History of epidemic control
Epidemiological and Phylogenetic Analysis of H3 Subtype Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Poyang Lake Region, China, 2014–2017
Chinese Journal of Virology,Vol 34,No. 01
【Abstract】 To study the epidemic status of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the Poyang Lake region, avian influenza surveillance was conducted in poultry related environment in this region during 2014–2017. A total of 211 H3 subtype strains of AIVs were obtained by virus isolation and confirmed by next generation sequencing, accounting for 11.9% of all influenza viruses isolated. The subtypes included H3N2 (97, 46.0%), H3N8 (22, 10.4%), H3N6 (11, 5.2%), H3N3 (5, 2.4%), H3N1 (2, 0.9%), and H3 mixed other subtypes strains (74, 35.1%). The main source of the virus is live poultry market (94.3%). In May 2017, H3N1 was first isolated in Poyang Lake region, and this was the second H3N1 isolate in China since 2003. Phylogenetic analysis showed that there were several groups of H3 subtypes in this region. NA genes of 16 H3N8 strains belonged to North American lineage, all the other NA genes of H3 viruses belong to Eurasian lineage. The amino acid sequence at HA cleavage site suggests that the viruses belonged to the low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). Full-length PB1-F2 protein is encoded by PB1 gene, and 10 viruses with N66S substitution were detected in PB1 protein, suggesting increased pathogenicity in mammals. In addition, two viruses have S31N substitutions in M2 protein, suggesting resistance to adamantine. This study provides a basis for risk assessment of H3 subtype AIVs. It is necessary to strengthen the surveillance to provide the basis for the risk assessment and early warning of different subtypes of AIVs.
Chinese Journal of Virology,Vol 34,No. 06
【Abstract】 As we commemorate 100 years since the 1918 “Spanish flu” pandemic, much progress has been made, including the research on influenza epidemiology, virology, vaccines, antiviral drugs, and so on. However, the influenza surveillance and the universal vaccines development should be urgently enhanced for better preparedness and response against pandemic influenza in the future.
Initiative of “World Flu Day” on the Centenary of Spanish 1918-Flu: Preparedness for the Next Pandemic
Chinese Journal of Virology,Vol 34,No. 06
【Abstract】 This year marks the 100 th anniversary of the Spanish Flu outbreak in 1918, which was estimated to have infected more than 500 million people, causing 50 million to 100 million deaths globally. A series of flu pandemics afterwards and the seasonal flu have been posing a continuous threat to human health. During the conference Asian-Pacific Centenary Spanish 1918-Flu Symposium in Shenzhen, China on November 1st, 2018, Professors George F. Gao (Academician), the Director-General of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Yoshihiro Kawaoka (Academician), Mark von Itzstein (Academician), Kwok-Yung Yuen (Academician), and Lei Liu proposed a joint-initiative of the “World Flu Day” on November 1st together with more than 30 relevant organizations/institutions. The Director-General of WHO, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus sent a video message and Professors Eliora Z. Ron, Yunde Hou (Academician), Robert G. Webster (Academician), and also the representatives from the five WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Influenza and other scientists attended the Symposium. On the centenary of the 1918 influenza pandemic, the initiative of World Flu Day will raise public awareness, push for stronger global political will for the support, and accelerate scientific basic research on the challenges of influenza.
The spread of plague and environmental disturbance in a vulnerable environment: a case study of the Shaanxi cholera outbreak in 1932
Historical Research,No. 02
【Abstract】 From the 1920s to the 1930s, affected by climate warming in the mid-latitude zone in the northern hemisphere, China suffered from frequent climatic disasters. In 1932, a mass outbreak of cholera occurred in 23 provinces. The epidemic was notable for the broad area affected and for a particular concentration in the inland provinces. The total death toll in Shaanxi reached 200,000, reflecting the fragility of the province’s natural and social environment and the process by which cholera and other exogenous infectious diseases spread inland. The Shaanxi cholera epidemic in 1932 was a critical turning point in the spread of infectious diseases from east to west. The epidemic was a direct result of modern economic expansion, and can thus be seen as a new dimension in the exploration of the modernization of the inland provinces.
Disease Surveillance,Vol 34,No. 02
【Abstract】 In January, 2019, a total of 53 kinds of communicable diseases were reported globally, involving 68 countries or regions. The first five diseases in terms of number of countries or regions involved were Dengue fever (32), Measles (24), Cholera (8), Legionellosis (7), and Chikungunya fever (6). The first five diseases with high case fatality rates were Ebola hemorrhagic fever (61.7%), Middle East respiratory syndrome (35.3%), Yellow fever (28.5%), Lassa fever (19.7%), and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (18.6%). The first five diseases with high death number were Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, Cholera, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and Dengue fever. The epidemics of Cholera, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Yellow fever, Lassa fever and Measles mainly occurred in Africa. The epidemics of Dengue fever, Cholera, Middle East respiratory syndrome, Mumps, and Tuberculosis mainly occurred in Asia. The epidemics of Dengue fever, Measles and Chikungunya fever occurred in America and the epidemics of Measles and Rubella in Europe.