中国与世界卫生组织的创建及早期合作(1945—1948)

苏静静1 张大庆1

(1.北京大学医学人文研究院)
【知识点链接】联合国善后救济总署; 黑热病

【摘要】1945—1948年,中国与世界卫生组织的早期互动是中国主动参与国际卫生治理的首次尝试。作为创始国和最早的会员国,中国发起成立世界卫生组织的创议并参与其筹建的全程,尤其在其命名、组织结构和指导理念等方面贡献了中国智慧和外交才能。作为世界卫生组织过渡委员会最主要的合作者之一,中国与世界卫生组织在传染病控制和人才培养方面开展了技术合作,但由于资源匮乏、战乱和国际国内政治的变化,援助多于合作,而且实际成效并不显著。在参与世界卫生组织西太平洋地区办事处的筹建与发展中,更是遗憾多于贡献。

【关键词】 世界卫生组织; 西太平洋地区办事处; 全球卫生史过渡委员会;

【DOI】

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    脚注

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    [5]. (4)美国总统杜鲁门在国际卫生大会开幕式上应邀致辞时所发出的呼吁。 [^Back]

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    [7]. (2)施思明(1908-1998年),浙江人,中国外交家施肇基之子,曾担任过中华医学会秘书,1944-1945年起,在位于华盛顿的联总卫生处工作,担任远东委员会委员,1945-1948年,专注于世界卫生组织的筹。1948年后,任职于联合国卫生司。 [^Back]

    [8]. (3)Szeming Sze,The Origins of the World Health Organization:A Personal Memoir,1946-1948,Boca Raton,Florida L L.I.S.Z.Publications,1983,p.24. [^Back]

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    [10]. (2)WHO,The First Ten Years of the World Health Organization,Geneva,WHO,1958,pp.38-39. [^Back]

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    [12]. (1)Alexander Manuila,ed.,EMRO:Partners in Health in the Eastern Mediterranean 1949-1989,Alexandria:WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean,1991,p.24. [^Back]

    [13]. (1)安德里亚·司丹巴,被誉为20世纪社会医学和国际卫生领域最具有个人魅力的领军人物。第一次世界大战后,在初建的南斯拉夫建立起覆盖全国的卫生服务体系,成为各国学习和推广的成功模式。曾任职于国联卫生组织,并于1933-1936年在中国活动,在其指导下,南京国民政府建立起从国家到地方的卫生体制。他作为社会及经济理事会副主席,被选入技术筹备委员会,不过在从南斯拉夫赶往巴黎的路上被耽搁了数日,结果委员会主席一职被比利时的勒内·桑德捷足先登。他随后当选为第一次世界卫生大会主席。该健康定义的英文原文:Whereas health is not only the absence of infirmity and disease,but also a state of physical and mental well-being and fitness resulting from positive factors,such as adequate feeding,housing and training,United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Minutes of the Technical Preparatory Committee for the International Health Conference,p.61。 [^Back]

    [14]. (2)“Oral History Interview with Henry Van Zile Hyde,”in Harry S.Truman Presidential Library and Museum,independence,1975,http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/hydehvz.htm,2015-09-01. [^Back]

    [15]. (3)英文原文为“Satisfactory individual and collective emotional health is essential to the harmony of human relations”。 [^Back]

    [16]. (4)英文原文为“Health is a state of physical fitness and of mental and social well-being not only the absence of infirmity and disease,”Szeming Sze,The Origins of the World Health Organization:A Personal Memoir,1945-1948,p.26。 [^Back]

    [17]. (5)英文原文为“Health is a state of complete physical fitness and of mental and social well-being,not only the absence of infirmity and disease,”United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Proceedings and Final Acts of the International Health Conference,Official Records of the World Health Organization,No.2,1946,p.16。 [^Back]

    [18]. (1)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Minutes of the Technical Preparatory Committee for the International Health Conference,pp.10-11. [^Back]

    [19]. (2)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Minutes of the Technical Preparatory Committee for the International Health Conference,p.11;Szeming Sze,The Origins of the World Health Organization:A Personal Memoir,1945-1948,p.26. [^Back]

    [20]. (3)Theodore M.Brown,et al.,“The World Health Organization and the Transition from‘International’to‘Global’Public Health,”pp.62-72. [^Back]

    [21]. (1)从18世纪中期开始,为了应对霍乱、黄热病、鼠疫的流行,并协调不同国家就贸易和隔离检疫制度所产生的摩擦和矛盾,欧洲曾召开了十一次国际卫生大会,但收效甚微。 [^Back]

    [22]. (2)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Proceedings and Final Acts of the International Health Conference,pp.7-8。沈克非(1898-1972),浙江人,外科学家和医学教育家。1941-1946年,担任中央卫生署副署长;后担任国立上海医学院外科教授,兼附属中山医院院长和外科主任;1949-1959年,担任中国人民解放军医学科学院副院长,负责科研工作,开创了实验外科。1959年后,重新担任上海第一医学院副院长和中山医院院长。1972年,因患胰腺癌逝世。袁贻瑾(1899-2003),湖北人,中国公共卫生学创始人之一,曾任协和医学院公共卫生学系主任,1949后在世界卫生组织和联合国儿童救济署工作。 [^Back]

    [23]. (3)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Proceedings and Final Acts of the International Health Conference,p.115. [^Back]

    [24]. (1)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Proceedings and Final Acts of the International Health Conference,pp.14-15. [^Back]

    [25]. (1)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Proceedings and Final Acts of the International Health Conference,p.18. [^Back]

    [26]. (2)World Health Organization Interim Commission,Chronicle of the World Health Organization,Vol.1,No.12,1947,pp.175-178. [^Back]

    [27]. (1)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Report of the Interim Commission to the First World Health Assembly,Part I Activities,New York,Geneva:WHO,1948,pp.50-51. [^Back]

    [28]. (2)Ibid.,p.51. [^Back]

    [29]. (1)United Nations World Health Organization Interim Commission,Report of the Interim Commission to the First World Health Assembly,Part I Activities,New York,Geneva:WHO,1948,p.50. [^Back]

    [30]. (1)远东疫况情报局并非世界卫生组织西太区的前身,但是它作为国联的区域机构之一,也为世界卫生组织采取地区化管理提供了一定的参考。 [^Back]

    [31]. (2)Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO,The Fifty Years of WHO in Western Pacific Region(1948-1998),Manila:WHO-WPRO,1998,p.24. [^Back]

    [32]. (1)Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO,The Fifty Years of WHO in Western Pacific Region(1948-1998),Manila:WHO-WPRO,1998,p.18. [^Back]

    [33]. (2)World Health Organization,Verbatim Records of Plenary Meetings,Minutes and Reports of Main Committees,Summary of Resolutions and Records,First World Health Assembly,Official Records of the World Health Organization,No.13,1948,pp.269-270. [^Back]

    [34]. (3)美属萨摩亚、英属索罗门岛保护国,文莱、斐济、吉尔柏特及埃里斯群岛、关岛、香港、新赫布里底群岛(瓦努阿图的旧称)、新西兰外部领土、新婆罗洲、英属南太平洋其他领土、美国太平洋群岛托管地、沙捞越、新加坡、汤加。 [^Back]

    [35]. (4)当时的西太区仍被称为远东区。 [^Back]

    [36]. (1)这座建筑位于汾阳路79号,主楼三层,占地5862平方米。建于1905年,原为法租界公董总董住宅,属法国后期文艺复兴时期建筑样式的典范,是一座为建筑界、文化界一致赞赏的优秀近代建筑,有“沪上小白宫”之称。1949年后,上海市第一任市长陈毅曾在此居住。1960年,交上海工艺美术研究所,现已成为上海市工艺美术博物馆。 [^Back]

    [37]. (2)WHO,Minutes of First Regional Committee,Manila:WHO-WPRO,1951,pp.8-10. [^Back]

This Article

ISSN:1671-4709

CN: 11-4782/D

Vol 37, No. 03, Pages 108-126+6

June 2016

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Article Outline

知识点

摘要

  • 一、世界卫生组织成立的背景
  • 二、创议:旧金山会议
  • 三、筹备:技术筹备委员会
  • 四、过渡与建立:从“世界卫生会议”到“世界卫生大会”
  • 五、中国与世界卫生组织西太平洋地区办事处的创建
  • 结语
  • 脚注