1. Effect of electroacupuncture on intestinal epithelial mucosal barrier function in rats with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome
Acupuncture Research,2020,Vol 45,No. 05
Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on intestinal epithelial mucosal barrier function in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of IBS-D. Methods Forty SD rats (half males and half females in number) were randomly divided into control, model, EA and medication (pinaverium bromide) groups, with 10 rats in each group. The IBS-D model was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress combined with gavage of Folium Sennae solution. EA (2 Hz/15 Hz, 0.1–1 mA) was applied to unilateral Zusanli (ST36), Tianshu (ST25), Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Taichong (LR3) alternatively for 15 min, once daily for 14 days. Rats of the medication group was treated by gavage of PB (10 mL·kg −1·d −1) for 14 days. The visceral sensitivity (pain) was assessed by using the pressure threshold which the inserted rectal balloon catheter air-inflation (connected to a blood pressure gauge) induced stronger abdominal muscular contraction to force the rat’s abdomen to lift the experimental stand surface. The diarrhea index was used to evaluate loose stool grade. The expression of Claudin-1 and Occludin (intestinal epithelial tight junction proteins) of colon tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The activity of plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) was assayed by using spectrophotometry. Results Compared with the control group, the diarrhea index and plasma DAO activity in the model group were significantly increased ( P < 0.01), while the visceral pain threshold, expression of Claudin-1 and Occludin in the model group were significantly decreased ( P < 0.01). After the treatment, the diarrhea index and plasma DAO activity were significantly lower in both EA and medication groups than that in the model group ( P < 0.01), and the visceral pain threshold and expression levels of Claudin-1 and Occludin were obviously increased ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the EA and medication groups in all the above-mentioned indexes ( P > 0.05). Conclusion Electroacupuncture can significantly improve abdominal pain and diarrhea in IBS-D model rats, which may be closely associated with its effects in up-regulating the expression of intestinal epithelial tight junction proteins Claudin-1 and Occludin to restore the function of intestinal epithelial mucosal barrier.
2. Electroacupuncture improves cutaneous allergic reaction by inhibiting degranulation of intraperitoneal mast cells, MAPK signaling and inflammatory factor levels in urticaria rats
Acupuncture Research,2020,Vol 45,No. 04
Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on degranulation of intraperitoneal mast cells (MCs) and expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling-related proteins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in urticaria rats, so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying the improvement of urticaria. Methods Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into the control, model, EA and medication groups ( n = 8 in each group). The urticaria model was established by using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction method. EA (2 Hz/15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral “Zusanli” (ST36), “Quchi” (LI11) and “Xuehai” (SP10) for 20 min, once daily for seven consecutive days before antigen attack. Rats of the medication group were treated by gavage of loratadine (1 mg·kg −1·d −1) for seven days. The diameter of cutaneous Evan’s blue spots was measured to evaluate the severity of PCA. Intraperitoneal fluid smears were prepared to observe the degranulation state of MCs. The contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in the intraperitoneal fluid were detected by ELISA, and the expression levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphorylated (p)-ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-JNK, P38 MAPK and p-P38 MAPK of the acquired intraperitoneal MCs were detected by Western blot. Results The diameter of cutaneous Evan’s blue spot was significantly increased in the model group than that in the control group ( P < 0.01), and they were considerably decreased in both EA and medication groups as compared with that in the model group ( P < 0.01). After modeling, the percentage of degranulated MCs, contents of TNF-α and IL-6, and expression levels of ERK, p-ERK, JNK, p-JNK, P38 MAPK and p-P38 MAPK were remarkably increased in the model group as compared with those in the control group ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05). After the treatment, the percentage of degranulated MCs, contents of TNF-α and IL-6, and expression levels of p-ERK, JNK, p-JNK and p-P38 MAPK were obviously decreased in both EA and medication groups relevant to those in the model group ( P < 0.01, P < 0.05), while no significant changes were found in the expression of ERK in both EA and medication groups, or in P38 MAPK in the EA group. Compared with the model and EA groups, the expression levels of P38 MAPK were down-regulated in the medication group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion EA can reduce skin allergic reaction in rats with urticaria, which may be related to its efficacy in inhibiting the degranulation of intraperitoneal MCs, and down-regulating the expression of MAPK signaling-related proteins and the level of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 in intraperitoneal MCs.
Tunnel Construction,2020,Vol 40,No. 04
Shenzhen-Zhongshan Crossing-river Link (Shen-Zhong Link) is the key project in G2518 of National Expressway Network, across the Pearl River Estuary. Shen-Zhong Link is a mega project integrating bridges, artificial islands, tunnel, and underwater interchanges, which is built according to the standard for bi-direction eight-lane expressways. The total length of the project is 24 km, of which the tunnel is 6 845 m long, constructed by immersed tube method. Through experimental researches, analysis and demonstration, the technological requirements and construction process for the steel-concrete-steel composite structure of the rectangular immersed tube, the pre-laid gravel cushion and the underwater deep cement mixing (DCM) pile foundation treatment. In addition, a series of special construction equipment, such as the self-propelled huge barge integrated with the floating, towing, immersion and installation functions is developed.
4. Plan and Practice of Intelligent Construction System of Steel-Concrete-Steel Composite Immersed Tunnel of Shenzhen-Zhongshan Link
Tunnel Construction,2020,Vol 40,No. 04
Firstly, the main technical challenges, i. e. fabrication of steel tube, placement of self-compaction concrete, quantitative check of compactness of self-compaction concrete and long-distance floating transportation of steel tube, in steel-concrete-steel composite immersed tunnels during industrialized and intelligent construction of Shenzhen-Zhongshan Link are analyzed. And then the construction philosophy of “standardization, industrialization, assembly, intellectualization, and refinement” is proposed, and the intelligent construction system for immersed tunnel of Shenzhen-Zhongshan Link is planned so as to ensure high-quality construction, reduce the risk, and guarantee the time control in the whole construction. Finally, discussion is made from the aspects of intelligent fabrication of immersed steel tube element, intelligent placement of concrete, smart detection, intelligent installation of tubes and intelligent construction sites, etc.
5. Application of Pipe-roofing Method with Various Section Types in Metro Construction of Guiqiao Road Station at Saturated Soft Soil Area
Tunnel Construction,2020,Vol 40,No. 04
Engineers have carried out researches on how to develop and utilize underground space better and proposed the pipe roofing method with various section types. As a new underground excavation method, this method is used widely owing to its less influence on surrounding environment and controllable ground subsidence. Nevertheless, due to the high water content, high compressibility and weak self-stabilizing ability of saturated soft soil, there are few engineering cases using the pipe-roofing method in the above areas. Consequently, based on the project of Guiqiao Road station of Shanghai metro line 14, and in consideration of the characteristics of saturated soft soil, the technologies of the pipe-roofing method including pipe jacking, soil reinforcement and layered excavation inside the pipe-roof are researched. The results show that the key technologies mentioned above can ensure the sealing and connection of the pipe lock, improve the strength of the excavated soil and reduce the influence of construction on the surrounding environment.
6. Effect of electroacupuncture at governor vessel on learning-memory ability and serum levels of APP and Aβ 1-42 in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion,2020,Vol 40,No. 04
Objective To compare the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with donepezil hydrochloride with that of donepezil hydrochloride alone in improving learning-memory ability in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and to explore its action mechanism. Methods Sixty patients of AD were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 30 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with EA at governor vessel combined with donepezil hydrochloride. EA was applied at Baihui (GV20) and Fengfu (GV16), and the dilatational wave was selected for bearable stimulation at the frequency of 10 Hz/50 Hz and the intensity of 0.5–5.0 mA. The needles were retained for 40 min. EA was given once a day. The donepezil hydrochloride tablet was taken orally, 5 mg per time, once a day, and after four weeks of treatment, the dosage might be increased to 10 mg per day according to the specific situation. All the treatments lasted for eight weeks. The patients in the control group were only treated with donepezil hydrochloride in the same way as that in the observation group. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Alzheimer’s disease Assessment Scale-cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) were evaluated before and after treatment; P300 (latencies and amplitudes of N2 and P3) was detected by the electroencephalograph (EEG) / event-related brain potential (ERP) system, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) and β-amyloid protein 1-42 (Aβ1-4 2) were detected by ELISA. Results Compared with those before treatment, the MoCA scores were increased after treatment in the two groups ( P < 0.05), and the MoCA score in the observation group was higher than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the ADAS-Cog scores were decreased after treatment in the two groups ( P < 0.05), and the ADAS-Cog score in the observation group was lower than that in the control group ( P < 0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the latencies of N2 and P3 were shortened and the amplitudes were increased after treatment in the two groups ( P < 0.05). After treatment, the latencies of N2 and P3 in the observation group were shorter than those in the control group and the amplitudes were higher than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the serum levels of APP and Aβ1-4 2 were decreased after treatment in the two groups ( P < 0.05), and the serum levels of APP and Aβ1-4 2 in the observation group were lower than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion EA at Baihui (GV 20) and Fengfu (GV 6) combined with donepezil hydrochloride can effectively reduce the serum levels of APP and Aβ1-4 2 and improve the scores of MoCA and ADAS-Cog as well as the levels of N2 and P3 of P300 in AD patients. Such combination is superior to donepezil hydrochloride alone in improving the learning and memory abilities of AD patients.
Journal of Aeronautical Materials,2020,Vol 40,No. 02
In this paper, through the secondary development of ProCAST & CAFE software, the dynamic boundary conditions of solidification process are established; the temperature field and solid fraction in the directional solidification process of low nickel austenitic stainless steel are simulated; the effect of the withdrawing rate on the solidification microstructure is discussed. The results shows that the withdrawing rate is in the range of 15–200 μm/s; as the solidification rate increases, the isotherm becomes dense, gummy zone narrowing. Additionally, as the solidification rate increases, the primary dendrite arm gradually refines and the secondary dendrite arm becomes dense and coarse. In addition, as the withdrawing rate increases in the range from 15 to 200 μm/s, the lateral heat dissipation of the edge of the casting is gradually smaller than that of the central longitudinal heat dissipation, and the axial deviation of the dendrites is reduced from 27.66° to 25.964°. At the same time, the comparative analysis simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results, and the simulation calculation process is more reasonable.
International Economic Review,2020,No. 02
The novel coronavirus pneumonia has brought about an acute shortage of medical masks. Economics informs us that higher prices curtail demand and induce producers to increase production, thereby eliminating the shortage of supply. But this is not a normal situation, and there arises an ethical question of whether the willingness to pay matches the urgent need for medical protection. Externality implies that high prices of masks not only raise the inequality issues but also reduce the efficiency of fighting the epidemic for society as a whole. In addition to the roles of market and government, ethical value and humanism also matter in resource allocation.
9. Balance between stable growth and leverage stabilization: a tough challenge amid the novel coronavirus shocks
International Economic Review,2020,No. 02
High debt ratio has often been followed by crises or recessions, seen whether from the 800-year debt history or from the four global debt waves since 1970. Changes in China’s macro leverage ratio have also been cyclical, rising by 100 percentage points from 2008 to 2016. Since 2017, the country’s macro leverage ratio has stabilized between 240% and 246% for 12 consecutive quarters. The novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak in 2020 has a significant impact on debt and GDP. We estimate the nominal GDP growth rate may decline to around 6% in 2020; the debt growth rate will increase, and the macro leverage ratio may eventually rise by about 10 percentage points. Policy priorities will continue to focus on the dynamic balance between stable growth and leverage stabilization, including stabilizing aggregate demand through reform rather than stimulus, tolerating a moderate increase in macro leverage ratio, properly matching resource allocation with risk allocation, and targeted deleveraging in the public sector, especially SOEs and LGFVs.
10. Effect of electroacupuncture on pulmonary function and M1 polarization of alveolar macrophages in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Acupuncture Research,2020,Vol 45,No. 03
Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at “Zusanli” (ST36) and “Feishu” (BL13) on M1 polarization of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), so as to explore its anti-inflammatory mechanism to improve COPD. Methods Forty SD rats were randomly divided into a normal and a normal + EA, a COPD model and a COPD + EA groups ( n = 10 in each group). The COPD model was established by simple fumigation. EA (4 Hz/20 Hz, 1 to 2 mA) was applied to bilateral “Zusanli” (ST36) and “Feishu” (BL13) for 30 min, once every other day for two weeks. The pulmonary function indexes including the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 0.1 second (FEV 0.1), ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV 0.1/FVC), forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second (FEV 0.1) as well as ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.3 second to forced vital capacity (FEV 0.3/FVC) was detected by using a small animal respiratory function detector. Histopathological changes in the lung were detected by HE staining. The contents of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected by ELISA. The expression levels of M1 polarization markers (CD86, iNOS), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in AMs were detected by Western blot assay and quantitative real time-PCR, separately. The distribution and expression of CD86 in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Following modeling, the levels of FVC, FEV0.1, FEV0.3, ratios of FVE0. 1/FVC and FEV0.3/FVC were significantly decreased ( P < 0.01), while the contents of TNF-α and iNOS in the BALF as well as the mRNA and protein expression levels of CD86, iNOS, MyD88 and NF-κB p65 in the AMs, and CD86 immunoactivity in the lung were significantly increased in the model group relevant to those in the normal group ( P < 0.01). After the intervention, the decrease in the lung function and increase in the above-mentioned genes and proteins were all reversed in the COPD + EA group ( P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion EA at “Zusanli” (ST36) and “Feishu” (BL13) can reduce pulmonary inflammation in COPD rats, which may be related to its efficacy in down-regulating MyD88/NF-κB p65 signaling pathway and inhibiting M1 polarization of AM.