China Environmental Science,Vol 36,No. 07
【Abstract】 Daily PM2.5 samples were collected around the 2014 Spring Festival (SF) at a suburban site of Nanjing and twelve kinds of heavy elements were analyzed. Sources were identified by enrichment factor (EF), cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Human health risks of heavy metals were assessed. Results showed that during SF, the average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 11.4% higher than that for pre-SF period. After the SF, PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 31.1%. The mass concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb and Pb decreased by 5.5% (V)–56.7% (Zn), when compared with those for pre-SF period. The variation of PM2.5 and associated elements reflected the sources variation of industrial plants, vehicle emission and fireworks burning. The concentration of Ba during SF period was 16.2 times of that for pre-SF period, and then decreased by 94%, indicating that firework burning was an important source of it. EF and geoaccumulation index showed that Cd, Sb, Pb, Cu, As, Ni, Ba and Zn are heavily enriched, with the EFs values ranging in 21–2259. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis showed that industrial emissions and coal combustion, fireworks burning and vehicle exhaust, industrial process are the main sources of heavy metals, contributing by 57.5%, 12.4% and 9.9%, respectively. Health risk assessment results indicated that during SF, the risk levels of carcinogenic elements—Cr, Co, Ni, As and Cd were 2.0 × 10−6, 8.9 × 10−9, 1.3 × 10−8, 1.9 × 10−7 and 7.7 × 10−9, respectively. Except for Cr, the values were below the carcinogenic risk threshold range (10−6–10−4), at an acceptable level.
Effect of social interaction and tourism scenario on tourism demand: empirical research based on Golden Week of Spring Festival
Tourism Tribune,Vol 31,No. 10
【Abstract】 As a branch of economics, consumer economics is a broad field principally concerning the microeconomic analysis of behavior in terms of consumers, families or individuals. Consumer economics sometimes encompasses tourism demand and its influencing factors. However, conventional economic research on tourism demand has shown little interest in analyzing tourism demand based on tourism properties and characteristics, especially from a Chinese cultural perspective. Conventional economic consumer theory is insufficient to explain the phenomenon of tourism demand, whereby tourists obtain utility from social interaction and the tourism scenario. Regarding the influencing factors of consumer tourism demand identified in related academic sources, the most used explanatory variables are the following: tourists’ regular income; tourism prices at a destination compared with those at home; tourism prices in competing destinations(i.e., substitute prices); and exchange rates. These factors are also the most important determinants of tourism demand. The explanatory variables included in previous tourism demand models were varied according to the researcher’s objectives and background. In addition to such conventional factors as personal income, prominent variables used to explain consumer tourism demand are related to social interaction and tourism scenario, for example, travel companions, traffic congestion and type of tourist attraction. In this paper, the theoretical cornerstone is Becker’s social interaction theory. That illustrates how consumers maximize their tourism utility subject with the limitation of their social income. In the framework of this paper, we introduce the factors of social interaction and tourism scenario. We emphasize the effect of those two factors on tourism demand. We provide a number of hypotheses based on theoretical analysis. These hypotheses state that tourism demand falls as the importance of social interaction rises even when the consumer is monetarily compensated for the effect of higher prices. Further, as the tourism scenario deteriorates, tourism demand will decrease, shifting the demand curve lower at all possible prices. Golden Week has become an important phenomenon in China and is an excellent case for discussion and research. Since its establishment on October 1, 1999, the Golden Week holiday system has significantly boosted domestic demand, stimulated consumption, and promoted large-scale economic growth. It has also produced a major expansion in long-distance travel. However, there is evidence that this holiday system has led to many social problems, which pose obstacles for sustainable tourism development. Many experts have concluded that China’s existing holiday policies need to be reformed, and the Golden Week holiday system has emerged as the most urgent priority. Previous tourism demand modeling and forecasting research has relied heavily on secondary data in terms of model construction and estimation. In this paper, we conduct a questionnaire survey on tourism demand during Spring Festival Golden Week in 2014 and obtained firsthand data. Econometric analysis has empirical usefulness in interpreting tourism demand from an economist's perspective; and it is able to support policy recommendations and evaluate the effectiveness of existing tourism policies. In this paper, we place particular emphasis on empirical tests of the hypotheses. The econometric technique we employed is the ordered choice model. We discuss our empirical method together with our empirical findings. We find that individual economic factors have a slight impact on tourism demand in the Spring Festival Golden Week. However, such social interaction factors as family structure and appropriate companions significantly affect tourism demand. We observe that although tourists may tolerate traffic congestion and market chaos, a serious imbalance between supply and demand and related issues had a remarkable effect on tourism demand in Spring Festival Golden Week. These findings verify our initial hypotheses presented in the theoretical framework. This study demonstrates the usefulness of frame analysis to describe, analyze, and explain the dynamics of tourism demand in terms of both social interaction and tourism scenario. We find theoretical analysis based on social interaction to be a viable approach for examining tourism demand, thereby adding a new research direction to the existing literature. Based on a detailed analysis of these findings, this paper provides policy suggestions.
Tourism Tribune,Vol 32,No. 11
【Abstract】 The main approach to the study of the symbolic anthropology of traditional festival signs is to first identify a “sign” or a “sign system” that is worth analyzing and then directly interpret the meaning of the signs on the basis of observed festival practices. Researchers using this approach usually ignore semiotics, although it is the theoretical foundation of symbolic anthropology. This study, based on an analysis of the two major semiotics systems of Ferdinand de Saussure and Charles S. Peirce, attempts to construct a new framework for semiotic analysis, and to verify, through case analysis, the applicability of this framework to the study of traditional festivals and their changes under modern social and economic conditions. This new framework, “wholeness–structure–interpretation,” appears to have some theoretical common denominators with the two major semiotic systems, which are traditionally considered quite different, and highlights the unique role of semiotics in presenting social reality and putting forward effective propositions.“Wholeness” indicates the ontological stance of this framework toward the object of study and is the logical starting point for all subsequent thinking. Together, the traditional festival itself and its recognized signs appearing in concrete forms can be considered a semiotic wholeness.“Structure” indicates the teleological methodology of this framework. Recognizing the limitation of cognitive ability and directivity of cognitive purpose, it reminds researchers to try to find appropriate and irreducible elements of sign so as to break down wholeness into a referential and operable sign system. For example, in Peirce’s system, wholeness is broken down into three elements—representamen, object, and interpretant—and the constitutive relations between them. Finally, “interpretation” indicates a method of semiotic study whereby we can, through a process of derivative interpretation of certain phenomena that are difficult to perceive and confirm with common methods, form concepts and views based on these phenomena, and thus develop a proposition for further study. In short, wholeness, structure, and interpretation are the three separable elements of a unified sign. They are a unity in terms of their ontological stance, methodology, and specific method. This study focuses on the Guzang Festival of the Miao people and the Torch Festival (as well as its traditional form,“Dut zie”) of the Yi people. It interprets semiotic wholeness as a semiotic structure consisting of two groups of semiotic elements: the key roles of the festival (leaders, villagers, local government officials, and tourists), and the basic, simple, and conclusive relations between these roles (dominance, exchange, and clientage). Semiotic interpretation is carried out on different combinations of these key roles and basic relations, so as to identify and name certain phenomena including semiotic competition and semiotic evolution. From a realistic perspective, a traditional festival can maintain its pure authenticity only with difficulty. Instead, it interacts directly or indirectly with various aspects of the present reality and thus, as a sign system, it develops several identifiable transitions of significance.