Sponsor(s): Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences；Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies
24 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 24, 2019
Scientia Agricultura Sinica, the 1st in Comprehensive Agricultural Science, is supervised by Ministry of Agriculture of PRC, and sponsored by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, launched in 1960, is a leading peer-reviewed and mufti-disciplinary journal and published semi-monthly in Chinese with English title, abstract, figures, tables and references. It aims to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide. The scope covers Crop Genetics, Breeding, Germplasm Resources; Physiology, Biochemistry, Cultivation, Tillage Plant Protection; Soil & Fertilization, Agro-Ecology & Environment, Bio-energy; Animal Science, Veterinary Science, Agricultural Information Science; Food Science; Agricultural Economics and Management; Agricultural Sustainability. The journal is included in JST, CA and CSCD.
Editor-in-Chief Wan Jianmin Associate Editor-in-Chief Zou Ruicang Tang HuaJun Wu Kongming Guo YuYuan Geng Xu Sun Tan Executive Editor Lu Wenru
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2019,Vol 52,No. 24
[Objective] The quality of cultivated land is a key factor affecting soil productivity, which serves also as a scientific basis for rational fertilization. Cinnamon soil is the main soil type at the production area of wheat and corn in China. In this study, we examined the current status of cultivated land quality and the evolution characteristics of cinnamon soil during the past 31 years (1988–2018). Through considering the evolution of fertilizer application rate, their influence on productivity was studied, and the guidance for reducing fertilizer input and increasing efficiency in the cinnamon soil area was proposed. [Method] Using the data of 103 long-term (31 years) location test points in China, the evolution of cinnamon soil cultivated land quality was analyzed by combining physical and chemical properties. The factors influencing the yield were compared through the redundancy analysis (RDA). Based on these results, reasonable suggestions were put forward to reduce the fertilizer input and increase the efficiency in the cinnamon soil area. [Result] (1) The present situation and evolution of soil physical and chemical properties in the cinnamon soil area were shown in the study. Specifically, the averages of organic matter content, Olsen-phosphorus and available potassium in 2018 were 17.9g·kg −1, 29.2 mg·kg −1, and 164 mg·kg −1, respectively, which represented the increase of 21.2%, 200.9%, and 52.0% during 31 years, respectively. The averages of total nitrogen and slowly available potassium in 2018 were 1.1 g·kg −1, and 945 mg·kg −1, respectively, which remained relatively stable during the monitoring period. The contents of soil secondary elements, micronutrient elements and heavy metals were in an acceptable range. The pH was reduced by 0.3. The topsoil thickness was 21.9 cm and the bulk density was 1.33 g·cm −3, which were at the middle level. (2) The fertilizer application rate in the cinnamon soil area was 730.2 kg·hm −2 in 2018. The proportion of N (N):P (P 2O 5):K (K 2O) was about 2:1:1, and the proportion of chemical fertilizer to organic fertilizer was about 3.45:1. The nitrogen fertilizer application rate was 378.9 kg·hm −2, which was stable during the past 31 years. The application rates of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers decreased by 24.1% and 50.8%, respectively. (3) The wheat yield showed an upward trend during 31 years, and the maximum was 6 651 kg·hm −2 at the end of monitoring, which was 27.6% higher than the value at the initial stage. The corn yield was stable, reaching 8 851 kg·hm −2 at the end of monitoring. The contribution rates of soil fertility in wheat season and corn season were 49.0% and 59.6%, respectively. The yield was influenced by soil physical properties, including the topsoil thickness (which explained 2.7% of wheat production variation), bulk density (which explained 1.2% and 1.5% of wheat and corn production variation, respectively) and chemical properties, such as organic matters (explained 2% and 1.7% of wheat and corn production, respectively and Olsen-phosphorus (explained 3.6% of corn production variation). The explanation rates of potassium fertilizers were the highest for wheat and corn production, which reached 5.6% and 6%, respectively. The explanation rates of phosphorus fertilizers for wheat yield (1.3%) and of nitrogen fertilizer for corn yield (1.3%) were also relatively high. [Conclusion] The cultivated land quality in the cinnamon soil area was improved in 31 years, but the overall fertility was low and the physical properties were at middle level. Considering the impact of land quality on productivity, different fertilization schemes needed to be formulated for wheat and corn. Both of them needed to increase the input of potassium fertilizers, and focused on ensuring the supply of phosphorus fertilizers for wheat and nitrogen fertilizers for corn. Physical properties needed to be highly concerned. The topsoil thickness and bulk density were at the medium level, but there was no need to continue to optimize, and maintaining the status quo was more conductive to obtaining high yield.
Genome Identification of PpGRAS Family and Expression Pattern Analysis of Responding to UV-B in Peach
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2019,Vol 52,No. 24
[Objective] GRAS family genes play a key role in the regulation of plant growth and development. The objectives of this study were to analyze the distribution, structure and evolution of GRAS in the peach genome by bioinformatics, to study the expression specificity of family members in different tissues and their responses to UV-B light signal, and to investigate the biological function of GRAS transcription factor family genes in peach. [Method] The facility nectarine Prunus persica var. nectarinacv. Zhongyou5 was supplemented with an appropriate dose of UV-B. The peach GRAS gene family was identified by using the Plant TFDB database. The phylogenetic tree, chromosome localization, relative mass, isoelectric point and other physical and chemical properties of GRAS member were analyzed with Clustal W, MEGA6.0, ProtParam tool, MCScanX, Circos, SMART, NCBI-CDD, ExPASy, GSDS2.0, and MEME, respectively. The expression patterns of GRAS gene family in different tissues were analyzed, and the expression of some members of GRAS gene family in peach treated with UV-B was detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). [Result] 48 members of GRAS transcription factor family were identified from the whole genome of the peach, and they could be divided into 9 categories by constructing a phylogenetic tree. The PpGRAS gene showed uneven distribution on 8 chromosomes of peach. The theoretical isoelectric point of the family protein was ranged from 4.36 to 7.56, and the average number of amino acids encoded was 590.52. The gene’s structure analysis showed that 40 genes contained no introns, and 8 genes contained 1 intron. The conservative elemental analysis revealed that the GRAS family contained 20 conserved elements, of which motif 2 and motif 4 were highly conserved. The members of the same subfamily contained the same conserved elements, suggesting that the members of the same subfamily might have similar functions. However, some subfamily members had different expression patterns, which might be related to the sequences other than the conserved motif. The PpGRAS genes had different expression patterns in different tissues; and most of PpGRAS genes could respond to UV-B treatment, but the expression changes were different in different tissues. In leaves, PpGRAS5 was up-regulated after UV-B treatment, while up to 15 genes were down-regulated. In the fruit, PpGRAS13 was up-regulated by UV-B treatment, but 9 genes were down-regulated. In the phloem, 14 genes were up-regulated after UV-B treatment, while PpGRAS16 was most down-regulated in the phloem after treatment. [Conclusion] A total of 48 GRAS gene family members were identified from the peach genome and distributed on 8 chromosomes; most PpGRAS genes responded to UV-B treatment, but the expression changes were different in different tissues. This study laid the foundation for further analysis of the PpGRAS family of genes in response to UV-B light signals and other potential functions.
Spatiotemporal Variation of Winter Wheat Yield and Nitrogen Management in Five Provinces of North China Plain
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2019,Vol 52,No. 24
[Objective] By analyzing the spatial and temporal changes of winter wheat yield and nitrogen management differences in North China Plain, we clarified the evolution of winter wheat yield, efficiency and environmental impacts in the five provinces of North China Plain from 2005 to 2014. [Method] Based on the smallholder farmer survey data in 2005–2014, the spatial and temporal variations of yield, yield gap and nitrogen management differences of winter wheat in the five provinces of North China Plain were analyzed. In addition, the evaluation system of nitrogen sustainable management in North China was designed from three dimensions of food security, resource efficiency, and environmental protection, and the current status of nitrogen management in the five provinces of North China Plain was evaluated. [Result] (1) The average of winter wheat yield in the five provinces of North China Plain from 2005 to 2014 was 6.5 t·hm −2, showing an increasing trend year by year, with the overall increase of 7% in ten years. The ten-year average of yield was in the descending order of Henan, northern Anhui, Shandong, Hebei, and northern Jiangsu. The average yield gap of North China Plain in the past ten years was 1.4 t·hm −2, which was a downward trend. The decline in the decade was as high as 47%. The average of yield gap was in the descending order of Shandong, Hebei, northern Jiangsu, Henan, and northern Anhui. The yield gap of northern Anhui had the largest decline, and the yield was the smallest; the difference of the yield gap in Shandong Province was large, showing a trend higher in the east than in the west. (2) The average nitrogen application rate in North China Plain was 226 kg·hm −2, which was increasing year by year except for northern Jiangsu. The average growth rate was 3% in ten years and the order of northern Jiangsu > Hebei > Shandong > northern Anhui > Henan was maintained. The nitrogen application rate in the same province changed little and the inter-provincial difference was obvious. (3) The average nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in North China Plain was 44%, which was in the descending order of Henan, northern Anhui, Shandong, Hebei, and northern Jiangsu. The spatial variation of NUE was large, while the NUE in areas with high nitrogen application rate was low. (4) The mean value of nitrogen surplus was 165 kg·hm −2, which was in the order of northern Jiangsu > Hebei > Shandong > Henan > northern Anhui and was similar to the regional distribution trend of nitrogen application rate. (5) Based on comprehensive evaluation of the North China Plain during 2005–2014, the number of counties that met the safety boundary of the sustainable management evaluation system for nitrogen was only 2% of the total. The region was divided into four zones based on nitrogen surplus and yield mean. The mean value of Henan was in the high yield area with low nitrogen surplus. The mean values of Shandong and northern Anhui were in low nitrogen surplus and low yield zone. Hebei and northern Jiangsu were in high surplus and low production zone. [Conclusion] During 2005–2014, the yield of winter wheat in North China Plain increased year by year, and the yield gap decreased year by year. At the same time, the nitrogen application rate increased; the nitrogen surplus was too high and the NUE was low. The nitrogen management in Henan was relatively reasonable, while the nitrogen surpluses in northern Anhui and Shandong were low and there was a lot of room for yield improvement. The high nitrogen fertilizer input in Hebei and northern Jiangsu led to high environmental pressure of low NUE, which would be the key areas for nitrogen management in North China Plain in the future.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2019,Vol 52,No. 24
[Objective] Panicle traits are important yield traits of wheat, occupying an important position and role in wheat yield composition. Carrying out genetic research on wheat panicle traits and analyzing its genetic mechanism provide theoretical and practical guidance for formulating high-yield breeding strategies and improving the breeding efficiency. [Method] Based on spike length, number of spikelets, number of grains per main ear, and the number of grains per small ear, the main gene + polygene mixed genetic model of quantitative traits was used to obtain the parental product Pindong 34 and the male parent under different ecological conditions. BARRAN and its derived F 7:8, F 8:9 generation recombinant inbred line population (RIL) were used for genetic model analysis and genetic parameter estimation of panicle traits to determine the number of genes controlling various traits, and to estimate the genetic effect values and heritability. [Result] The best genetic model for spike length and number of spikelet was B-2-1 (PG-AI), which was consistent with the two pairs of linked major genes + additive-epistasis polygene genetic model. The polygenic heritability of spike length and the number of spikelet were 90.64% and 89.52%, respectively. The average of environmental variance of spike length and spikelet number accounted for 9.39% and 10.50% in phenotypic variance, respectively. The major gene heritability was 69.39%. The polygenes heritability was 29.94%, and the average environmental variance accounted for 2.18% in phenotypic variance. The additive effect value of the first pair of main genes controlling the number of spikelets and the additive effect value of the third pair of major genes were equal, and the same was 4.56, which had a positive effect. The additive effect value of the second pair of major genes was the same as the additive effect of the first pair of major genes × the second pair of major genes × the third pair of major genes, both of which were −1.64 and were negative effects. The additive and additive × additive epistasis interaction values were equal to the additive and the second pair of major gene additions × the third pair of major gene additive epistatic interactions, both of which were −6.02. The additive and the first pair of major gene additive × the third pair of main gene additive epistatic interaction effect value was 0.18, and the polygene additive effect value was 0.15, showing a low positive genetic effect. H-1 (4MG-AI) was the best-fitting genetic model for number spikelets, which showed that their inheritance was controlled by incorporating four major genes additive-epistasis genetic model. The heritability of the main gene was 81.50%. The additive effect values of the main genes in the first to fourth pairs were 0.22, 0.18, −0.20, and 0.24, respectively. The additive and epistatic interactions of the first pair of major genes × the first pair of major genes were −0.170. The additive effect value of the additive and the first pair of major genes × the third pair of major genes was 0.240. The additive effect value of the additive and the first pair of major genes × the fourth pair of major genes was −0.20. The absolute value of additive and the second pair of major genes × the third pair of major genes was the same as the additive and the second pair of major genes × the fourth pair of major genes additive epistatic interaction value, the effect in contrast, the former value was 0.03, and the latter value was −0.03. The additive effect value of the additive and the third pair of major genes × the fourth pair of major genes was 0.06. [Conclusion] The panicle traits of wheat are mainly polygenic genetic effects, which are in line with the quantitative genetic characteristics and are susceptible to environmental influences. The number of spikelet grains has the genetic characteristics of the main gene. The main gene has high heritability and is affected by the environment. The number of grains per small ear can be used as a direct indicator to effectively improve the early selection of panicle traits, achieving the single plant directional selection and improving the breeding efficiency.
Control Efficacy of Broccoli Residues on Cotton Verticillium Wilt and Its Effect on Soil Bacterial Community at Different Growth Stages
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2019,Vol 52,No. 24
[Objective] The objective of this study is to explore the effects of broccoli residues (BR) on cotton verticillium wilt and soil bacterial community structure at different growth stages, and to provide new ways and ideas for green ecological control of cotton verticillium wilt and reduction of chemical pesticides. [Method] In field experiment, the soil planted with cotton was treated with BR and no BR (CK), respectively. The incidence dynamics of cotton verticillium wilt in different treatments were monitored at different growth stages. The number of DNA copies of Verticillium dahlias was determined by real-time quantitative PCR, and the structure of soil bacterial communities was measured by high-throughput sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). The effects of BR on the quantity of pathogen and the community of soil bacteria were analyzed. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out to explore the characteristics and rules of structural changes of soil bacterial community at levels of phylum and genus at different growth stages. [Result] The incidence and disease index of cotton verticillium wilt showed a downward trend after the returning of BR to soil, respectively. Moreover, the peak period of verticillium wilt was delayed, and 70.77% control efficacy was achieved in the peak period. The development curve of disease index and time course of disease in the whole growth period was established, and the average control efficacy was 57.21%. The number of DNA copies of V. dahliae was decreased by 10.96%, 11.11%, 25.95%, and 11.25% at the four stages, respectively, after BR returning to soil, as compared with that in the CK. Illumina MiSeq analysis showed that BR treatment significantly increased soil bacterial diversity. The richness index Chao1 was increased significantly at all growth stages, and the ACE index was significantly increased at the pre-sowing stage, flowering and boll stage and boll-opening stage. Compared with the CK, returning BR to soil significantly increased the relative abundance of Actinobacteria. Meanwhile, the results showed that there were differences in the composition of dominant microorganisms at different growth stages after the returning of Actinobacteria to soil. For example, Firmicutes turned to be the dominant microflora at the pre-sowing stage and seedling stage, and Cyanobacteria became the dominant microflora at the bud stage and flowering and boll stage. PCA showed that returning BR to soil changed the structure of bacterial community at seedling stage, bud stage, flowering and boll stage, and boll-opening stage. Further analysis showed that the relative abundance of Streptomyces and Bacillus was significantly increased after the returning of BR to soil. [Conclusion] Returning BR to soil can effectively inhibit the occurrence of cotton verticillium wilt, reduce the number of DNA copies of V. dahliae in soil, change the structure of soil bacterial community, and increase the relative abundance of beneficial microorganisms, which is an effective green measure to control cotton verticillium wilt.