Sponsor(s): Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences；Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies
24 issues per year
Current Issue: Issue 22, 2018
Scientia Agricultura Sinica, the 1st in Comprehensive Agricultural Science, is supervised by Ministry of Agriculture of PRC, and sponsored by Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Chinese Association of Agricultural Science Societies. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, launched in 1960, is a leading peer-reviewed and mufti-disciplinary journal and published semi-monthly in Chinese with English title, abstract, figures, tables and references. It aims to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide. The scope covers Crop Genetics, Breeding, Germplasm Resources; Physiology, Biochemistry, Cultivation, Tillage Plant Protection; Soil & Fertilization, Agro-Ecology & Environment, Bio-energy; Animal Science, Veterinary Science, Agricultural Information Science; Food Science; Agricultural Economics and Management; Agricultural Sustainability. The journal is included in JST, CA and CSCD.
Editor-in-Chief Wan Jianmin Associate Editor-in-Chief Zou Ruicang Tang HuaJun Wu Kongming Guo YuYuan Geng Xu Sun Tan Executive Editor Lu Wenru
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 22
[Objective] In the beekeeping industry, beekeepers need to conduct artificial larvae grafting either for royal jelly harvesting or for rearing queens artificially. Artificially grafting larvae requires beekeepers to have good eyesight and high proficiency. Especially with the increase of labor cost and the aging of beekeepers, artificially grafting larvae is a technical limitation that needs to be solved in the production of beekeeping. Under the support of the National Bee Industry Technology System for ten consecutive years, our team has been engaged in the research of non-grafting larvae technology. The objective of this study is to remove the limitation of artificially grafting larvae and to provide technical support for scientific beekeeping. [Method] Based on the biological characteristics of bees and the principle of bionics, a food-grade plastic worker comb foundation with regular holes was designed. The holes in the plastic worker comb foundation allowed the assembly of larvae supporting devices or single queen cell bases. The idea is to assemble the hollow plastic worker comb foundation and the larvae supporting device or queen cell bases together to make a complete comb foundation firstly, and then to let the workers build the comb. Next, the queen is allowed to lay eggs in the cells of the comb. This is followed by removing the larvae supporting device or queen cell bases and assembling them into the queen cell bar with regular holes. In this way, royal jelly production or breeding queens can be achieved. This study tested the feasibility of the improved 10th generation of the non-grafting larvae technique of royal jelly harvesting and rearing queens, using the Italian bee ( Apis melliferaligustica) as the experimental system. Firstly, the number of combs in a colony which was about to swarm was reduced, and then the workers were allowed to build 10–12 pieces of combs based on the hollow plastic comb foundation, then the effect of royal jelly harvesting or rearing queens without larvae grafting was investigated. The experiment of royal jelly harvesting without artificially grafting larvae mainly measured the oviposition rates of one queen, two queens, multi-queen (four queens). The acceptance rate of newly assembled queen cells by nursing bees during royal jelly production was also measured. In the experiment of breeding queens without artificially grafting larvae, a single queen was allowed to lay eggs for 6 h. Then the birth weight and the number of ovarioles of the newly bred queens that developed from the eggs were measured. The methods of rearing queens without and with artificially grafting larvae were compared. [Result] Worker bees can build a complete comb based on the plastic hollow comb foundation, and the queen can lay eggs on the newly built comb. The oviposition rates of a single queen, double queens, multi-queen were 91.24%, 92.45% and 91.29%, respectively. The acceptance rates of newly assembled queen cells during royal jelly harvesting were 91.12%, 92.63% and 90.19%, respectively. There was no significant difference among them ( P > 0.05). The weights of the newly queens using the method of egg-based rearing queens without artificially grafting larvae and the method of grafting larvae based rearing queens were (256.31 ± 3.75) mg and (243.43 ± 2.05) mg, respectively. The numbers of ovarioles in unilateral ovary were (163.87 ± 9.40) and (154.77 ± 6.74), respectively. There was a significant difference between the two methods ( P < 0.05). [Conclusion] This study showed that the improved 10th generation of non-grafting larvae oviposition device could be used in royal jelly production and for rearing queens. It is worth popularizing and applying in the beekeeping industry.
Effects of the Daily Cycle Variation of the Moderate Ambient Temperatures on the Serum Brain Gut Peptide and the Diversity of Caecal Microflora in Broilers
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 22
[Objective] Stress can alter the function of brain-gut axis and the structure of intestinal flora, among which heat stress is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the health of livestock and poultry. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures on the serum brain gut peptide and the diversity of caecal microflora in broilers, and to provide a theoretical basis for the healthy broiler breeding mode. [Method] The study included trials with Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. At the 22 d, 120 broilers with equal average body weights were selected, randomly divided into 2 treatments × 6 replicates of 10 birds each (male and female half and half). The pretest period lasted for seven days and broilers were kept at 21 °C and 60% relative humidity. When the chickens were aged 29 days, formal tests began. The environmental temperature was changed by 24 h cycle (26–29, −32, −26, −29), and the relative humidity was set to 35%, 60%, 85%, respectively. Both kept constant until the end of the experiment. The trial period lasted for 14 days. On day 21 and 42, one bird from each replicate was randomly selected and killed. The broiler was sampled with jugular vein. The contents of 5-HT, VIP and CCK in serum of broilers were measured with Elisa kit. Meanwhile the caecal contents were aseptically collected, placed in a centrifugal tube, rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80 °C. The effects of different humidity on serum brain gut peptide and bacterial diversity in the ceacal digesta of broilers at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures were studied by using 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). [Result] (1) At the 7 d, the content of Serum 5-HT at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures was higher than the control group ( P < 0.05); the contents of serum 5-HT and VIP in the control group and were no significant difference; at the 14 d, the content of serum VIP in broilers at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures was lower than the control group ( P < 0.05); the contents of serum 5-HT and SP in the control group were no significant difference. (2) At the 7d, the bacteria bands at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures were lower than the control group; at the 14 d, the bacteria bands at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures and the control group were same, but the broiler caecal microflora diversity decreased at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures. (3) The common microflora of broiler cecum included Clostridium josui, Bacteroides vulgatus, Parabacteroides johnsonii, Bacteroides dorei and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. The daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures was beneficial to the growth of Parabacteroides johnsonii and Bacteroides dorei, and inhibited the colonization of Intestinimonas butyriciproducen and Subdoligranulum variabile. [Conclusion] Compared with the control group, at the 7 d, the content of serum 5-HT in broilers increased at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures, and at the 7 d, the serum VIP content in broilers decreased at the daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures, and there was no significant difference in SP between the two groups; The daily cycle variation of the moderate ambient temperatures affected the caecal microflora structure and diversity in broilers.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 22
[Objective] The screening of the low-Cd accumulation genotypes for wheat not only benefits for the safe production of Cd-contaminated agricultural soils, but also provides breeding materials for the study of hereditary characteristics of wheat. [Method] In this study, 139 wheat lines were considered to be the research objectives and two consecutive field experiments were carried out under Cd heavy pollution in soil in 2014–2015 and 2015–2016. The Cd concentrations in grains of the 139 wheat lines for the two field experiments were evaluated to investigate the Cd accumulation difference among the 139 wheat lines, so as to obtain the wheat lines with the characteristics of low-Cd accumulation in grains. Subsequently, the characteristics of Cd accumulation and yield of the low-Cd accumulation wheat materials were explored under Cd heavy pollution in soil by a pot experiment. With the index of Cd concentration in grain and grain yield, cluster analysis was also carried out to obtain the superior wheat lines with low-Cd accumulation and high yield. The difference of Cd accumulation and translocation in organs between the two wheat lines was analyzed to get further understanding of the mechanisms of low-Cd accumulation in grains of the low-Cd accumulation wheat lines. [Result] For the two field experiments in 2014–2015 and 2015–2016, the range and coefficient of variation ( CV) of Cd concentration in grains of the 139 wheat materials were 0.002–0.271 mg·kg −1 DW −1, 63.097% and 0.095–0.343 mg·kg −1 DW −1, 24.960%, respectively. There was significant difference for Cd concentration in grains among the 139 wheat materials. According to the cluster analysis, 16 low-Cd accumulation wheat lines were obtained for the two field experiments, including 12N551 (M033), JIMAI22 (M059), SHUMAI375 (M075), ZHONGLIANG 22 (M079), 30389 (M092), B7094 (M094), ML2652 (M114), G219-24 (M116), 77782 (M121), NANNONGOzy23 (M123), SHENGC90097 (M124), Pm99915-1 (M126), NANNONG02y39 (M127), SHENGCXK027-4 (M129), 02Y23 (M131) and LIANGMAI No. 2 (M139). For the pot experiment, the significant difference for Cd concentration in grains and grain yield among the 16 low-Cd accumulation wheat lines was observed. The Cd concentrations in grains and grain yield among the 16 low-Cd accumulation wheat lines were 0.286–0.910 mg·kg −1, 3.199–7.716 g·plant −1 and 0.881–1.381 mg·kg −1, 3.075–8.252 g·plant −1, respectively. When exposed to 1 mg·kg −1 and 4 mg·kg −1 Cd, The CVs of Cd concentration in grains and grain yield among the 16 low-Cd accumulation wheat lines were 33.706%, 24.044% and12.276%, 12.276%, respectively. Then, the dominant wheat materials [12N551 (M033), ZHONGLIANG 22 (M079), G219-24 (M116) and LIANGMAI No. 2 (M139)] with low-Cd content and high yield were obtained according to the cluster analysis. Compared with the high-Cd accumulative materials [KANGXIU 3816 (M060) and SHE 1136 (M073)], the Cd concentrations in different organs of the low-Cd accumulation wheat lines [12N551 (M033), ZHONGLIANG 22 (M079), G219-24 (M116) and LIANGMAI No. 2 (M139)] exposed to 4 mg·kg −1 Cd were significantly higher than those exposed to 1 mg·kg −1 Cd. The Cd concentrations in grains of the low-Cd accumulation wheat lines [12N551 (M033), ZHONGLIANG 22 (M079), G219-24 (M116) and LIANGMAI No. 2 (M139)] were significantly lower than the high-Cd accumulation wheat lines [KANGXIU 3816 (M060), SHE 1136 (M073)]. The low-Cd accumulation wheat lines presented lower Cd translocation from straws to grains and therefore lower Cd accumulation in grains. [Conclusion] According to the two-year field experiments and pot experiment, 12N551 (M033), ZHONGLIANG 22 (M079), G219-24 (M116), and LIANGMAI No. 2 (M139) showed lower Cd accumulation and greater grain yield in grains under different experimental conditions of field and pot experiments in 2014–2017 and thus could be considered to be ideal candidates for the cultivation in the moderate Cd-contaminated agricultural soils, providing materials for the study of genetic characteristics of the low Cd accumulation in grains.
Cellulose Deposition Characteristics of High Strength Cotton Fiber and Optimal Temperature Requirements in Xinjiang Region
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 22
[Objective] Xinjiang region is a major cotton growing region in northwest China. The temperatures in the region, especially nighttime temperatures, drop drastically at the end of the cotton growing season. The objective of research was to explicate the effect of temperatures on fiber development, so as to enhance cotton production. [Method] Three field experiments were conducted by different sowing dates, elevated nighttime temperature during the entire fiber development (from anthesis to boll opening), and elevated nighttime temperature during different stages of fiber development (from anthesis to the onset of rapid cellulose deposition, between the onset and termination of rapid cellulose deposition, and from the termination of rapid cellulose deposition to boll opening). The effect of temperatures on cellulose deposition was analyzed to explore the temperature conditions for producing high fiber strength. [Result] The fiber strength was significantly affected by the duration of rapid cellulose deposition ( T), the average rate of cellulose deposition from anthesis until the onset of rapid cellulose deposition ( V1) and the maximum cellulose content ( Wm). The fiber strength was quadratically related to the V1 and was positively correlated with the Wm. Growing degree days was the factor associated with cellulose deposition in cotton fiber. The relationship between both was going to go the other way during the different fiber developing stages. During the early stage of fiber development (anthesis to the onset of rapid cellulose deposition), growing degree days was significantly and negatively correlated with fiber strength, whereas there was positive relationship between both during the period between the onset and termination of rapid cellulose deposition. During the period from anthesis until the onset of rapid cellulose deposition, the average rate of cellulose deposition decreased as the growing degree days increased, which had an unfavorable about fiber strength. During the period of rapid cellulose deposition, the growing degree days increased significantly the cellulose deposition rate from anthesis until the onset of rapid cellulose deposition and the duration time of rapid cellulose deposition, then fiber strength increased. There was a possibility of producing more than 30 cN/tex of fiber strength, when the following conditions were met: (1) the V1 was between 1.32%·d −1 and 1.76%·d −1; (2) cellulose deposition entered the onset of rapid cellulose deposition ( t1) 6.7–13.3 days post-anthesis (dpa); (3) the duration of rapid cellulose deposition ( T) was 20.2–25.6 days; (4) the time of cellulose deposition was 39.0–46.9 days; (5) the growing degree days was 5.6 °C–96.3 °C and 181.5 °C–262.3 °C from anthesis until the onset of rapid cellulose deposition and during the duration time of rapid cellulose deposition, respectively. [Conclusion] Therefore, growing degree days resulted in different effects on fiber strength during the different fiber developing, and the main reason was that growing degree days caused the variability effect on the average cellulose rate during the period from anthesis until the onset of rapid cellulose deposition.
Scientia Agricultura Sinica,2018,Vol 51,No. 22
[Background] Soil big data with temporal and spatial dimension, can provide data support for research work and policy decision in agriculture, environment, and land management. The soil survey maps and reports are the basis for establishing soil spatio-temporal database. Because of the large differences of soil mapping standards among different areas and different periods, quality control is necessary for developing high-quality soil database from non-standard soil maps and soil survey reports. [Objective] The purpose of this study was to analyze the status of paper soil maps, to identify the key problems of quality control in its digital-integrated database, and to explore the corresponding technical standards and specifications, so as to provide quality guarantee for large-scale soil map database. [Method] By analyzing the situation of soil maps and soil survey reports and combining related research for precision control of digital topographic map in China, precision requirements suitable for digitizing soil map were developed. After comparing soil type names from county-level soil maps and soil standard names in national standard, soil names, especially soil great group names, were revised in soil map database and every soil name was coded. [Result] For building soil map database from different sources of large-scale soil maps in large area, the quality control included the geographic precision, standardization of digital soil map elements, integration of soil map database, and coding element type for the whole database. The contents of geographic precision included scanning precision of paper maps, coordinate system, geometric correction precision, as well as collection and numbers of control points. Standardization of map element extraction mainly included the collection of soil elements and non-soil elements, classification and coding of digital element types, and standard of layer name and frames. The integration for whole database included revision of soil types, code of soil types and non-soil types, and standard of boundary by using uniform boundary. In the process of soil data integration and harmonization, revising soil names, especially revising soil great group names and coding, was the mainly quality control method. According to national standard and soil profile records in soil survey reports of county, province and national level for reference, more than 300 non-standard soil great group names were revised to 60 national standard names. By hierarchical code method, a unique code for each soil type in the entire database was achieved with five-level coding of soil order, soil great group to soil species. Using uniform boundary, the boundaries of adjacent counties were seamless. Based on the integration of the entire soil special database, the conversion was achieved from county frame to international standard frame at 1:50 000. [Conclusion] The quality control is very important in building soil map database of large area by using non-standard soil maps from different regions and periods. The keys of quality control were geographic precision, standardization of digital soil map elements, integration of soil map database, and coding of soil types for the entire database. The quality control methods and corresponding indicators for these three problems conformed to the actual situation of soil survey maps in China. With the above methods, the 1:50 000 soil map database had a total 13 240 standard frames of 1:50 000 scale, and involving 1 688 counties and county farms. In addition, we discussed the status of this database and prospected the future direction for expansion, hoping to provide a data basis for the study of the long-term soil properties data mining by combining the physical and chemical properties of the soil.