary of key recent events in Beijing (北京近事述要), in Chinese and Foreign Daily (中外日报), (1) the tenth day of the second month, the nineteenth day of the fifth month, and the seventh day of the fifth month of the twenty-ninth year of the Guangxu reign.

    [85]. ⑧Luo Dunrong who worked in the Imperial University at the time said that, when the Jinshi Bureau was established by the end of the Qing Dynasty, “jinshi were all greatly provoked. Imperial academicians also complained about the graduation and make-up examinations. They held a deep grudge against Minister Zhang Baixi.” Shen, Y. Three Compilations of Primary Sources in Modern Chinese History (近代中国史料丛刊三编) (256), Taipei: Wenhai Press, 265–266 (1987).

    [86]. ⑨With the exception of Wang Wenshao. See Guan, X. The Abolishment of the Imperial Examination System and the Modern Chinese Society (科举停废与近代中国社会) 83–101, 122–132.

    [87]. ⑩See Li, X. Studies on Zhang Zhidong and Political Reforms in the Late Qing Dynasty (张之洞与清末新政研究), 134–135; Guan, X. The Abolishment of the Imperial Examination System and the Modern Chinese Society (科举停废与近代中国社会), 94.

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January 2015

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Abstract

  • Introduction
  • 1 The reorganization of the Hanlin Academy around 1900
  • 2 The planning for the Officials’ College and the establishment of the Jinshi Bureau
  • 3 Proponents behind the scenes for the establishment of the Jinshi Bureau: Qu Hongji, Rong Qing
  • 4 Debates among central officials over the reeducation of jinshi
  • 5 Conclusion
  • Footnote

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