Demographic situation and migration trend in Poland after the drastic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
Russian,East European & Central Asian Studies,No. 04
【Abstract】 The drastic changes in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have had a significant impact on the demographic situation in Poland. On the whole, the Polish population has entered the period of quasi “plateau” after the 40-year increase in the communist era. At the same time, influenced by many factors such as geography, history, economy, religion and diplomacy, the migration scope of Poles is clearly concentrated in two major immigration circles, namely, the Western Europe and North America. With the implementation of the “Belt and Road” Initiative, China-Poland labor service cooperation and immigration exchanges will have increasing space for development. Since the drastic changes, the population in Poland has fluctuated and increased slightly, behind which a population crisis is lurking. Encouraging childbearing and attracting immigrants to stimulate population growth should be a long-term and important national policy of the Polish government.
Population & Economics,No. 06
【Abstract】 Using the panel data of foreign aid from the US to 49 developing countries and the international migration data from those countries to the US from 1980 to 2010, this paper empirically analyzes the effect of foreign aid on international labor flow from recipient countries. The empirical results show that: firstly, there is positive effect of total foreign aid obtained from the US on the total population immigrated to the US and this connection holds both for male or female immigrants. Secondly, as for as migration is concerned, official development assistance (ODA) has a promoting effect on international migration, but unofficial development assistance (non-ODA) has an inhibiting effect. However, ODA and non-ODA foreign aid have opposite effect on total immigration regarding the total migration, while this contractual feature is not found in the subsample analysis in terms of education level. In spite of this, the migration decision of individuals with higher education are highly sensitive to the types of foreign aid. Thirdly, it also demonstrates that there is a U-shaped nonlinearity between foreign aid and international migration under various development levels of recipient country as a threshold variable.