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我国基本养老保险财务可持续性面临的挑战和应对措施

朱青1 刘洋1

(1.中国人民大学财政金融学院)

【摘要】降低基本养老保险的企业缴费率是当前减税降费的重要内容。然而, 我国正面临着严峻的人口老化形势, 基本养老保险的财务可持续性日益受到挑战。目前我国社会保险的缴费率已经高于许多发达国家, 导致企业的竞争力下降。由于我国基本养老保险基金没有实现全国统筹, 主要还是以地市为单位运行, 加上各地区之间养老的负担高低不一, 一些地区已经出现收不抵支。应对基本养老保险财务可持续性问题的重要途径之一就是落实党的十九大报告提出的“尽快实现养老保险全国统筹”, 只有实现了全国统筹, 才能消除我国基本养老保险一方面享受大量财政补贴而另一方面又出现巨额结余的怪现象。实现了全国统筹, 还可以将节省下来的财政补贴资金用于支持企业社保费的降费。另外, 为了在保障退休职工权益的同时降低社保的缴费率, 国家应当不断加大一般公共预算对基本养老保险基金的财政补贴, 这样可以在消费和劳动力之间分散税负, 有利于提高企业的竞争力。

【关键词】 养老保险;财务可持续性;全国统筹;

【DOI】

Challenges and countermeasures to the financial sustainability of the basic pension insurance system in China

ZHU Qing1 LIU Yang1

(1.School of Finance, Renmin University of China)

【Abstract】Reducing the employers’ contribution rate of the basic pension insurance is of vital importance among the current tax cuts and fee reductions policies in China. However, due to the severe problems of population ageing, the fiscal sustainability of basic pension plan is facing up to critical challenges. Nowadays, the contribution rate of basic pension plan in China is much higher than that in most of the developed countries. Owing to its low pooling level of the basic pension fund, mostly managed at the municipal level, adding up to different support ratio among different regions, financial deficit of basic pension fund has appeared in some regions. One of the most important measures to solve the problem is to achieve the goal of “quickly bringing pension schemes under national unified management” set up at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Only that can eliminate the contradiction of high fiscal subsidy and generous surplus of pension fund, meanwhile supporting to reduce the contribution rate. Moreover, fiscal subsidy should increase in general public budget to diversify the burden between consumption and labor, while also improving the competitiveness of enterprises.

【Keywords】 pension insurance; financial sustainability; national unified management;

【DOI】

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    Footnote

    [1]. ① http://www.xinhuanet.com//health/2018-07/20/c_1123151851.htm [^Back]

    [2]. ② They are calculated according to the statistics provided by the website of the National Bureau of Statistics of China. [^Back]

    [3]. ③ The contribution income data do not include financial subsidies, but include interest income. [^Back]

    [4]. ④ They are calculated according to the data in the social insurance funds revenue of the Ministry of Finance. [^Back]

    [5]. ⑤ https://home.kpmg/xx/en/home/services/tax/tax-tools-and-resources/tax-rates-online/social-security-employer-tax-rates-table.html [^Back]

    [6]. ① Source: social insurance funds revenue of the Ministry of Finance in 2017. [^Back]

    [7]. ② It should be pointed out that the current financial situation of China’s basic pension insurance funds is actually to use part of the financial revenue for investment in the capital market. Whether this is necessary in the case of very tight financial funds is debatable. [^Back]

    [8]. ① OECD, Tax Database. [^Back]

    [9]. ② IMF, “Government Statistics Yearbook”, 2008, 2017. [^Back]

This Article

ISSN:1003-2878

CN: 11-1077/F

Vol , No. 04, Pages 75-78

April 2019

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Article Outline

Abstract

  • 1 Challenges brought by population ageing to financial sustainability of basic pension insurance scheme
  • 2 To quickly bring pension funds under national unified management
  • 3 To increase the general public budget subsidies for basic pension insurance funds
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