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人力资本结构、相对工资与国际移民的收入分配效应

范兆斌1,2

(1.暨南大学国际商学院)
(2.暨南大学国际金融与商务研究所)

【摘要】作为经济全球化的重要组成部分,国际人口迁移对于收入分配不平等的影响近年来引起越来越多的关注。本文首先在内生性人力资本框架下,构建跨期叠代增长模型分析熟练劳动力国际迁移长期中影响目标国收入分配不平等的理论机制。分析显示,外国熟练劳动力移民一方面会影响目标国当地熟练劳动力与非熟练劳动力的收入差距,产生人力资本“相对收入效应”,另一方面会影响目标国当地熟练劳动与非熟练劳动力的相对比重,产生人力资本“结构效应”,因此国际移民活动对于目标国收入分配不平等的影响取决于人力资本“结构效应”与“相对收入效应”的净效应。然后,本文以OECD国家2000-2011年的数据为基础,运用动态面板数据模型,对国际移民活动与目标国收入分配不平等的关系进行了系统GMM检验。实证结果显示,外国移民短期中会降低目标国的收入不平等程度,长期中则会提高目标国的收入不平等程度。

【关键词】 国际移民;人力资本;相对工资;收入不平等;

【DOI】

【基金资助】 ; ; ;

Impact of human capital composition, relative wage and international migration on income distribution

FAN Zhaobin1,2

(1.International Business School of Jinan University)
(2.Institute of International Finance and Business of Jinan university)

【Abstract】As an important part of economic globalization, the influence of international migration on income inequality is examined by growing literature. This paper first builds an overlapping generation model to examine how the international migration of skilled workers influences the income distribution of host countries in the context of endogenous human capital. The results show the immigration of skilled workers not only affects the income disparity between native skilled workers and unskilled workers in host countries, which is termed “relative income effect” on human capital, but also affects the relative proportion of native skilled workers and unskilled workers in host countries, which is called “composition effect” on human capital. Therefore, the relationship between international immigration and income inequality in host countries is determined by the net effect of “relative income effect” combined with “composition effect.” Based on OECD's data from 2000 to 2011, this paper employs the dynamic panel data model to carry out system GMM estimation of the impact of immigration on income inequality in host countries. The empirical results suggest that in the short run, foreign immigration can serve to reduce the income inequality in host countries; however, in the long run, foreign immigration can increase income inequality in host countries.

【Keywords】 international migration; human capital; relative wage; income inequality;

【DOI】

【Funds】 ; ; ;

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This Article

ISSN:1002-4670

CN: 11-1692/F

Vol , No. 09, Pages 14-28

September 2015

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • Introduction
  • 1. Basic model: no international migration exists
  • 2. International migration and income inequality
  • 3. Empirical analysis: estimation with the dynamic panel data model
  • 4. Main conclusion
  • References