Europe and the world: an international political economics perspective

REN Lin1 ZHENG Haiqi2

(1.Associate researcher at Institute of World Economics and Politics, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
(2.Postgraduate at School of International Studies, Renmin University of China)

【Abstract】Recent developments in Europe mainly focus on political, economic, social and security issues including non-traditional security issues, such as election, refugee and terrorism, economic recovery mixed with potential crisis, and the slow progress of the Brexit. Although the outcomes of general elections seem to be largely predictable, which is expected to benefit economic recovery, underlying problems remain and there are still great uncertainties. Changes in Europe may profoundly influence the power structure of international politics a well as the landscape of world economy and global governance. In terms of power structure, the EU’s capacity and influence as one pole shrinks. The US-Europe relationship would become more pragmatic, the Russia-Europe relations have some room FOR improvement, and the Sino-Europe relations have promising prospects. In terms of global governance, major countries still need to deepen cooperation in the field of international currency, trade, development and security to jointly tackle various challenges. Sharing wide range of common interests with Europe, China needs to get prepared for the opportunities and challenges brought by European transformation to deepen mutual trust and match the “Belt and Road” initiative with Europe’ development strategy so that they can seek to achieve inclusive development that benefits both sides.

【Keywords】 European election; refugee crisis; Brexit; Sino-Europe relations; global governance;

【DOI】

Download this article

    Footnote

    [1]. [1] Griff Witte, James Mc Auley and Michael Birnbaum, “Merkel’s Stumble in the German Election Has Big Implications for Europe,” September, 2017, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/merkel-wins-another-term-in-germany-but-far-right-spoils-her-victory-party/2017/09/25/87e1bb78-9e1c-11e7-b2a7-bc70b6f98089_story.html?utm_term=.96b9355abbc9/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [2]. [2] Matthias Matthijs and Erik Jones, “This Was the Worst Possible German Election for Europe,” September, 2017, http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/09/26/this-was-the-worst-possible-german-election-for-europe/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [3]. [3] “French Election Results: Emmanuel Macron Says France Facing ‘Immense Task’ to Rebuild European Unity as He Defeats Marine Le Pen,” May, 2017, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/07/french-election-live-marine-le-pen-emmanuel-macron-presidency/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [4]. [1] “Austrian Conservatives and Far Right to Start Coalition Talks,” October, 2017, https://www.politico.eu/article/heinz-christian-strache-sebastian-kurz-austria-conservatives-and-far-right-to-start-coalition-talks/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [5]. [2] Emily Schultheis, “The New Face of European Right-Wing Populism,” October, 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2017/10/austria-immigration-sebastian-kurz/542964/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [6]. [3] Anna Grzymala Busse, “Austrian Election Proves Right-wing Populism Is New Normal in Europe,” October, 2017, http://thehill.com/opinion/international/356575-austrian-election-proves-right-wing-populism-is-new-normal-in-europe/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [7]. [4] International Organization for Migration, “Mediterranean Migrant Arrivals Reached 171, 635 in 2017; Deaths Reach 3, 116,” May 1st, 2018, https://www.iom.int/news/mediterranean-migrant-arrivals-reached-171635-2017-deaths-reach-3116[2018-05-09]. [^Back]

    [8]. [5] Europol, European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report 2017, 2017. [^Back]

    [9]. [6] Jane’s, Islamic State Returnees Pose Threat to Europe, March 5, 2017. [^Back]

    [10]. [1] Peter R. Neumann, Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalisation that Lead to Terrorism: Ideas, Recommendations, and Good Practices from the OSCE Region, 2017. [^Back]

    [11]. [2] “German Minister Threatens Action Against EU States over Refugees,” September, 2017, http://af.reuters.com/article/id AFKCN1BH1RA/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [12]. [3] European Commission, “Relocation: Commission Launches Infringement Procedures Against the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland,” June, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1607_en.htm/[2017-11-20]. [^Back]

    [13]. [4] IUNHCR, “Europe Regional Update,” September, 2017, http://www.unhcr.org/excom/orginfo/59c8fd827/europe-regional-update.html?query=europe/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [14]. [5] Eurostat, GDP Up by 0.6%in Both eurozone and EU28, March 7, 2018. [^Back]

    [15]. [1] OECD, Understanding the Socio-Economic Divide in Europe, January 26, 2017. [^Back]

    [16]. [2] “Europe’s Inequality Highly Destabilising, ECB’s Draghi Says,” June, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/ecb-policy-draghi/europes-inequality-highly-destabilising-ecbs-draghi-says-id USL3N1JN44D/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [17]. [3] Eurostat, Provision of Deficit and Debt Data for 2016-first Notification, April 24, 2017. [^Back]

    [18]. [4] Eurostat, Second Quarter of 2017 Compared with First Quarter of 2017, October 24, 2017. [^Back]

    [19]. [5] Eurostat, “General Government Gross Debt (EDP concept) , Consolidated-annual Data,” http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/table.do?tab=table&init=1&language=en&pcode=tipsgo10&plugin=1/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [20]. [6] International Monetary Fund, IMF Country Report: Greece, July 2017. [^Back]

    [21]. [7] Silvia Merler, “Should We Worry About Greek Banks?,” February, 2017, http://bruegel.org/2017/02/should-we-worry-about-greek-banks/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [22]. [8] International Monetary Fund, “IMF Executive Board Approves in Principle€1.6 Billion Stand-By Arrangement for Greece,” July, 2017, https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2017/07/20/pr17294-greece-imf-executive-board-approves-in-principle-stand-by-arrangement/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [23]. [1] UK Parliament, “European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill: Summary of Commons Second Reading Debate,” February, 2017, http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/Research Briefing/Summary/LIF-2017-0013/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [24]. [2] UK Government, The United Kingdom’s Exit from and New Partnership with the European Union, February 2017. [^Back]

    [25]. [3] European Commission, Communication From the Commission to the European Council (ARTICLE 50): on the State of Progress of the Negotiations with the United Kingdom Under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, December, 2017, p.3, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/1_en_act_communication.pdf/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [26]. [4] European Commission, “Press Statement by Michel Barnier Following the Fifth Round of Article 50Negotiations with the United Kingdom,” October, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-17-3921_en.htm/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [27]. [5] European Commission, “Joint Report from the Negotiators of the European Union and the United Kingdom Government on Progress During Phase 1 of Negotiations Under Article 50 TEU on the United Kingdom’s Orderly Withdrawal from the European Union,” December, 2017, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/joint_report.pdf/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [28]. [1] James Black, Alex Hall, Kate Cox, Marta Kepe, Erik Silfversten, Defence and Security After Brexit: Understanding the Possible Implications of the UK’s Decision to Leave the EU, RAND Corporation, 2017. [^Back]

    [29]. [2] Günther Oettinger, “What Is Your Europe Worth?,” June, 2017, https://ec.europa.eu/commission/commissioners/2014-2019/oettinger/blog/what-your-europe-worth_en/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [30]. [1] James Black, Alex Hall, Kate Cox, Marta Kepe, Erik Silfversten, Defence and Security After Brexit: Understanding the Possible Implications of the UK’s Decision to Leave the EU, RAND Corporation, 2017. [^Back]

    [31]. [2] Council of the EU, “Remarks by President Donald Tusk After Meeting with President Donald Trump,” May, 2017, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/05/25/tusk-trump-remarks/[2017-11-25]. [^Back]

    [32]. [3] The White House, “The Inaugural Address,” January, 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/inaugural-address/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [33]. [1] The White House, “Remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly,” September, 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/09/19/remarks-president-trump-72nd-session-united-nations-general-assembly/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [34]. [2] Council of the EU, “Remarks by President Donald Tusk After Meeting with President Donald Trump,” May, 2017, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/05/25/tusk-trump-remarks/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [35]. [3] The White House, “Remarks by the Vice President and European Council President Tusk,” February, 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/02/20/remarks-vice-president-and-european-council-president-tusk/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [36]. [4] Principled realism has appeared in Trump’s speeches many times. See Trump’s speeches at the Arab Islamic American Summit, Strategy in Afghanistan and South Asia and the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly. “President Trump’s Speech to the Arab Islamic American Summit,” https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/05/21/president-trumps-speech-arab-islamic-american-summit[2017-12-02]; “Remarks by President Trump on the Strategy in Afghanistan and South Asia,” https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/08/21/remarks-president-trump-strategy-afghanistan-and-south-asia[2017-12-02]; “Remarks by President Trump to the 72nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly,” https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/09/19/remarks-president-trump-72nd-session-united-nations-general-assembly/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [37]. [5] “Trump Tweets U.S. Has A Massive Trade Deficit With Germany,” May, 2017, http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?story Id=530861001/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [38]. [1] “Trump Hails G-20‘Success’, Others See Political Chaos and American Decline,” July, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/07/10/trump-hails-g-20-success-others-see-political-chaos-and-american-decline/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [39]. [2] UK Government, “Declaration by the Heads of State and Government of France, Germany and the United Kingdom,” October, 2017, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/declaration-by-the-heads-of-state-and-government-of-france-germany-and-the-united-kingdom/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [40]. [3] European Commission, European Defense Action Plan, November 30, 2016. [^Back]

    [41]. [4] Council of the EU, “Notification on Permanent Structural Cooperation,” November 13, 2017, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/media/31511/171113-pesco-notification.pdf/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [42]. [5] “Russia-EU Trade Turnover Up 28 Pct in First 7 Months: Customs Statistics,” August, 2017, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2017-08/11/c_136516298.htm/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [43]. [1] http://sputniknews.cn/economics/201709131023589603/[2017-12-02]。 [^Back]

    [44]. [2] European Commission, “Antitrust: Commission Invites Comments on Gazprom Commitments Concerning Central and Eastern European Gas Markets,” March, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-555_en.htm/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [45]. [3] “Kremlin and France Discussing Macron Visit to Russia,” October, 2017, https://www.politico.eu/article/kremlin-and-france-discussing-macron-visit-to-russia/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [46]. [4] European External Action Service, “Remarks by President Donald Tusk Before the G7 Summit in Taormina, Italy,” May, 2017, https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/japan/26994/remarks-president-donald-tusk-g7-summit-taormina-italy_en/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [47]. [5] European Council, “Russia: EU Prolongs Economic Sanctions by Six Months,” June, 2017, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/06/28/eu-sanctions-russia/?+EU+prolongs+economic+sanctions+by+six+months/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [48]. [1] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, “Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s Remarks at a Meeting with Members of the Association of European Businesses in Russia Moscow,” October, 2017, http://www.mid.ru/en/web/guest/meropriyatiya_s_uchastiem_ministra/-/asset_publisher/x K1Bh B2b Ujd3/content/id/2927175/[2017-12-02]. [^Back]

    [49]. [2] European Council, “Remarks by President Donald Tusk after the EU-China Summit in Brussels,” June, 2017, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/06/02/tusk-remarks-eu-china-summit/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [50]. [3] European Commission, “Speech by President Jean-Claude Juncker at the 12th EU-China Business Summit,” June, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-17-1526_en.htm/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [51]. [4] European Commission, European Union, Trade in Goods with China, March 5, 2017. [^Back]

    [52]. [5] Bruegel, EU-China Economic Relations to 2025:Building a Common Future, September 2017. [^Back]

    [53]. [1] Bruegel, EU-China Economic Relations to 2025:Building a Common Future, September 2017. [^Back]

    [54]. [2] European External Action Service, “Remarks by the High Representative Mogherini Following the 7th EU-China Strategic Dialogue,” April, 2017, https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en/24821/Remarks%20by%20the%20High%20Representative%20Mogherini%20following%20the%207th%20EU-China%20Strategic%20Dialogue/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [55]. [3] Nicola Casarini, “A New Era for EU-China Relations?,” June, 2017, https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/china/2017-06-06/new-era-eu-china-relations/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [56]. [4] European Commission, Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council: Elements for a New EU Strategy on China, June 22, 2016. [^Back]

    [57]. [5] SIPRI and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, The Silk Road Economic Belt: Considering Security Implications and EU-China Cooperation Prospects, February 2017. [^Back]

    [58]. [1] http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2017-06/04/c_1121081995.htm/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [59]. [1] European Commission, “President Jean-Claude Juncker’s State of the Union Address 2017,” September, 2017, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-17-3165_en.htm/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [60]. [2] “Poland Wants Strong eurozone Before Mulling Membership-Finance Minister,” October, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-poland-eurozone/poland-wants-strong-euro-zone-before-mulling-membership-finance-minister-id USKBN1CY0CL?il=0/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [61]. [3] Luigi Bonatti, The Euro’s Difficult Future: Competitiveness Imbalances and the Eurozone’s North-South Divide, Atlantic Council, August 2017. [^Back]

    [62]. [1] Adam Chandler, “Trump Takes Office, Kills TPP,” January, 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2017/01/trump-tpp-dead/514154/?utm_source=yahoo&yptr=yahoo/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [63]. [2] Office of the United States Trade Representative, 2017 Trade Policy Agenda and 2016 Annual Report of the President of the United States on the Trade Agreements Program, March 2017. [^Back]

    [64]. [3] The White House, “The Inaugural Address,” January, 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/inaugural-address/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [65]. [4] The White House, “Remarks by President Trump in Joint Address to Congress,” February, 2017, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/02/28/remarks-president-trump-joint-address-congress/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [66]. [1] “US-China Bilateral Investment Treaty Still on Trump’s Agenda,” June, 2017, http://www.atimes.com/article/us-china-bilateral-investment-treaty-still-trumps-agenda/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [67]. [2] European Commission, “Speech by EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom,” July, 2017, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2017/july/tradoc_155745.pdf/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [68]. [3] European Commission, Next Steps for A Sustainable European Future, November 22, 2017. [^Back]

    [69]. [4] Council of European Union, The New European Consensus on Development, May 19, 2017. [^Back]

    [70]. [1] Stefan Lehne, “Populism: The Risks and Impact on European States,” June, 2017, http://carnegieeurope.eu/2017/06/06/populism-risks-and-impact-on-european-states-pub-71170/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [71]. [2] Europol, “Information Sharing on Counter Terrorism in the EU Has Reached an All-time High,” January, 2017, https://www.europol.europa.eu/newsroom/news/information-sharing-counter-terrorism-in-eu-has-reached-all-time-high/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [72]. [3] UK Government, “Prime Minister’s Letter to Donald Tusk Triggering Article 50,” March, 2017, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/604079/Prime_Ministers_letter_to_European_Council_President_Donald_Tusk.pdf/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [73]. [4] UK Government, “PM’s Florence Speech: A New Era of Cooperation and Partnership Between the UK and the EU,” September, 2017, https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pms-florence-speech-a-new-era-of-cooperation-and-partnership-between-the-uk-and-the-eu/[2017-12-10]. [^Back]

    [74]. [1] [America] Wendt, A. Social Theory of International Politics. Qin, Y. (trans.) Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 201 (2000). [^Back]

    [75]. [2] [America] Wendt, A. Social Theory of International Politics. Qin, Y. (trans.) Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 229 (2000). [^Back]

This Article

ISSN:1007-0974

CN: 11-3799/F

Vol , No. 03, Pages 87-105+6

May 2018

Downloads:4

Share
Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 The political and economic situation in Europe
  • 2 The power structure of international politics
  • 3 World economy and global governance
  • 5 Conclusion
  • Footnote