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Artificial Intelligence

Universal autopilot system of tractor based on Raspberry Pi

YANG Liu;LUO Tingting;CHENG Xinrong;LI Jianping;SONG Yuyao

Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,Vol 31,No. 21

【Abstract】 With the process of industrialization, young workers pour into the city, the number of farm labor declines. The average age of farmers is increasing. The tractor, as a modern agricultural production machine, is one of the most important driving force sources of agricultural production. However, some drawbacks come with the manual control, such as, the uncomfortable working condition, the inaccurate routine and the operator fatigue. However, automated driving can improve the field operation standard, the utilization rate of the existing machinery, the mechanical efficiency and labor comfort. Therefore, designing a set of tractor automatic system has a significant meaning in terms of agriculture. At present, the majority of the tractor automated driving systems are designed for specified tractors. When a new type of tractor is used, the developers often need to upgrade their system in terms of software and hardware. And the monotonous work can be reduced by developing a universal system for all types of tractors. Professor Simon Blackmore has been working on a software system for tractors for more than 10 years, and this system can be used as a universal tractor control software system. However, a hardware system is still needed to cooperate with it. In the project, a distributed control system is developed for tractors. Raspberry Pi is used as electronic control unit (ECU) in this system, and transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) is used as the communication protocol in this system; laser distance sensors are used to monitor the environment of the tractor; a Heart Beat system is used to check every important part of this system to make sure the system runs properly. This system receives control commands from a Xbox wireless controller or SAFAR (software architecture for agricultural robot), and it responses to the control commands rapidly and correctly. The John Deere X534 tractor is transformed into automated tractor in the test, R2100 laser scanning distance sensor is selected to safeguard the security of information input system. Since John Deere X534 uses a light tractor CVT automatic transmission, the control strategy is to control the size of the throttle by a servo, and use a motor to control the tractor steering. Experimental results show that the system is stable and reliable. Due to high precision and high frequency, R2100 laser scanning sensor makes the security of the system greatly improved. In the test, when an object is close to the tractor, the tractor can timely stop to protect life and property safety. During the test, in the case of normal operation, disconnecting directly the TCP/IP interface, turning off the router and using other methods to make a fault in the system, the Heart Beat detection mechanism can immediately find the system fault, and Arduino Mega can make the speed set to 0 m/s and the steering angle set to 0 when other tractor control devices fail. The angle of the steering gear is changed in the experiment by changing the width of input signal (square wave signal, the frequency 50 Hz). The test results show that this system can response to the operator or SAFAR rapidly and correctly, and the response time is about 0.5 s, which is highly acceptable for an off-road vehicle system. The communication between 3 ECUs is stable, dependable and fast. The safety system works perfectly when any obstacle is found or any system error occurred. The experiment result shows that this system meets the requirement of this project significantly.

Unmanned Aircraft System and Artificial Intelligence

FAN Bangkui;ZHANG Ruiyu

Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University,Vol 42,No. 11

【Abstract】 An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is reusable, consisting of power system and unmanned autopilot controller; while an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is a system controlled manually, automatically or independently to perform different kinds of tasks. This article summarizes and analyzes the characteristics of UAV and UAS in different historical stages; secondly, this article emphasizes UAV and UAS requirements for Artificial Intelligence technologies; finally, this article discusses potential influences on UAS. A UAS usually consists of UAV platforms, payloads for tasks, datalink devices, information processing devices, and integrated support equipment. Research on UAS and UAV started from the beginning of the 20 th century, and with the development of electronics, mechanics, material science, and computer science; UAS has rapidly developed over the last century, especially the latest thirty or forty years. With the rapid development of Artificial Intelligence over the first 20 years of the 21 st century ushered in a new stage of UAS and UAV development.

The international relations in AI era: increasing reform and inequality

FENG Shuai

Foreign Affairs Review,Vol 35,No. 01

【Abstract】 The advancements in deep learning algorithms help Artificial intelligence (AI) steer toward a new round of growth. With a massive increase in algorithm and computer processing speeds, AI has achieved technological industrialization and become the key driver of the fourth industrial revolution. The rapid development of AI will profoundly influence international relations. First, AI has been directly involved in the strategic decisions and international military interactions, further widening the gap among international actors and upsetting the balance of power. Second, automated production brought by AI will change the modes of economic and social production around the world and propel structural reforms of power at the distribution level inside international actors, thus triggering significant systemic influences on the international system. Third, the development of AI will change human modes of thinking in the new era and new ideological trends will gradually come into being as a result of continues debates. AI leads human to a new stage facing reforms and inequality, and China will also meet with her new opportunities and challenges.

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