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拉美民众主义的悖论:根源与后果

袁东振1

(1.中国社会科学院拉丁美洲研究所)

【摘要】拉美民众主义历经百年而不衰,其产生与发展具有深刻的经济、政治、社会和思想文化根源。在拉美地区,民众主义与民族主义共生,经济民众主义与政治民众主义相互交织,左翼民众主义与右翼民众主义并存。拉美民众主义与欧美民粹主义缺乏承继性和关联性,也与其他地区民粹主义不完全相同。民众主义在拉美特殊历史条件下具有一定进步作用和积极意义。然而拉美民众主义在理论和实践上有严重缺陷,也造成一系列消极后果,形成诸多悖论。拉美民众主义试图以国家干预促进经济发展,最终却造成经济崩溃;试图通过反现存体制来推进民主政治,却进一步加剧体制的脆弱性;试图推进社会公平,最终却加剧社会不满。拉美的经验表明,要消除民众主义的消极后果,必先消除其产生和发展的经济、政治、社会和思想文化根源。

【关键词】 民众主义;民族主义;左翼与右翼;拉丁美洲;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 国家社科基金项目“拉美21世纪社会主义研究”(批准号15BGJ041);

Paradox of populism in Latin America: origin and consequences

YUAN Dongzhen1

(1.Institute of Latin American Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)

【Abstract】Populism in Latin American countries has a history of more than one hundred years, starting from late 19th century, and its inauguration and development are deeply rooted in the local economic, political, social, ideological and cultural conditions. In Latin America, populism has a deep symbiosis with nationalism, and economic populism and political populism are intertwined, while left-wing populism and right-wing populism coexist. Populism in Latin America does not come from or have linkups with populism in North America and Europe; it is also different from populism in other regions. Given the special social conditions in Latin America, populism has been, in a sense, a positive force in the region; however, given its many serious flaws both in theory and practice, populism has caused a series of serious negative consequences and becomes quite paradoxical. The populists in Latin American countries have attempted to promote economic development through state intervention, promote democracy through measures against established systems, and enhance social equity through the distributive public policy. However, in contrast to their original purposes, those measures have caused economic collapse, exacerbated the fragility of democratic system and intensified social dissatisfaction. The experiences of those Latin American countries show that in order to avoid the negative consequences of populism, it is necessary to eliminate the economic, political, social, ideological and cultural root causes of populism.

【Keywords】 populism; nationalism; left-wing and right-wing; Latin America;

【DOI】

【Funds】 The National Social Science Fund of China (15BGJ041);

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    Footnote

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This Article

ISSN:1007-0974

CN: 11-3799/F

Vol , No. 06, Pages 143-160+8

November 2018

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Article Outline

Knowledge

Abstract

  • 1 Uniqueness of Latin American populism expressions
  • 2 Deep roots of Latin American populism
  • 3 Paradox of Latin American populism: impact and consequences
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