Cooling performance of cylindrical battery pack based on thermal management system with heat pipe
(2.Guangdong Province Engineering Research Center of High Efficient and Low Pollution Energy Conversion, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China 510640)
【Abstract】The reasonable design of a thermal management system is a key to improve the battery cooling performance. A battery thermal management system based on the combination of heat pipe and conduction element was proposed for a cylindrical battery pack. A numerical model was developed and validated with experimental results. The effect of conduction element on the thermal performance of the proposed thermal management system was numerically investigated. The results show that the conduction element significantly improves the thermal performance of the proposed thermal management system due to the increase of the contact area between conduction elements and batteries. The thermal performance can be improved by increasing the circumference angle between conduction elements and batteries to enlarge the contact area. But this improvement effect is slight when the circumference angle is greater than 95°. Its temperature can be slightly decreased by increasing the thickness of conduction element, and it is suggested that the thickness should be within 4 mm.
【Keywords】 cylindrical battery; heat pipe; conduction element; cooling performance; experimental validation; numerical analysis;
 ZHANG K Y, YAO Y C. Research progress of lithium iron phosphate cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries [J]. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2015, 34(1): 166–172 (in Chinese).
 XU M, ZHANG Z Q, JIA L, et al. Research on electrochemical and heat transfer characteristics of discharge process for cylindrical lithium-ion power battery [J]. Proceedings of the CSEE, 2013, 33(32): 54–61+5 (in Chinese).
 ZHANG J B, WU B, LI Z. Research status and prospect of thermal simulation and thermal design for vehicle power lithium-ion battery [J]. Journal of Integration Technology, 2014, 3(1): 18–26 (in Chinese).
 LI Z X, LI Y, ZHOUK K, et al. Study on the battery temperature rise with different driving cycles for pure electric vehicles [J]. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2014, 50(16): 180–185 (in Chinese).
 XIE X Y, WANG L, HE X M, et al. Influence factors of safety problems for lithium-ion battery [J]. Energy Storage Science and Technology, 2017, 6(1): 43–51 (in Chinese).
 HU R H. Numerical simulation of thermal characteristics and heat dissipation device for lithium-ion battery electric vehicle [D]. Guangzhou: South China University of Technology, 2014 (in Chinese).
 CAI F L, XU S C, CHANG G F. Review on lithium-ion battery thermal management for pure electric vehicles [J]. Chinese Journal of Power Sources, 2012, 36(9): 1410–1413 (in Chinese).
 YANG B, XIA S L, ZHAO J Z, et al. Research on air cooling technology for battery unit [J]. Automobile Applied Technology, 2016, (10): 24–26 (in Chinese).
 ZHAO C R, CAO W J, DONG T, et al. The micro channel liquid cooling model for cylindrical lithium-ion battery module [J]. CIESC Journal, 2017, 68(8): 3232–3241 (in Chinese).
 LI Z Y, FANG X M, WANG S F, et al. Research progress of the thermal management system on phase change materials for lithium ion battery [J]. Energy Storage Science and Technology, 2013, 2(5): 451–459 (in Chinese).
 ZHAO J T, RAO Z H, LI Y M. Numerical simulation on thermal management for dynamic battery based on phase change materials [J]. Journal of Engineering Thermophysics, 2016, 37(6): 1275–1280 (in Chinese).
 WANG Z W, ZHANG H Y, XIA X. Experimental investigation on the thermal behavior of cylindrical battery with composite paraffin and fin structure [J]. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2017, 109: 958–970.
 CHEN S T, LI W W, WANG X K, et al. Thermal management on phase change material for proton exchange membrane fuel cell [J]. CIESC Journal, 2016, 67(S1): 1–6 (in Chinese).
 WANG Y H, ZHANG C L, YUH G, et al. The progress of phase change materials applied in battery thermal management [J]. Journal of Function Materials, 2013, 44(22): 3213–3218 (in Chinese).
 HONG S H, ZHANG X Q, WANG S F, et al. Research progress on heat pipe technology of thermal management system for lithium-ion power battery [J]. Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2014, 33(11): 2932–2927+2940 (in Chinese).
 WU W X, YANG X Q, ZHANG G Q, et al. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of heat pipe-assisted phase change material based battery thermal management system [J]. Energy Conversion and Management, 2017, 138: 486–492.
 ZHAO J T, LV P Z, RAO Z H. Experimental study on the thermal management performance of phase change material coupled with heat pipe for cylindrical power battery pack [J]. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2017, 82: 182–188.
 TRAN T, HARMAND S, SAHUT B. Experimental investigation on heat pipe cooling for hybrid electric vehicle and electric vehicle lithium-ion battery [J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 264: 262–272.
 SHAH K, MCKEE C, CHALISE D, et al. Experimental and numerical investigation of core cooling of Li-ion cells using heat pipes [J]. Energy, 2016, 113: 852–860.
 WORWOOD D, KELLNER Q, WOJTALA M, et al. A new approach to the internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells for automotive applications [J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2017, 346: 151–166.
 BASU S, HARIHARANK S, KOLAKE S M, et al. Coupled electrochemical thermal modelling of a novel Li-ion battery pack thermal management system [J]. Applied Energy, 2016, 181: 1–13.
 WANG J, GUO H, YE F, et al. Numerical simulation on heat pipe cooling device for the effect of temperature distribution of lithium ion batteries in the car [J]. CIESC Journal, 2016, 67(S2): 340–347 (in Chinese).
 WANG J P, HU Y L. The analysis of temperature field for lithium ion battery [J]. Chinese Journal of Power Sources, 2008, 32(2): 120–121+131 (in Chinese).
 WANG S X, ZHANG N, GAO M. Simulation analysis of thermal management system for lithium battery of electric vehicle [J]. Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, 2016, 15(1): 40–45 (in Chinese).
 ZHAO J T, RAO Z H, HUO Y T, et al. Thermal management of cylindrical power battery module for extending the life of new energy electric vehicles [J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 85: 33–43.
 YE Y H, SAW L H, SHI Y X, et al. Numerical analyses on optimizing a heat pipe thermal management system for lithium-ion batteries during fast charging [J]. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2015, 86: 281–291.
 GRECO A, CAO D P, JIANG X, et al. A theoretical and computational study of lithium-ion battery thermal management for electric vehicles using heat pipes [J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 257: 344–355.
 RAMOTAR L, ROHRAUER G L, FILION R, et al. Experimental verification of a thermal equivalent circuit dynamic model on an extended range electric vehicle battery pack [J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2017, 343: 383–394.
 WANG Q K, HE Y J, SHEN J N, et al. A unified modeling framework for lithium-ion batteries: an artificial neural network based thermal coupled equivalent circuit model approach [J]. Energy, 2017, 138: 118–132.
 SUN H G, WANG X H, TOSSAN B, et al. Three-dimensional thermal modeling of a lithium-ion battery pack [J]. Journal of Power Sources, 2012, 206: 349–356.